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  • 1.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Sridhar, Seetharaman
    Grinder, Olle
    Izumi, Yukari
    Barati, Mansoor
    Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process2013In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 1552-1558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700 degrees C) to 1173 K (900 degrees C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  • 2.
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hayashi, M.
    Nakajima, K.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Thermophysical properties of silicate slags2002In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimization of metallurgical processes requires reliable data of the slag phase. This paper focuses on three properties that are relevant to heat and mass-transfer calculations-viscosities, thermal diffusivities, and surface tensions of silicate melts. A brief account of the experimental techniques used for the measurements of these properties, with special reference to the work carried out in the Division of Metallurgy, Royal Institute Of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, are presented, along with the advantages and limitations. As these properties are structure-oriented, the impact of structure on these properties is also presented. The paper is intended as a state-of-the-art review of the subject.

  • 3.
    Beheshti, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Northern Research Institute, Norway.
    Moosberg-Bustnes, John
    Akhtar, Shahid
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    Black Dross: Processing Salt Removal from Black Dross by Thermal Treatment2014In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 2243-2252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The salt removal from black dross by thermal treatment has experimentally been studied under different conditions in both a stationary resistance furnace and in a laboratory scale rotary furnace. The experiments were designed based on partial pressure calculations using the Thermo-Calc software (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden). The salt removal efficiency was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses, and the optimum conditions for treatment established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature, as well as by reduced pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the highest degree of chloride removal from a 20 g sample was obtained after 10 h at 1523 K resulting in a 98% removal and a final chloride content of 0.3 wt.% in the residue. Under reduced pressure, the chloride concentrate was lowered to 0.2 wt.% after thermal treatment of a 20 g sample at 1473 K for 8 h. In the case of 200 g samples treated in a rotary furnace, the chloride concentrate was 2.5 wt.% after 14 h at 1523 K, representing a removal of 87%. Below 0.3 wt.% chloride content, the material is deemed a nonhazardous waste.

  • 4.
    Buffington, Jack
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    The Beverage Can in the United States: Achieving a 100% Recycled Aluminum Can through Supply Chain Innovation2012In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 923-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to analyze why recycled content is low (33-50%) in the aluminum can in the United States when it is technically possible to have a product that is made from 100% recycled material. A comprehensive literature review is conducted, followed by identification of five propositions determined with respect to the research problem. With respect to aluminum can recycling (and its research), there is a greater focus on the role of the consumer than the producer in the aluminum can supply chain system, which may impact on the role of innovation in addressing the problem. The upstream primary aluminum supply chain is vertically integrated and efficient within itself, but not integrated with the downstream secondary aluminum can market. Given the importance of the secondary aluminum market in the United States, there are significant recycling/efficiency/sustainability opportunities to address. As opposed to a dominant focus on consumers and their recycling habits, this study focuses on the aggregate aluminum can supply chain to apply innovation to the solution.

  • 5.
    Buffington, Jack
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Peterson, Ray
    Defining a Closed-Loop US Aluminum Can Supply Chain Through Technical Design and Supply Chain Innovation2013In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 941-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a supply chain material flow analysis (MFA) for the U.S. aluminum can market, consistent with studies conducted for the overall worldwide aluminum industry. A technical definition of the use of alloys 5182 and 3104 is conducted by metallurgists for use in the "aluminum can" MFA. Four propositions are created: technical, economic, and supply chain factors are as important to secondary aluminum recycling in an aluminum can as higher recycling rates (P-1); the development of a unialloy aluminum can will increase reuse rates, but recycling rates must increase for this to happen (P-2); a closed-loop aluminum can supply chain is not able to be fully realized in today's environment but is very useful for understanding improvement through both supply and demand (P-3); and UBC supply can improve through a "voluntary deposit-refund system" approach (P-4).

