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  • 1.
    Bartholomew, Scott
    et al.
    Purdue University .
    Yoshikawa Ruesch, Emily
    Purdue University.
    Hartell, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Strimel, Greg
    Purdue University.
    Identifying design values across countries through adaptive comparative judgment2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, ISSN 0957-7572, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive comparative judgment (ACJ) has proven to be a valid, reliable, and feasible method for assessing student performance in open-ended design scenarios. In addition to the use of ACJ for purely assessment and evaluation, research has demonstrated an opportunity to identify the design values of judges involved with the ACJ process. The potential for ACJ, as a tool for understanding cultural design values, and potentially facilitating international collaboration, is intriguing. Therefore, this study established three panels of judges, from countries around the world, to assess one body of student work using the ACJ method. The similarities, differences, and findings from these assessment results were analyzed, revealing distinct design values, preferences, and differences for each group of judges from the different locations.

  • 2.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Exploring the capability of evaluating technical solutions: a collaborative study into the primary technology classroom2014In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of technology education, evaluating technical solutions is considered as an important topic. Research indicates that pupils have difficulties in evaluating technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, i.e. how effective a technical solution supports its intended function. By using the learning study, which is an iterative and collaborative research approach, the study explores the capability to evaluate technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, what it takes to know it and how to best enhance its learning in the primary technology classroom. Audio and video recorded interviews, teachers' meetings and lessons are the base data for the study. A contribution of the study is the understanding of this specific knowing, and what is critical for learning and thus to an improvement of technology teaching practice.

  • 3.
    Buckley, Jeffrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    O'Connor, Adrian
    University of Limerick.
    Seery, Niall
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hyland, Tomás
    University of Limerick.
    Canty, Donal
    University of Limerick.
    Implicit theories of intelligence in STEM education: Perspectives through the lens of technology education students2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 75-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The educational significance of eliciting students' implicit theories of intelligence is well established with the majority of this work focussing on theories regarding entity and incremental beliefs. However, a second paradigm exists in the prototypical nature of intelligence for which to view implicit theories. This study purports to instigate an investigation into students' beliefs concerning intellectual behaviours through the lens of prototypical definitions within STEM education. To achieve this, the methodology designed by Sternberg et al. (J Pers Soc Psychol 41(1):37-55, 1981) was adopted with surveys being administered to students of technology education requiring participants to describe characteristics of intelligent behaviour. A factor analytic approach including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling was taken in analysing the data to determine the underlying constructs which the participants viewed as critical in their definition of intelligence. The findings of this study illustrate that students of technology education perceive intelligence to be multifaceted, comprising of three factors including social, general and technological competences. Implications for educational practice are discussed relative to these findings. While initially this study focuses on the domain of technology education, a mandate for further work in other disciplines is discussed.

  • 4.
    Buckley, Jeffrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Seery, Niall
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning. Athlone Institute of TechnologyCo. WestmeathIreland.
    Canty, Donal
    Heuristics and CAD modelling: An examination of student behaviour during problem solving episodes within CAD modelling activities2017In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design activities typically involve and culminate in the creation of models representative of new ideas and conceptions. The format is often dictated by the specific discipline, with ideas in design and technology education regularly being externalised through the use of computer aided design (CAD). This paper focusses on the realisation stage of a design process, specifically when conceptual ideas are being externalised through CAD. Acknowledging students as novices or quasi-experts with regards to their levels of technical expertise and recognising the limitations in the cognitive capacities of humans suggests merit in investigating problem solving strategies through the lens of heuristics. A comparative study was employed between two distinct CAD systems to examine students modelling behaviour. Considering the situational context of the problems encountered and the bounded rationality which the students are operating within, a number of insights are generated from the findings which are of importance from a pedagogical perspective within design and technology education.

