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  • 1. Abas, R. Abdul
    et al.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Thermal diffusivity of sintered stainless steel-alumina composites2006In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 513-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal diffusivity measurements were carried out as a function of temperature on sintered AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites having various compositions (0.001, 0.01, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10 wt pct Al2O3). The measurements were carried out between room temperature and 1473 K. The thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity were found to increase with temperature in all the composite specimens. The thermal diffusivity was found to decrease with increasing weight fraction of alumina. This tendency can clearly be seen at temperatures above 755 K. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simple rule of mixture, the Eucken equation, and the Ohm's law model developed by Hayashi et al. at weight fractions of alumina below 5 wt pct. Beyond this composition, the thermal diffusivity/conductivity shows a large discrepancy from the models. This could probably be attributed to the accumulation of alumina particles during cooled pressing and sintering.

  • 2.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Thermal Diffusivity of Sintered Stainless steel-Alumina Composite2006In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 513-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal diffusivity measurements were carried out as a function of temperature on sintered AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites having various compositions (0.001, 0.01, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10 wt pct Al2O3). The measurements were carried out between room temperature and 1473 K. The thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity were found to increase with temperature in all the composite specimens. The thermal diffusivity was found to decrease with increasing weight fraction of alumina. This tendency can clearly be seen at temperatures above 755 K. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simple rule of mixture, the Eucken equation, and the Ohm’s law model developed by Hayashi et al. at weight fractions of alumina below 5 wt pct. Beyond this composition, the thermal diffusivity/conductivity shows a large discrepancy from the models. This could probably be attributed to the accumulation of alumina particles during cooled pressing and sintering.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Hesham M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    El-Geassy, A. H. A.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Kinetics of Reduction of NiO-WO3 Mixtures by Hydrogen2010In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 161-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics of reduction of the oxide mixtures of Ni-W with different Ni/(Ni-W) molar ratios within the range of 923 K to 1173 K in flowing hydrogen gas was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis under isothermal conditions. The products were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Five different oxide mixtures apart from the pure oxides were studied in the present work. The results indicate that the reduction reaction proceeds through three consecutive steps that are as follows: NiO-WO3 -> Ni-WO3 -> Ni-WO2 -> Ni-W From the experimental results, the Arrhenius activation energies of the three steps were evaluated for all of the studied compositions. The activation energy for the first step was calculated to be approximately 18 kJ/mol. For the second and third stages, the activation energy values varied from 62 to 38 kJ/mol for the second stage and 51 to 34 kJ/mol for the third stage depending on the Ni/(Ni + W) molar ratio in the precursors; the activation energy increased with increasing ratios. SEM images showed that the grain size of the final product was dependent on the Ni/(Ni + W) molar ratio; smaller grains were formed at higher nickel contents.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Hesham M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    El-Geassy, Abdel-Hady
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Kinetic Studies of the Hydrogen Reduction of NiO-WO3 precursors in a Fluidized-bed reactorIn: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ahmed, Hesham M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Reduction-Carburization of NiO-WO3 Under Isothermal Conditions Using H2-CH4 Gas Mixture2010In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 173-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ni-W-C ternary carbides were synthesized by simultaneous reduction–carburization of NiO-WO3 oxide precursors using H2-CH4 gas mixtures in the temperature range of 973 to 1273 K. The kinetics of the gas–solid reaction were followed closely by monitoring the mass changes using the thermogravimetric method (TGA). As a thin bed of the precursors were used, each particle was in direct contact with the gas mixture. The results showed that the hydrogen reduction of the oxide mixture was complete before the carburization took place. The nascent particles of the metals formed by reduction could react with the gas mixture with well-defined carbon potential to form a uniform product of Ni-W-C. Consequently, the reaction rate could be conceived as being controlled by the chemical reaction. From the reaction rate, Arrhenius activation energies for reduction and carburization were evaluated. Characterization of the carbides produced was carried out using X-ray diffraction and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses. The grain sizes also were determined. The process parameters, such as the temperature of the reduction–carburization reaction and the composition of the gas mixture, had a strong impact on the carbide composition as well as on the grain size. The results are discussed in light of the reduction kinetics of the oxides and the thermodynamic constraints.

  • 6.
    Akbarnejad, Shahin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    Kennedy, Mark William
    Aune, Ragnhild Elizabeth
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Analysis on Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling of Incompressible Flow Through Ceramic Foam Filters2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 2229-2243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experimental results of pressure drop measurements on 30, 50, and 80 pores per inch (PPI) commercial alumina ceramic foam filters (CFF) and compares the obtained pressure drop profiles to numerically modeled values. In addition, it is aimed at investigating the adequacy of the mathematical correlations used in the analytical and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. It is shown that the widely used correlations for predicting pressure drop in porous media continuously under-predict the experimentally obtained pressure drop profiles. For analytical predictions, the negative deviations from the experimentally obtained pressure drop using the unmodified Ergun and Dietrich equations could be as high as 95 and 74 pct, respectively. For the CFD predictions, the deviation to experimental results is in the range of 84.3 to 88.5 pct depending on filter PPI. Better results can be achieved by applying the Forchheimer second-order drag term instead of the Brinkman-Forchheimer drag term. Thus, the final deviation of the CFD model estimates lie in the range of 0.3 to 5.5 pct compared to the measured values.

  • 7.
    Akbarnejad, Shahin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Saffari Pour, Mohsen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pӓr Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Effect of Fluid Bypassing on the Experimentally Obtained Darcy and Non-Darcy Permeability Parameters of Ceramic Foam Filters2017In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceramic foam filters (CFFs) are used to remove solid particles and inclusions from molten metal. In general, molten metal which is poured on the top of a CFF needs to reach a certain height to build the required pressure (metal head) to prime the filter. To estimate the required metal head, it is necessary to obtain permeability coefficients using permeametry experiments. It has been mentioned in the literature that to avoid fluid bypassing, during permeametry, samples need to be sealed. However, the effect of fluid bypassing on the experimentally obtained pressure gradients seems not to be explored. Therefore, in this research, the focus was on studying the effect of fluid bypassing on the experimentally obtained pressure gradients as well as the empirically obtained Darcy and non-Darcy permeability coefficients. Specifically, the aim of the research was to investigate the effect of fluid bypassing on the liquid permeability of 30, 50, and 80 pores per inch (PPI) commercial alumina CFFs. In addition, the experimental data were compared to the numerically modeled findings. Both studies showed that no sealing results in extremely poor estimates of the pressure gradients and Darcy and non-Darcy permeability coefficients for all studied filters. The average deviations between the pressure gradients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples were calculated to be 57.2, 56.8, and 61.3 pct. The deviations between the Darcy coefficients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples found to be 9, 20, and 31 pct. The deviations between the non-Darcy coefficients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples were calculated to be 59, 58, and 63 pct.