  • 6.
    Churyumov, A. Yu.
    et al.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Pozdniakov, A. V.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Bazlov, A. I.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Mao, Huahai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Thermocalc Software AB, Rasundavagen 18, S-16967 Solna, Sweden..
    Polkin, V. I.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol MISiS, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.
    Tohoku Univ, WPI Adv Inst Mat Res, Aoba Ku, Sendai, Miyagi 9808577, Japan.;Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci & Technol, Math Adv Mat OIL, Sendai, Miyagi 9808577, Japan..
    Effect of Nb Addition on Microstructure and Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Fe-Co-Ni-Cu-Cr Multiprincipal-Element (High-Entropy) Alloys in As-Cast and Heat-Treated State2019In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 71, no 10, p. 3481-3489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure and thermal and mechanical properties of (FeCoNiCuCr)(100-x)-Nb-x multiprincipal-element alloys have been investigated in the as-cast and heat-treated state. The alloys were smelted by arc-melting in argon atmosphere. As-cast samples were produced by copper mold casting. The structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The calculated phase diagrams of the Fe-Co-Ni-Cu-Cr-Nb system were used to predict the phase composition. The predicted thermodynamic temperatures and phase areas were compared with those obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the results of SEM observation, respectively. Addition of 10 at.% Nb caused phase separation of the alloy in the liquid state. Addition of Nb caused an increase in the yield strength by solid-solution hardening and by the formation of intermetallic compounds. Heat treatment also affected the mechanical properties of the studied alloys.

  • 7. De Graef, M.
    et al.
    Kral, M. V.
    Hillert, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    A modern 3-D view of an "Old" pearlite colony2006In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 58, no 12, p. 25-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the three-dimensional (3-D) microstructure of a pearlite colony in a carburized electrolytic iron. The original data was obtained by serial sectioning methods around 1960, and is revisited with modern 3-D visualizations. After a brief historical introduction, the structure of the pearlite colony is discussed, using surface renderings and blue-red stereoscopic images.

  • 8.
    Huang, Shuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Vida, Adam
    Heczel, Anita
    Holmstrom, Erik
    Vitos, Levente
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Thermal Expansion, Elastic and Magnetic Properties of FeCoNiCu-Based High-Entropy Alloys Using First-Principle Theory2017In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 2107-2112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of V, Cr, and Mn on the magnetic, elastic, and thermal properties of FeCoNiCu high-entropy alloy are studied by using the exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation. The calculated lattice parameters and Curie temperatures in the face-centered-cubic structure are in line with the available experimental and theoretical data. A significant change in the magnetic behavior is revealed when adding equimolar V, Cr, and Mn to the host composition. The three independent single-crystal elastic constants are computed using a finite strain technique, and the polycrystalline elasticity parameters including shear modulus, Young's modulus, Pugh ratio, Poisson's ratio, and elastic anisotropy are derived and discussed. The effects of temperature on the structural parameters are determined by making use of the Debye-Gruneisen model. It is found that FeCoNiCuCr possesses a slightly larger thermal expansion coefficient than do the other alloys considered here.

  • 9.
    Huang, Shuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Vida, Adam
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Inst Solid State Phys & Opt, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.;Eotvos Lorand Univ, Dept Mat Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1-A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary..
    Heczel, Anita
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Dept Mat Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1-A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary..
    Holmstrom, Erik
    Sandvik Coromant R&D, S-12680 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vitos, Levente
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Inst Solid State Phys & Opt, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.;Uppsala Univ, Div Mat Theory, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thermal Expansion, Elastic and Magnetic Properties of FeCoNiCu-Based High-Entropy Alloys Using First-Principle Theory (vol 69, pg 2107, 2017)2018In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 1037-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Kamga, H Kamgou
    Solidification Studies of Automotive Heat Exchanger Materials2006In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modifications of the aluminum alloy AA 3003 have been studied to improve and tailor its properties for applications in automotive heat exchangers. Laboratory techniques have been applied to simulate industrial direct-chill casting, and some basic solidification studies have been conducted. The results are coupled to structures observed in industrial-size ingots and discussed in terms of structure-property relations.

