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  • 1. Håkanson, J. M.
    et al.
    Toll, Staffan
    University College of Borås, Sweden.
    Lundström, T. S.
    Liquid permeability of an anisotropic fiber web2005In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Darcian permeability of a dense network of fibers with general orientation is examined experimentally and analytically. The permeability of a carded PA6 fiber web is measured in the three principal directions using a saturated parallel flow technique. A model is introduced that generalizes existing theories for unidirectional fiber arrays to fiber networks of general orientation distribution. The average drag on a given fiber is assumed to be independent of the overall fiber orientation distribution. A second-order orientation tensor describes the orientation dependence. Our generalization applied to the models of Gebart predicts reasonably well the in-plane permeability, but overestimates the out-of-plane permeability by a factor of four.

  • 2. Kimmel, L. B.
    et al.
    Boylston, E. K.
    Goynes, W. R.
    Akin, D. E.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Eriksson, K. E. L.
    Nontraditionally retted flax for dry cotton blend spinning2001In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 71, no 5, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracting flax fibers from the stems of Linum usitatissimum plants has traditionally been a costly, labor-intensive process, largely restricted to Europe and Asia. The naturally long, strong fibers are typically processed on wet spinning machines that are not available in the United States. However, the resurgent popularity of flax has promoted an interest in devising more economical methods of producing and processing the fibers domestically. This preliminary study investigates the use of flax fibers extracted by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic retting as well as traditional (dew) retting methods. The experimental fibers show promise for spinning on common cotton machinery in blends with cotton. The research has produced a series of medium-count, experimental apparel-grade yarns with an attractive appearance and acceptable hand. With refinement, chemical or enzyme retting can perhaps become an ecologically sound and cost effective method of producing flax fibers.

  • 3.
    Limaye, Mukta V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bacsik, Zoltan
    Schütz, Christina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Dembelé, Aissata
    Pléa, Mama
    Andersson, Linnea
    Salazar-Alvarez, German
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bergström, Lennart
    On the role of tannins and iron in the Bogolan or mud cloth dyeing process2012In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 82, no 18, p. 1888-1896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the chemistry of the Bogolan or mud cloth dyeing process, a traditional technique of coloring cotton cloths deeply rooted in Mali. Textiles produced by the traditional Bogolan process, using tannin-rich plant extract and iron-rich clay-based mud, were compared using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) with cotton fibers that were impregnated with tannin and iron salt solutions. IR spectroscopy in both reflective mode on the cloth and cotton and in transmission mode on single fibers, together with SEM, showed that gallic and tannic acid adsorb and precipitate onto the cotton fiber surface. IR spectroscopy and comparison with tannin and iron solution-impregnated cotton showed that the black color of the traditional Bogolan cloth is dominated by the formation of iron-tannin complexes. The presence of iron in the Bogolan cloth was confirmed using XANES data, supporting the notion that iron has been transferred from the iron-rich clay-based mud to the cloth. The chemistry of Bogolan cloth is not only historically and culturally significant and of importance in textile conservation, but may also inspire future research on sustainable dyeing and processing techniques based on natural products.

  • 4. Zhang, D.
    et al.
    Johansson, G.
    Pettersson, B.
    Akin, D. E.
    Foulk, J. A.
    Khalili, S.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Pulp and Paper Technology.
    Effects of acidic media pre-incubation on flax enzyme retting efficiency2003In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 263-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overnight incubation of flax straw in a weakly acidic (pH 2) solution decreases the amount of enzyme needed for virtually complete retting by two to three orders of magnitude, as judged by a modified Fried test. This effect is probably based on removal of Ca2+ crosslinking pectin chains in the middle lamella. Washing the enzyme-rotted fibers in ethanol and then in acetone or in 0.1 M KOH reduces their stickiness and matting, thus apparently eliminating dry-back. The methods show potential usefulness for the development of a commercial enzyme retting process.

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