  • 8.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Selleby, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    The Effect of Oxygen Potential on the Sulfide Capacity for Slags Containing Multivalent Species2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 3039-3045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dependence of sulfide capacity on the oxygen partial pressure for slags containing multivalent species was investigated experimentally using a slag containing vanadium oxide. Copper-slag equilibration experiments were carried out at 1873 K (1600 A degrees C) in the approximate oxygen partial pressure range 10(-15.4) to 10(-9) atm. The sulfide capacity was found to be strongly dependent on the oxygen potential in this slag system, increasing with the oxygen partial pressure. The sulfide capacity changed by more than two orders of magnitude over the oxygen partial pressure range. The effect of changing oxygen partial pressure was found to be much greater than the effect of changing slag composition at a fixed oxygen partial pressure.

  • 9.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Sulfide Capacity in Ladle Slag at Steelmaking Temperatures2015In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 2609-2615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide capacity measurements were conducted at 1823 K and 1873 K (1550 degrees C and 1600 degrees C) for the quaternary Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 system, for typical compositions used in the ladle in steelmaking. A copper-slag equilibrium was used under controlled oxygen and sulfur potentials. The sulfide capacity is strongly dependent on the composition and it was found to increase with the basic oxides, while it decreases with increase of the acidic components. It was found that CaO is more effective in holding sulfur in the slag compared to MgO when replacing SiO2. For the present slag compositions, Al2O3 and SiO2 behaved similar with respect to sulfur, and no considerable effect could be recorded when replacing one for the other. The sulfide capacity was also found to be strongly dependent on the temperature, increasing with temperature. The present results were compared with industrial data from the ladle, after vacuum treatment, and they were in good agreement.

  • 10. Antonsson, T.
    et al.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    The effect of cooling rate on the solidification of INCONEL 7182005In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The superalloy INCONEL 718 (IN718) is a commonly used material in aerospace and turbine components. The advantage of this type of material with sluggish precipitation-hardening kinetics is that IN718 is readily weldable. Both wrought and cast parts are used and welded together. While the alloy has been studied previously, new production processes such as laser treatment demand better knowledge of the solidification process in IN718. especially at high cooling rates. In this investigation. the solidification process was studied over a wide range of cooling rated by three different experimental techniques: differential thermal analysis (DTA), mirror furnace (MF), and levitation casting. The solidification sequence and the reaction temperatures were identified. The microstructure and the change in growth morphology were also studied. Segregation measurements were performed, and the distribution of Nb was analyzed in detail for the different types of samples. because of its strong impact on the solidification sequence and microstructure. New observations are that the latent heat decreases and the effective partition coefficient increases with increasing cooling rate. The diffusion rate also seems to be enhanced in the first part of primary solidified dendrites. It is suggested that the new observations can be explained by an increased number of lattice defects formed in the solid as the cooling rate increases.

  • 11.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Par
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Effect of TurboSwirl Structure on an Uphill Teeming Ingot Casting Process2015In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 2652-2665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To produce high-quality ingot cast steel with a better surface quality, it would be beneficial for the uphill teeming process if a much more stable flow pattern could be achieved in the runners. Several techniques have been utilized in the industry to try to obtain a stable flow of liquid steel, such as a swirling flow. Some research has indicated that a swirl blade inserted in the horizontal and vertical runners, or some other additional devices and physics could generate a swirling flow in order to give a lower hump height, avoid mold flux entrapment, and improve the quality of the ingot products, and a new swirling flow generation component, TurboSwirl, was introduced to improve the flow pattern. It has recently been demonstrated that the TurboSwirl method can effectively reduce the risk of mold flux entrapment, lower the maximum wall shear stress, and decrease velocity fluctuations. The TurboSwirl is built at the elbow of the runners as a connection between the horizontal and vertical runners. It is located near the mold and it generates a tangential flow that can be used with a divergent nozzle in order to decrease the axial velocity of the vertical flow into the mold. This stabilizes flow before the fluid enters the mold. However, high wall shear stresses develop at the walls due to the fierce rotation in the TurboSwirl. In order to achieve a calmer flow and to protect the refractory wall, some structural improvements have been made. It was found that by changing the flaring angle of the divergent nozzle, it was possible to lower the axial velocity and wall shear stress. Moreover, when the vertical runner and the divergent nozzle were not placed at the center of the TurboSwirl, quite different flow patterns could be obtained to meet to different requirements. In addition, the swirl numbers of all the cases mentioned above were calculated to ensure that the swirling flow was strong enough to generate a swirling flow of the liquid steel in the TurboSwirl.

  • 12. Basu, S.
    et al.
    Lahiri, A. K.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Activity of Ferric Oxide in Steelmaking Slag2010In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 414-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refining reactions in steelmaking primarily involve oxidation of impurity element(s). The oxidation potential of the slag and the activity of oxygen in the metal (h(O)) are the major factors controlling these chemical reactions. In turn, the oxidation potential of the slag is influenced strongly by the equilibrium distribution of oxygen between ferrous and ferric oxides. We recently investigated the activity coefficient of FeO in steelmaking slag and the effect of chemical composition thereon. This work is focused on estimation of the activity coefficient of Fe2O3.

  • 13. Basu, S.
    et al.
    Lahiri, A. K.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Activity of iron oxide in steelmaking slag2008In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 447-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most refining reactions in steelmaking involve oxidation of impurity element(s). The product(s) of oxidation either dissolve in the slag or escape as gaseous phase. The activities of oxygen in the metal (h (O)), and that of "FeO" in slag (a (FeO)), are major factors controlling these chemical reactions. The activities of oxygen and "FeO" are thermodynamically related, provided equilibrium distribution of oxygen between the slag and the metal is attained. This enables direct estimation of one parameter from the other. A thorough knowledge of the variation in activity of FeO, and factors affecting the same, is therefore of great importance in the process metallurgy of steelmaking. The present work experimentally measures the activity of FeO in steelmaking slags and attempts to develop a correlation for estimation of gamma(FeO) as a function of temperature and chemical composition of the slag.