  • 11.
    Lindwall, Greta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Materials Science and Engineering Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, USA.
    Wang, P.
    Kattner, U. R.
    Campbell, C. E.
    The Effect of Oxygen on Phase Equilibria in the Ti-V System: Impacts on the AM Processing of Ti Alloys2018In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 70, no 9, p. 1692-1705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygen is always a constituent in “real” titanium alloys including titanium alloy powders used for powder-based additive manufacturing (AM). In addition, oxygen uptake during powder handling and printing is hard to control and, hence, it is important to understand and predict how oxygen is affecting the microstructure. Therefore, oxygen is included in the evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of the titanium-vanadium system employing the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams method and a complete model of the O-Ti-V system is presented. The β-transus temperature is calculated to increase with increasing oxygen content whereas the extension of the α-Ti phase field into the binary is calculated to decrease, which explains the low vanadium solubilities measured in some experimental works. In addition, the critical temperature of the metastable miscibility gap of the β-phase is calculated to increase to above room temperature when oxygen is added. The effects of oxygen additions on phase fractions, martensite and ω formation temperatures are discussed, along with the impacts these changes may have on AM of titanium alloys. 

  • 12. Morales, R.
    et al.
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Grinder, O.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    The powder metallurgy processing of refractory metals and alloys2003In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 20-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum and tungsten are refractory metals in the elemental form with the largest production volume in the world. The fabrication of these refractory metals, as wall as their alloys and intermetallics, using high-temperature powder metallurgy (PM) is reviewed in this article. The primary focus is on the role of traditional high-temperature PM in producing alloys with tailor-made properties. An insight into the bulk production of molybdenum and tungsten alloys with nano-grains is highlighted.

  • 13.
    Mu, Wangzhong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Shibata, Hiroyuki
    Tohoku Univ, Inst Multidisciplinary Res Adv Mat, Aoba Ku, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai, Miyagi 9808577, Japan..
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nakajima, Keiji
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    High-Temperature Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Studies of Ferrite Formation in Inclusion-Engineered Steels: A Review2018In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 2283-2295Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of oxide metallurgy and inclusion engineering can be utilized to improve the properties of low-alloy steels. These concepts aim at controlling the formation of intragranular ferrite (IGF), often a desirable microstructure providing good mechanical properties without the need for expensive alloying elements. IGF formation is stimulated to occur at non-metallic inclusions and form an arrangement of fine, interlocking ferrite grains. A method that has contributed significantly to investigations in this field lately is high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy (HT-CLSM). HT-CLSM is suited for in situ studies of inclusion behavior in liquid steel and phase transformations in solid-state steel, where in particular, displacive phase transformations can be studied, since they provide sufficient topographic contrast. The purpose of the present report is to provide a brief review of the state of the art of HT-CLSM and its application for in situ observations of ferrite formation in inclusion-engineered steels. The scientific literature in this field is surveyed and supplemented by new work to reveal the capability of HT-CLSM as well as to discuss the effect of factors such as cooling rate and parent grain size on IGF formation and growth kinetics. The report concludes with an outlook on the opportunities and challenges of HT-CLSM for applications in oxide metallurgy.

  • 14. Schmitz, G. J.
    et al.
    Engström, A.
    Bernhardt, R.
    Prahl, U.
    Adam, L.
    Seyfarth, J.
    Apel, M.
    Agelet De Saracibar, C.
    Korzhavyi, Pavel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Patzak, B.
    Software Solutions for ICME2016In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Integrated Computational Materials Engineering expert group (ICMEg), a coordination activity of the European Commission, aims at developing a global and open standard for information exchange between the heterogeneous varieties of numerous simulation tools. The ICMEg consortium coordinates respective developments by a strategy of networking stakeholders in the first International Workshop on Software Solutions for ICME, compiling identified and relevant software tools into the Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, discussing strategies for interoperability between different software tools during a second (planned) international workshop, and eventually proposing a scheme for standardized information exchange in a future book or document. The present article summarizes these respective actions to provide the ICME community with some additional insights and resources from which to help move this field forward.

  • 15.
    Sharma, Mukesh
    et al.
    McMaster Univ, Steel Res Ctr, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada..
    Mu, Wangzhong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Dogan, Neslihan
    McMaster Univ, Steel Res Ctr, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada..
    In Situ Observation of Dissolution of Oxide Inclusions in Steelmaking Slags2018In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 1220-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Better understanding of removal of non-metallic inclusions is of importance in the steelmaking process to control the cleanliness of steel. In this study, the dissolution rate of Al2O3 and Al2TiO5 inclusions in a liquid CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 slag was measured using high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscopy (HT-CSLM) at 1550A degrees C. The dissolution rate of inclusions is expressed as a function of the rate of decrease of the radius of solid particles with time. It is found that Al2O3 inclusions have a slower dissolution rate than that of Al2TiO5 inclusions at 1550A degrees C. The rate-limiting steps are investigated in terms of a shrinking core model. It is shown that the rate-limiting step for dissolution of both inclusion types is mass transfer in the slag at 1550A degrees C.

  • 16. Singer, H. M.
    et al.
    Singer, Irina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Bilgram, J. H.
    Measurements of experimentally grown 3-D xenon multiplets and comparative phase-field simulations2007In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 77-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimentally observed growth morphologies (dendrites, doublons, and seaweed) of three-dimensional (3-D) xenon crystals during free growth into pure supercooled melt were investigated in this study. Measurements of the 3-D reconstruction of dendrites were compared to analytical predictions and scaling parameters were determined. For two different phase-field models morphology diagrams were derived and compared to analytical model calculations. By using special initial conditions it is possible to reproduce the growth morphologies found in these experiments.

  • 17. Sridhar, S.
    et al.
    Du, S. C.
    Pal, U. B.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Abating environmentally harmful waste gases2002In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 30-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gas-purification method, based on the condensation of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon-containing environmentally hazardous gases produced from industrial processes, is proposed in this article. The method, which utilizes the cooling capacity of waste nitrogen in the oxygen plant to condense the hazardous gases, is capable of removing hazardous impurities up to 99.98%. Theoretical calculations underlying the condensation process are presented employing gases produced in a blast furnace and coke oven in an integrated steel plant. The cooling power required for, the condensation process is calculated using the waste nitrogen generated from an oxygen plant that generates captive oxygen for the steel plant. Design modifications that need to be made to the oxygen plant in order to utilize the cooling power of the waste nitrogen gas are also presented. As a case study, the advantages of the method are illustrated with purification of coke-oven gas. The economic impact and the investment aspects are also discussed.

  • 18. Zuazo, I.
    et al.
    Hallstedt, B.
    Lindahl, Bonnie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Selleby, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Soler, M.
    Etienne, A.
    Perlade, A.
    Hasenpouth, D.
    Massardier-Jourdan, V.
    Cazottes, S.
    Kleber, X.
    Low-Density Steels: Complex Metallurgy for Automotive Applications2014In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 1747-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current aim in the development of third-generation steels for lightweighting automotive applications is to increase strength keeping at least the same formability as current steel concepts. In this philosophy, an optimal concept would be one that brings, in addition, a lower density. For this purpose, low-density steels have been designed with important aluminum additions obtaining density reductions of 8-10% or higher in comparison with low-carbon steels. At the levels required for lightweighting, aluminum introduces complex phenomena in steels. Here, some of the effects of aluminum in phase stability, CALPHAD-type modeling, and microstructure development are described, the latter in relation with mechanical properties. Finally, the potential of two families of lightweight steels for automotive applications is assessed by comparison with a steel currently present in automotive structures.

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