  • 14.
    Basu, Somnath
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Lahiri, Ashok Kumar
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Phosphorus partition between liquid steel and CaO-SiO2-FeOx-P2O5-MgO slag containing 15-25 %FeO2007In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 623-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CaO-SiO2-FeO2-P2O5-MgO bearing slags are typically used in the basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) process. The partition ratio of phosphorus between slag and steel is an index of the phosphorus holding capacity of the slag, which determines the phosphorus content achievable in the finished steel. The influence of factors such as FeO content and basicity on the phosphorus partition ratio was investigated at two different temperatures. The partition ratio initially increased with basicity but remained constant beyond a basicity of 2.5 to 2.6. An increase in the FeO content up to 18 to 20 mass pct was beneficial for the phosphorus partition at a basicity level of 2 to 3, but a higher concentration of FeO resulted in a decrease in the phosphorus partition ratio; the FeO concentration corresponding to this transition varied with basicity and temperature. At even lower basicities, however, the equilibrium phosphorus partition showed either no change, or a marginally decreasing trend, with an increase in the FeO content.

  • 15.
    Basu, Somnath
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Lahiri, Ashok Kumar
    KTH.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Phosphorus partition between liquid steel and CaO-SiO2-P2O5-MgO slag containing low FeO2007In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CaO-SiO2-FeOx-P2O5-MgO bearing slags are typical in the basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) process. The partition ratio of phosphorus between slag and steel is an index of the phosphorus holding capacity of the slag, which determines the phosphorus content achievable in the finished steel. The influences of FeO concentration and basicity on the equilibrium phosphorus partition ratios were experimentally determined at temperatures of 1873 and 1923 K, for conditions of MgO saturation. The partition ratio initially increased with basicity but attained a constant value beyond basicity of 2.5. An increase in FeO concentration up to approximately 13 to 14 mass pet was beneficial for phosphorus partition.

  • 16.
    Berg, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Lee, Jaewoo
    Hyundai Steel, 1480 Bukbusaneop Ro, Dangjin Si 31719, Chungnam, South Korea..
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Partitioning of Calcium Between Liquid Silver and Liquid Iron2018In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 949-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The partitioning of calcium between liquid silver and liquid iron at 1823 K and 1873 K (1550 degrees C and 1600 degrees C) was studied experimentally using a closed molybdenum container. The calcium potential in the container was controlled by the composition of the alloys in equilibrium. The results agreed well with previous experimental measurements and indicated that the effect of temperature was not very pronounced in the temperature range studied.

  • 17.
    Berg, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Lee, Jaewoo
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Study on the Equilibrium Between Liquid Iron and Calcium Vapor2017In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1715-1720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of calcium in liquid iron at 1823 K and 1873 K (1550 A degrees C and 1600 A degrees C) as a function of calcium potential was studied experimentally. The measurements were performed using a closed molybdenum holder in which liquid calcium and liquid iron were held at different temperatures. The results indicate a linear relationship between the activity of calcium, relative to pure liquid calcium, and the mole fraction of dissolved calcium in liquid iron, with a negligible temperature dependency in the ranges studied. The activity coefficient of calcium in liquid iron at infinite dilution, was calculated as 1551.

  • 18.
    Beskow, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Viswanathan, N. N.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Study of the deoxidation of steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle2001In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the deoxidation of liquid steel with aluminum wire injection in a gas-stirred ladle was studied by mathematical modeling using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. This was complemented by an industrial trial study conducted at Uddeholm Tooling AB (Hagfors, Sweden). The results of the industrial trials were found to be in accordance with the results of the model calculation. In order to study the aspect of nucleation of alumina, emphasis was given to the initial period of deoxidation, when aluminum wire was injected into the bath. The concentration distributions of aluminum and oxygen were calculated both by considering and not considering the chemical reaction. Both calculations revealed that the driving force for the nucleation of Al2O3 was very high in the region near the upper surface of the bath and close to the wire injection. The estimated nucleation rate in the vicinity of the aluminum wire injection point was much higher than the recommended value for spontaneously homogeneous nucleation, 10(3) nuclei/(cm(3)/s). The results of the model calculation also showed that the alumina nuclei generated at the vicinity of the wire injection point are transported to other regions by the flow.

  • 19.
    Brandberg, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Water vapor solubility in ladle-refining slags2006In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 389-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermo-gravimetric technique was used to determine the hydrogen solubilities of some Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 quaternary slags. The focus of the work was to determine the water capacities in slags having lower SiO2 concentrations, which were relevant to industrial practices. The majority of the experiments were carried out in the temperature interval 1747 to 1827 K with water pressure of 157 mbar. The reliability of the experiments was confirmed using a quenching technique. The temperature was found to have a negligible effect on the water solubilities. The composition of the slag did not seem to significantly affect the water capacity. However, as the slag composition approached CaO saturation, a considerable increase of the solubility was noticed.

  • 20.
    Cao, Weimin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Muhmood, Luckman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sulfur Transfer at Slag/Metal Interface-Impact of Oxygen Potential2012In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 363-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the interfacial movement resulting from sulfur mass transfer at the slag/metal interface was monitored by X-ray sessile drop method in dynamic mode at temperature 1873 K (1600 A degrees C) under nonequilibrium conditions. The experiments were carried out with pure iron and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-FeO slag (alumina saturated at the experimental temperature) contained in alumina crucibles with well-controlled partial pressures of oxygen and sulfur. The impact of oxygen potential on the droplet oscillation as sulfur from the gas phase reaches the metal drop through the intermediate slag phase was monitored. The interfacial velocity was investigated. It was found that the increases of interfacial velocity and the maximum oscillation time were mainly attributed to the partial pressure of oxygen increases. The experiment results were explained by previous ab initio calculations. The thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of slag were also found to influence interfacial velocity.

  • 21.
    Casas, Jesús M.
    et al.
    Dept of Mining Engineering, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Vargas, T.
    Dept of Chemical Engineering, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Martínez, Joaquín
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Transport Phenomena.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Bioleaching model of a copper-sulfide ore bed in heap and dump configurations1998In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 899-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-dimensional (2-D) model for a heap or dump bioleaching of a copper ore containing mainly chalcocite and pyrite has been developed. The rate of the mineral sulfide dissolution was related to the rate of oxidation by bacteria attached onto the ore surface. The latter was calculated using the model of Michaelis-Menten, where both temperature and dissolved oxygen in the leach solution were taken into account by the kinetic equation. Oxygen transport through the ore bed was associated with natural air convection originating from the decrease in gas density inside the ore bed, which was attributable not only to heating, but also to humidification and decrease in the oxygen concentration. The model was used to estimate air-velocity fields and profiles of temperature and oxygen concentrations as well as mineral conversions during the bioleaching operation for ore beds with different pyrite contents, bacterial populations, widths, heights, and permeabilities. The model provides a useful tool for the design, improvement, and optimization of industrial operating conditions.

  • 22.
    Chen, Chao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, China .
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Swedish Def Res Agcy, FOI, Div CBRN Def & Secur, Sweden.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Cheng, Guoguang
    State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    A Mathematical Modeling Study of Tracer Mixing in a Continuous Casting Tundish2015In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 169-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model based on a water model was developed to study the tracer mixing in a single strand tundish. The mixing behavior of black ink and KCl solution was simulated by a mixed composition fluid model, and the data were validated by water modeling results. In addition, a model that solves the scalar transport equation (STE) without any physical properties of the tracer was studied and the results were compared to predictions using the density-coupled model. Furthermore, the mixing behaviors of different amounts of KCl tracers were investigated. Before the model was established, KCl tracer properties such as the KCl molecule diffusion (KMD), the water molecule self-diffusion (WSD) in KCl solution, and the KCl solution viscosity (KV) were evaluated. The RTD curve of 250 mL KCl for the KMD case was closer to the water modeling results than that of the case implemented with only density. Moreover, the ensemble average deviation of the RTD curves of the cases implemented with KMD+ WSD, KMD+ KV, and KMD+ WSD+ KV to the KMD case is less than 0.7 pct. Thus, the water self-diffusion and KV were neglected, while the KCl density and KMD were implemented in the current study. The flow pattern of black ink was similar to the STE result i. e., the fluid flowed upwards toward the top surface and formed a large circulating flow at the outlet nozzle. The flow behavior of the 100, 150, and 250 mL KCl cases exhibited a strong tendency to sink to the tundish bottom, and subsequently flow through the holes in the dam. Thereafter, it propagated toward the outlet nozzle. Regarding the KCl tracer amount, the tracer concentration propagated to the outlet nozzle much faster for the larger amount case than for the smaller amount cases. However, the flow pattern for the 50 mL KCl case was somewhat different. The fluid propagated to the top surface which acted like black ink during the initial injection, and subsequently the fluid flowed throughout the holes at a much slower pace. The breakthrough time and peak concentration of RTD curves of model predictions and water modeling results showed a good agreement (all difference within 12.5 pct) for the 100, 150, and 250 mL KCl cases.

  • 23.
    Chen, Chao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Taiyuan University of Technology, China; University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, L. T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Cheng, G.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    A Model Study of Inclusions Deposition, Macroscopic Transport, and Dynamic Removal at Steel–Slag Interface for Different Tundish Designs2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 1916-1932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results of inclusions macroscopic transport as well as dynamic removal in tundishes. A novel treatment was implemented using the deposition velocity calculated by a revised unified Eulerian deposition model to replace the widely used Stokes rising velocity in the boundary conditions for inclusions removal at the steel–slag interface in tundishes. In this study, the dynamic removal for different size groups of inclusions at different steel–slag interfaces (smooth or rough) with different absorption conditions at the interface (partially or fully absorbed) in two tundish designs was studied. The results showed that the dynamic removal ratios were higher for larger inclusions than for smaller inclusions. Besides, the dynamic removal ratio was higher for rough interfaces than for smooth interfaces. On the other hand, regarding the cases when inclusions are partially or fully absorbed at a smooth steel–slag interface, the removal ratio values are proportional to the absorption proportion of inclusions at the steel–slag interface. Furthermore, the removal of inclusions in two tundish designs, i.e., with and without a weir and a dam were compared. Specifically, the tundish with a weir and a dam exhibited a better performance with respect to the removal of bigger inclusions (radii of 5, 7, and 9 μm) than that of the case without weir and dam. That was found to be due to the strong paralleling flow near the middle part of the top surface. However, the tundish without weir and dam showed a higher removal ratio of smaller inclusions (radius of 1 μm). The reason could be the presence of a paralleling flow near the inlet zone, where the inclusions deposition velocities were much higher than in other parts.

  • 24.
    Chychko, Andrei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Foaming in Electric Arc Furnace: Part I: Laboratory Studies of Enthalpy changes of Carbonate Additions to Slag Melts2011In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 20-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, a modified thermal analysis technique was used for studying the heat effect of slag foaming with carbonates addition. Experiments were conducted by sinking limestone and dolomite pieces of defined shapes (together with iron sinkers) in molten slag and monitoring the temperature changes accompanying the decomposition of carbonates. The heat effects of dolomite and limestone decompositions were determined at 1623 K (1350 A degrees C) and 1673 K (1400 A degrees C). It was found that the decomposition energy for dolomite and limestone for the studied slag composition is in the range of 56 to 79 pct of theoretical values, which is linked to the energy-saving effect of slag foaming. No influence of sample shape on decomposition energy was found for both limestone and dolomite.

  • 25.
    Chychko, Andrei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Foaming in Electric Arc Furnace: Part II: Foaming visualization and Comparison with Plant trials2012In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1078-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics of slag foaming by limestone particles was studied at 1773 K (1500 A degrees C) with the aid of an X-ray imaging system. Two models were implemented to describe the decrease in foam height with the time on the basis of the lowering of the average temperature and CaO shell formation during decomposition reaction. The energy impact of carbonate additions was studied on an industrial scale in a 100-ton electric arc furnace (EAF). It was found that, in the case of the addition of carbonates after the scrap is completely molten, the heat effects for limestone and dolomite (2255 and 2264 kJ/kg, respectively) were only 70 pct from theoretical values. Comparing these values with similar additions during the scrap melting stage shows that the energy requirements in the case of carbonate additions to steel bath are much smaller. It was found from the trial heats with dolomite addition to the steel bath that the partial substitution of lime by raw dolomite can be made without an increase in energy consumption.

  • 26.
    Deng, Tengfei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Study of Lime Dissolution Under Forced Convection2012In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 578-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution of different CaO cubes under force convection in liquid CaO-"FeO"-SiO2 slag was studied at 1873 K (1600 A degrees C). A linear relationship between normalized lengths and time was obtained after the experiment. It was evidently observed that the removal of the interface layer(s) including 2CaO center dot SiO2 by shear stress was the main mechanism for the dissolution. A stirring rate of approximately 100 rpm was found to be efficient to remove the interface layer(s). The limes with different structures had different dissolution rates.

  • 27.
    Deng, Tengfei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Nortier, Patrice
    Ek, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Limestone Dissolution in Converter Slag at 1873 K (1600 degrees C)2013In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition and dissolution of limestone in slag at 1873 K (1600 A degrees C) were studied. The limestone samples were in the shape of cubes (11 mm x 11 mm x 11 mm approximately). The decomposition was carried out both in argon and in slag under argon atmosphere. In order to gain an insight into the phenomenon of slow decomposition, the decomposition process of CaCO3 was simulated using Comsol. The results showed evidently that the decomposition of calcium carbonate was controlled mostly by heat transfer. It was also found that the decomposition product CaO had very dense structure, whether the sample was decomposed in slag or in argon. The slow decomposition and the dense CaO layer would greatly hinder the dissolution of lime in the slag. The present results clearly indicate that the addition of limestone instead of lime would not be beneficial in the converter process.

  • 28.
    Deng, Zhiyin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Northeastern University, China.
    Zhu, M.
    Zhou, Y.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Attachment of Alumina on the Wall of Submerged Entry Nozzle During Continuous Casting of Al-Killed Steel2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 2015-2025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms of the formation of different attachments on the walls of submerged entry nozzle (SEN) were studied for the processes of Al-killed steel (Ca-treated, HSLA) and ultra-low carbon Al-killed steel (ULC). To understand the mechanism, the types of inclusions in the steel taken in tundish and in bloom (or slab) were identified. In the case of ULC, the reoxidation product, micro-alumina particles were found to be the source of attachment on the inner wall of the SEN. To avoid reoxidation of the steel by the top slag, removal of the slag could be considered in order to improve the situation. No attached layer was found on the outer surface of the SEN after casting of the ULC steel. In the case of HSLA steel, an attached layer composed of plate-like alumina crystals was found in some trials. The entrainment of oxygen through the mold powder due to improper operation would be the reason for the formation of this type of attachment. The formation of the plate-like crystals was discussed with the help of CFD calculation.

  • 29.
    Deng, Zhiyin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling. School of Metallurgy, Northeastern Unviersity, China.
    Zhu, Miaoyong
    School of Metallurgy, Northeastern Unviersity, China.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Effect of Refractory on Nonmetallic Inclusions in Al-killed Steel2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 3158-3167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Dong, Zhihua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. Chongqing University, China.
    Chen, D.
    Long, M.
    Li, Wei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Chen, H.
    Vitos, Levente
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. Uppsala University, Sweden; Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungary.
    Computation of Phase Fractions in Austenite Transformation with the Dilation Curve for Various Cooling Regimens in Continuous Casting2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 1553-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A concise model is applied to compute the microstructure evolution of austenite transformation by using the dilation curve of continuously cast steels. The model is verified by thermodynamic calculations and microstructure examinations. When applying the model, the phase fractions and the corresponding transforming rates during austenite transformation are investigated at various cooling rates and chemical compositions. In addition, ab initio calculations are performed for paramagnetic body-centered-cubic Fe to understand the thermal expansion behavior of steels at an atomic scale. Results indicate that by increasing the cooling rate, the final volume fraction of ferrite/pearlite will gradually increase/decrease with a greater transforming rate of ferrite. The ferrite fraction increases after austenite transformation with lowering of the carbon content and increasing of the substitutional alloying fractions. In the austenite transformation, the thermal expansion coefficient is sequentially determined by the forming rate of ferrite and pearlite. According to the ab initio theoretical calculations for the single phase of ferrite, thermal expansion emerges from magnetic evolution and lattice vibration, the latter playing the dominant role. The theoretical predictions for volume and thermal expansion coefficient are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  • 31.
    Dong, Zhihua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. Chongqing University, China.
    Li, Wei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Long, Mujun
    Gui, Lintao
    Chen, Dengfu
    Huang, Yunwei
    Vitos, Levente
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Effect of Temperature Reversion on Hot Ductility and Flow Stress-Strain Curves of C-Mn Continuously Cast Steels2015In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 1885-1894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of temperature reversion in secondary cooling and its reversion rate on hot ductility and flow stress-strain curve of C-Mn steel has been investigated. Tensile specimens were cooled at various regimes. One cooling regime involved cooling at a constant rate of 100 degrees C min(-1) to the test temperature, while the others involved temperature reversion processes at three different reversion rates before deformation. After hot tensile test, the evolution of mechanical properties of steel was analyzed at various scales by means of microstructure observation, ab initio prediction, and thermodynamic calculation. Results indicated that the temperature reversion in secondary cooling led to hot ductility trough occurring at higher temperature with greater depth. With increasing temperature reversion rate, the low temperature end of ductility trough extended toward lower temperature, leading to wider hot ductility trough with slightly reducing depth. Microstructure examinations indicated that the intergranular fracture related to the thin film-like ferrite and (Fe, Mn)S particles did not changed with varying cooling regimes; however, the Widmanstatten ferrite surrounding austenite grains resulted from the temperature reversion process seriously deteriorated the ductility. In addition, after the temperature reversion in secondary cooling, the peak stress on the flow curve slightly declined and the peak of strain to peak stress occurred at higher temperature. With increasing temperature reversion rate, the strain to peak stress slightly increased, while the peak stress showed little variation. The evolution of plastic modulus and strain to peak stress of austenite with varying temperature was in line with the theoretical prediction on Fe.

  • 32.
    El-Bealy, Mostafa Omar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Modeling of Heat Transfer and Interdendritic Strain for Exuded Surface Segregation Layer in the Direct Chill Casting of Aluminum Alloys2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 630-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation on the formation of exuded surface segregation layer "ESSL" is intended to provide experimental and simulated comparison to verify the model developed previously by El-Bealy. Preliminary verification and calibration of the previous 2D mathematical model are demonstrated by quantitative errors between the previous measurements and predictions of temperature and macrosegregation. Also, the results from these comparisons reveal that the errors are in the reasonable and within allowable limits. These comparisons lead to the fact that the exuded surface segregation layer mostly forms on the middle slice of broad sheet ingot face and in the early stages of mold zone. The model predictions point out also that the different interdendritic strain hypotheses associated with fluctuations of mold cooling conditions. This affects the interdendritic liquid flow between the equiaxed crystals which influences the severity of ESSL formation and its macrosegregation level. The mechanism of ESSL with heat flow and interdendritic strain generation has been analyzed and discussed. The quantitative comparisons between the pervious experimental results and numerical simulation in this investigation reveal also several solutions to prevent this defect for future work.

  • 33.
    El-Bealy, Mostafa Omar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    On the Formation of Interdendritic Internal Cracks During Dendritic Solidification of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs2012In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1488-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of solidification during the continuous casting of steel slabs, the effect of the different spray cooling conditions on the interdendritic internal cracks formed between the columnar dendrites has been examined by a metallographic study of the slab samples and by performing a set of mathematical analyses. The metallographic study involved plant trials to measure the slab surface temperature within different secondary spray cooling conditions. Also, macro/microexaminations of the collected samples from plant trials, measurements of dendrite arm spacing, and interdendritic distance between the columnar dendrites, as well as a segment length of interdendritic crack, have been performed. The experimental results show that the morphology of the interdendritic cracks described by the segment width and length fluctuate with the distance from the slab surface based on the secondary spray cooling conditions. A one-dimensional mathematical model of the heat transfer, solidification, structure evolution, interdendritic strain, and elementary interdendritic area (EIA) has been developed. This model takes into account also calculating the width of interdendritic crack. The model predictions are in a good agreement with the measurements. The results pointed out also that this criterion can be considered as the most important tool to measure the inner quality of the continuously cast steel slabs. Therefore, it helps also to define the required mechanism and reduction level of hot working deformation to close these interdendritic internal cracks. The formation mechanism of these cracks during the dendritic solidification of continuously cast steel slabs has been discussed and the available solutions have been proposed.

  • 34.
    El-Bealy, Mostafa Omar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    On the Formation of Macrosegregation and Interdendritic Cracks During Dendritic Solidification of Continuous Casting of Steel2014In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 988-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current article is to elucidate the significant effects of macrosegregation distribution and its level on the different stages of interdendritic crack formation during dendritic solidification in continuously cast steel slabs. Couple formations of macrosegregation and interdendritic crack phenomena during dendritic solidification of peritectic carbon steels have been investigated by metallographic study of collected slab samples and by performing a set of mathematical analyses. The metallographic study involved plant trails to measure slab surface temperature of different secondary spray cooling conditions. Also, macro-microexaminations, measurements of dendrite arm spacing, macrosegregation analysis, and interdendritic distance between the dendrites of collected samples from plant trials have been performed. The experimental results show a fluctuation of carbon segregation with respect to distance from slab surface. These results also reveal that the interdendritic cracks vary with this fluctuation in various nano, macro, and microscales based on the cooling conditions. A mathematical model of heat transfer, solidification, structure evolution, interdendritic strain, macrosegregation, and elementary interdendritic area "EIA" has been developed. This model takes also into account the calculating of interdendritic distance between the dendrites "IDD" to evaluate the interdendritic crack width. The model predictions of different thermal and solidification phenomena show a good agreement with measurements. The results pointed out also that the coupled effect of interdendritic strain and macrosegregation phenomena and their distributions can be considered as the most important tools to evaluate the surface and internal interdendritic cracks in continuously cast steel slabs. The formation mechanisms of different types of interdendritic crack with interdendritic strain patterns and fluctuation of macrosegregation levels during various cooling zones have been explained, and the possible solutions to these problems have been discussed.

  • 35.
    El-Bealy, Mostafa Omar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. MTC, Egypt.
    Transient Simulation of Mold Heat Transfer and Solidification Phenomena of Continuous Casting of Steel2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 3013-3038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive model of heat transfer and solidification phenomena has been developed including microstructure evolution and fluctuation macrosegregation in continuously cast steel slabs with an objective of evaluation of various mold cooling conditions. The study contains plant trials, metallographic examinations, and formulation of mathematical modeling. The plant trials involved sample collection from three slab casters in use at two different steel plants. The metallographic study combined measurements of dendrite arm spacings and macrosegregation analysis of collected samples. A one-dimensional mathematical model has been developed to characterize the thermal, solidification phases, microstructure evolution, interdendritic strain, and therefore, the macrosegregation distributions. Two cooling approaches were proposed in this study to evaluate the Newtonian heat transfer coefficient in various mold regions. The first approach is a direct estimation approach (DEA), whereas the second one is a coupled approach of the interfacial resistor model and direct estimation approach (CIR/DEA). The model predictions and standard analytical models as well as the previous measurements were compared to verify and to calibrate the model where good agreements were obtained. The comparison between the model predictions and the measurements of dendrite arm spacings and fluctuated carbon concentration profiles were performed to determine the model accuracy level with different cooling approaches. Good agreements were obtained by different accuracy levels with different cooling approaches. The model predictions of thermal parameters and isotherms were analyzed and discussed.

  • 36.
    Elfsberg, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    X-Ray Observation of Gas Evolution, Flotation, and Emulsification of Molten Carbon Steel Immersed in Mold Flux2011In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 265-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At two interfacial-tension measurement experiments with the same experimental conditions, steel samples and mold flux samples of the same compositions were melted in crucibles from the same batch. During the first experiment, the steel drop melted far below its liquidus and then was emulsified. At the second experiment, the steel melted at the expected temperature but did not emulsify. The difference that can be identified is the mass of the steel samples.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Thermal diffusivity measurements of some synthetic CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 slags2004In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 461-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to systematize the knowledge of the heat conduction of liquid silicates, the effective thermal diffusivities of some synthetic slags containing CaO, Al2O3, and SiO2 have been measured, using the three-layer laser-flash method on a differential scheme in the temperature range of 1625 to 1825 K. The effective thermal diffusivities measured, which are a combination of the phononic and photonic heat-transfer mechanisms, were found to increase with increasing temperature for all the presently investigated slags. The slag compositions were chosen in such a way that the changes in the effective thermal diffusivities would reflect the changes in the structure of the slags. It was observed that, at a CaO/Al2O3 molar ratio of 4.42, an increase of the SiO2 content had very little effect on the effective thermal diffusivity values. On the other hand, addition of SiO2 to a slag with the CaO/Al2O3 molar ratio of 2.59 resulted in a significant increase in the effective thermal diffusivity. The addition of Al2O3 to slags with a constant CaO/SiO2 molar ratio resulted in a marked increase in the effective thermal diffusivity. Both these trends indicate that there might be an influence of the network formation in silicate melts on the effective thermal diffusivity.

  • 38.
    Glaser, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Ladle Slag Using Transient Hot Wire Method2013In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal conductivities of four different ladle slags were measured at 1773 K, 1823 K, 1873 K, and 1923 K (1500 A degrees C, 1550 A degrees C, 1600 A degrees C, and 1650 A degrees C) using the transient hot wire method. Very good reproducibility was obtained. The thermal conductivity did not vary substantially with the variation of slag composition at 1873 K and 1923 K (1600 A degrees C and 1650 A degrees C), at which the slags were all entirely liquid. The thermal conductivities were low. It was found that the precipitation of solid phase resulted in considerable increase of thermal conductivity.

  • 39.
    Gran, Jimmy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Experimental determination of Mg activities in Fe-Mg solutions2011In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 921-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermodynamics of magnesium in liquid iron was determined at 1823 K (1550 degrees C). For this purpose, liquid iron was equilibrated with Ag-Mg alloys in a semienclosed molybdenum vessel. From the partition of magnesium between iron and silver, the activity coefficient of Mg and the self-interaction parameter e(Mg)(Mg) were determined.

  • 40.
    Gran, Jimmy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Yan, Baijun
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
    Experimental determination of the liquidus in the high basicity region in the Al2O3(25 mass%)-CaO-MgO-SiO2 and Al2O3(35 mass%)-CaO-MgO-SiO2 systems2011In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1008-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquidus in the Al(2)O(3)(25 mass pct)-CaO-MgO-SiO(2)(<20 mass pct) and Al2O3(35 mass pct)-CaO-MgO-SiO(2)(<20 mass pct) systems were determined experimentally in the high-CaO-containing region at 1873 K (1600 degrees C). For the Al(2)O(3)(35 mass pct)-CaO-MgO-SiO(2)(<20 mass pct) system, liquidus data were also determined for 1773 K (1500 degrees C). The equilibrating and quenching technique with subsequent electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) microanalysis were employed. Based on the data, liquidus lines were constructed for the 25 and 35 mass pct alumina planes at silica contents generally below 20 mass pct. The current results showed a slightly lower solubility of CaO and a higher solubility of MgO at 1873 K (1600 degrees C) for the 25 mass pct Al(2)O(3) section compared with the existing phase diagram. At 1773 K (1500 degrees C), the result showed a slightly lower solubility of both CaO and MgO in the 35 mass pct Al(2)O(3) section compared with the existing phase diagram. In addition, the activities of MgO, CaO, and Al(2)O(3) were estimated at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 degrees C and 1600 degrees C) using the phase diagram information.

  • 41. Jakobsson, A.
    et al.
    Viswanathan, N. N.
    Du, S. C.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Interfacial phenomena in some slag-metal reactions2000In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 973-980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the change of the interfacial tension at the slag-metal interface for sulfur transfer between molten iron, slag, and gas phases was monitored by X-ray sessile drop method in dynamic mode in the temperature range of 1830 to 1891 K. The experiments were carried out with pure iron samples immersed partly or fully in the slag phase. The slag consisted of 30 wt pet CaO, 50 wt pet Al2O3, and 20 wt pet SiO2 (alumina saturated at the experimental temperatures) with additions of FeO. Metal and slag samples contained in alumina crucibles were exposed to a CO-CO2-SO2-Ar gas mixture with defined oxygen and sulfur partial pressures, and the change of the shape of the metal drop was determined as a function of time. The equipment and the technique were calibrated by measurements of the surface tensions of the pure Cu, Ni, and Fe containing two different amounts of dissolved oxygen. A theoretical model was developed to determine the sulfur content of the metal as a function of time on the basis of sulfur diffusion in the slag and metal phases as well as surface tension-induced flow on the metal drop surface. Attempts were made to compute the interfacial tensions on the basis of force balance.

  • 42.
    Jelkina Albertsson, Galina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Effect of the heat treatment on the chromium partition in CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr2O3 synthetic slags2013In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1586-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mg-spinel phase is known to be important for control of Cr leaching from Cr-containing slags. The objective of the present study is to get an understanding of the phase relationships in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr2O3 system with a view to control the precipitation of Cr-spinel in the slag phase. The equilibrium phases in CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr2O3 slag system in the range of 1673 K to 1873 K (1400 A degrees C to 1600 A degrees C) have been investigated experimentally and compared with the results from thermodynamic calculations. The slag compositions close to the industrial slag systems were chosen. The Cr2O3 and MgO contents in the slag were fixed to be 6 and 8 wt pct, respectively. The basicity (CaO/SiO2) of the slag was varied in the range of 1.0 to 2.0. The slags were synthesized at a pre-determined oxygen partial pressure (10(-4)) or air (2.13 x 10(4) Pa) at a temperature above the liquidus temperature. The samples were then soaked at targeted temperatures for 24 hours in controlled atmosphere in order to achieve the equilibrium state before quenching in water. Four different heat-treatment regimes (defined as Ia, Ib, II.a and II.b) in Section II-D) were used in the present experiments. The lower oxygen partial pressure was maintained by a suitable mixture of CO and CO2 gases. Phases present and their compositions in the quenched slags were studied using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The chromium content in the phases present was analyzed using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer. The experimental results obtained are compared with the calculation results from Factsage software. The size of spinel crystals increased drastically after slow-cooling from 1873 K (1600 A degrees C) followed by annealing at 1673 K (1400 A degrees C) for 24 hours (heating regimes II) compared to samples being quenched directly after soaking at 1873 K (1600 A degrees C) (heating regime I.a). It was found that the amount of foreign elements in the spinel phase, and other phases decreased after soaking at oxygen partial pressure of 10(-4) Pa resulting in phases with less defects and foreign oxide contents compared to those treated in air. The size of spinel crystals was found to be larger in samples with lower basicity.

  • 43. Kadrolkar, Ameya
    et al.
    Andersson, Nils Å. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. McMaster University, Canada.
    Dogan, Neslihan
    A Dynamic Flux Dissolution Model for Oxygen Steelmaking2017In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modified model for prediction of flux dissolution in oxygen steelmaking process is presented in this study. The aim of this paper is to introduce a procedure for simulating the amount of dissolved lime with respect to the saturation concentration of CaO by coupling the existing thermodynamic and kinetic models simultaneously. The procedure is developed to calculate the saturation concentrations/solubility of CaO in slag using thermodynamic models namely FactSage (TM), Cell Model, and Thermo-Calc (TM). Total amount of dissolved lime is evaluated by integrating solubility values in the rate equation of lime dissolution over time taking into account the effects of physical properties and temperature of slag and particle size of flux additions and validated against industrial data available in literature. Comparison between measured and calculated undissolved lime shows a good agreement between them using any thermodynamic models even though there are some differences in the predictions of saturation concentration of CaO in slag. It has been shown that two distinct control mechanisms for lime dissolution in BOF slags exist and consideration of the free lime-controlled mechanism is essential for accurate prediction of dissolution rate of lime in slag.

  • 44. Kang, Youngjo
    et al.
    Sahebkar, Bahman
    Scheller, Piotr R.
    Morita, Kazuki
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Observation on Physical Growth of Nonmetallic Inclusion in Liquid Steel During Ladle Treatment2011In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 522-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behaviors of several types of inclusions at a high temperature were examined using a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM, 1LM21H/SVF17SP). Although alumina inclusions tended to impact on each other, agglomerate, and grow quickly, no other inclusion type, such as spinel as well as solid and liquid calcium aluminate, was observed to attract each other. The results of confocal microscope study were compared with the industrial investigation. For this purpose, many steel samples were taken at different stages of ladle treatment. The samples were analyzed by scanning and light optical microscopes. Approximately 50,000 inclusions of several types were examined. Only alumina inclusions were attracted to each other and agglomerate. No agglomeration by attractive behavior was observed in the other types of inclusions, including liquid inclusions. Both the industrial data and the in situ observation by CSLM indicate that, although the attraction force and the agglomeration play a significant role in the growth of alumina inclusions, the agglomeration of spinel and calcium aluminate inclusions does not need special consideration in ladle treatment. The agglomeration of liquid calcium aluminate inclusions took place only when they occasionally met as a result of external force, which led to low collision probability. However, the agglomeration of the liquid calcium aluminate inclusions along with alumina particles could be detrimental in the casting process.

  • 45. Kapilashrami, A.
    et al.
    Gornerup, M.
    Lahiri, A. K.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Foaming of slags under dynamic conditions2006In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slag foaming under dynamic conditions has been studied in laboratory scale to examine the influence of properties commonly used to describe the foaminess and foam stability of slags under steady-state conditions. Synthetically produced slags with compositions relevant to tool steel and stainless steel production were studied through X-ray equipment in measurements simulating the dynamic conditions found in real processes. It is found that the dynamic systems display a more complex behavior than systems Under steady state. Traditional theories for foaming do not seem to be valid for slag foaming under dynamic conditions. The foam displays a fluctuating behavior, which the presently available models are not able to take into account. The concept of a foaming index does not seem to be applicable, resulting in the need for alternative models.

  • 46. Kapilashrami, A.
    et al.
    Lahiri, A. K.
    Gornerup, M.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    The fluctuations in slag foam under dynamic conditions2006In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 145-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABHA KAPILASHRAMI, formerly with the Royal Institute of Technology, is with Corus Research, Development and Technology, 1970 CA IJmuiden, The Netherlands. ASHOK KUMAR LAHIRI, Professor, is with the Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. MARTEN GORNERUP and SESHADRI SEETHARAMAN, Professor, are with the Department of Material Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, 10044 Stockholm, Sweden. Contact c-mail: raman@ kth.se.

  • 47. Kapilashrami, E.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, A.
    Lahiri, A. K.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Studies of the wetting characteristics of liquid iron on dense alumina by the X-ray sessile drop technique2003In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the reaction between a molten iron drop and dense alumina was studied using the X-ray sessile-drop method under different oxygen partial pressures in the gas atmosphere. The changes in contact angles between the iron drop and the alumina substrate were followed as functions of temperature and varying partial pressures of oxygen in the temperature range 1823 to 1873 K both in static and dynamic modes. The results of the contact angle measurements with pure iron in contact with dense alumina in extremely well-purified argon as well as under different oxygen partial pressures in the gas atmosphere showed good agreement with earlier measurements reported in the literature. In the dynamic mode, when argon was replaced by a CO-CO2-Ar mixture with a well-defined PO, in the gas, the contact angle showed an initial decrease followed by a period of nearly constant contact angle. At the end of this period, the length of which was a function of the P-O2 imposed, a further steep decrease in the contact angle was noticed. An intermediate layer of FeAl2O4 was detected in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the reacted substrates. An interesting observation in the present experiments is that the iron drop moved away from the site of the reaction once the product layer covered the interface. The results are analyzed on the basis of the various forces acting on the drop.

  • 48. Kapilashrami, F.
    et al.
    Lahiri, A. K.
    Cramb, A. W.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Investigation of the reactions between oxygen-containing iron and SiO2 substrate by X-ray sessile-drop technique2003In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 647-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The X-ray sessile-drop method was employed in the present investigation to measure the contact angle between liquid iron and a silica substrate under argon as well as CO-CO2-Ar atmospheres in the temperature range of 1823 to 1833 K. In the latter case, the measurements were carried out in the dynamic mode, and the contact-angle changes were followed as a function of time as oxygen in the gas dissolved in the metal. The static measurements in argon showed that the contact angles in the experimental temperature range are of the order of 135 deg, similar to those observed in the case of the alumina substrate. In the dynamic mode, oxygen partial pressures varying between 9.9.10(-4) and 1.5.10(-2) Pa were imposed on the system. In these experiments, the contact angle decreased in two stages, with an intermediate steady-state region. Fayalite slag, formed due to the reaction between the metallic phase and the substrate, was found to accumulate around the drop. The results are of relevance in understanding the mechanism of corrosion of silica-containing refractories by molten iron.

  • 49. Kaptay, G.
    et al.
    Matsushita, Taishi
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Mukai, K.
    Ohuchi, T.
    On different modifications of the capillary model of penetration of inert liquid metals into porous refractories and their connection to the pore size distribution of the refractories2004In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 471-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different modifications to the classical capillary model of penetration of liquid metals into porous refractories are presented; (1) with capillaries having different radii, (2) with zigzag capillaries, and (3) with capillaries, having periodically changing capillary radius along the path of penetration. All the modified capillary models were checked against our experimental results of measuring the penetration of liquid mercury into three types of alumina refractories, having different microstructure and pore size distribution. The maximum penetration height was measured by X-ray radiography, as a function of applied outside pressure. The model with periodically changing capillary has been found to describe the experimental data satisfactorily. This model divides the process of penetration into two stages. During the first period of pre-penetration, the maximum penetration height changes very slowly (but not linearly) as the outside pressure is increased in the interval between the minimum threshold pressure and the maximum threshold pressure. In the second, bulk penetration period, appearing above the maximum threshold pressure, the maximum height of penetration increases rapidly with outside pressure, according to the classical capillary model of penetration. The three structural model parameters of the model (minimum pore radius, maximum pore radius, and period of pore structure) were connected with the measured pore size distribution curves of the refractories through semiempirical equations. As a result, our complex semiempirical model is able to predict penetration diagrams for any inert liquid metal into any refractory of a similar type.

  • 50.
    Kazemi, Mania
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Effect of Experimental Conditions on Cementite Formation During Reduction of Iron Ore Pellets2016In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
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