  • 5.
    Buckley, Jeffrey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Seery, Niall
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE). Athlone Institute of Technology, Westmeath, Ireland.
    Canty, Donal
    University of Limerick.
    Investigating the use of spatial reasoning strategies in geometric problem solving2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 341-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A core aim of contemporary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is the development of robust problem-solving skills. This can be achieved by fostering both discipline knowledge expertise and general cognitive abilities associated with problem solving. One of the most important cognitive abilities in STEM education is spatial ability however understandings of how students use this ability in practice are currently underdeveloped. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how levels of spatial ability impacted both performance and approaches to problem solving. In the context of graphical education, selected due to its significant overlap with technological, mathematical and engineering knowledge, a repeated cross-sectional study design was implemented to gather longitudinal data of student approaches to problem solving. A battery of psychometric tests of spatial ability was administered to two cohorts and problem solving was examined through a variety of graphical problems. The findings illustrate a relationship between attaining higher levels of spatial ability and performance. Participants with lower levels of spatial ability evidenced the utilisation of models to a greater extend with a particular emphasis on models with the capacity to alleviate the need for spatial reasoning.

  • 6.
    Doyle, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Seery, Niall
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Canty, Donal
    Buckley, Jeffrey
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Agendas, influences, and capability: Perspectives on practice in design and technology education2017In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A philosophical shift in policy now situates the development of technological capability as the focus of Irish technology education. Internationally, the effectiveness of curricular reform in the discipline has previously been called to question, as the legacy of the preceding vocational craft subjects has been seen to throttle the evolution of practice in aligning with emergent policy. As Irish technology education shares this vocational heritage, this research seeks to explore the effectiveness of policy change through an investigation of current practices in the discipline. Specifically, this research seeks to explore the alignment of teachers’ perceptions of practice in terms of the focus of learning activities and educational outcomes as prescribed by curricula. A methodological framework was developed to explore teachers’ (n = 15) perceptions, ecologically rooted in the tasks and activities they use to teach in their classrooms. The results suggest a misalignment between what teachers conceive as important to the discipline, and their enacted practices. The paper unpacks the contentions surrounding this misalignment and discusses factors which appear to influence teachers’ perceptions, forming a greater understanding of what influences practice in the discipline.

  • 7.
    Doyle, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Seery, Niall
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning. Athlone Institute of Technology, Athlone, Ireland..
    Gumaelius, Lena
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Canty, Donal
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland..
    Hartell, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Reconceptualising PCK research in D&T education:proposing a methodological framework to investigateenacted practice2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since first conceived, the concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) hasattracted much attention. Despite being lauded by educationalists as the unique knowledgebase of teachers, research on the concept over the past 30 years has yet to result in a universallyaccepted definition being presented. Much of the contentions surrounding the lack ofan agreed upon conception appear to have stemmed from difficulties in understanding therelationship between PCK, other areas of teacher knowledge, teacher beliefs, and enactedpractice. This paper considers the application of PCK frameworks to design and technology(D&T) education, through an analysis of the nature of the discipline from an ontologicaland epistemological perspective and contemporary perspectives on the construct of PCK.It is theorised that the volition afforded to teachers in D&T through weakly framed subjectboundaries negates the effective application of PCK frameworks, as teachers’ beliefs have agreater impact on enacted practices. In an attempt to better understanding enacted practicein D&T education, the paper proposes a methodological framework centred on the interactionsbetween teachers’ beliefs and knowledge in the discipline, through synthesising theconcept of amplifiers and filters of practice with the nature of D&T education. The proposedframework outlines the need to recognise individual teachers’ conception of capabilityas a critical influence on enacted practice.

  • 8.
    Engström, Susanne
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Differences and similarities between female students and male students that succeed within higher technical education: profiles emerge through the use of cluster analysis.2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 239-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on female and male students who succeed in engineering programmes in Sweden, and why they have success. Data were collected through a questionnaire sent to all engineering students in Sweden registered for their seventh semester during year 2012 and about 30 % of the students in the cohort responded on several questions. The answers were then analysed and interpreted using Pierre Bourdieu’s theory and the concept of capital. The female-students as well as the male-students emerged as homogeneous groups, but SPSS-clustering shows differences and similarities between four female student-profiles and five male students-profiles. The female students who come to graduate as engineers have experiences and resources that seem to be fruitful: well-educated parents, positive attitudes to the engineer students’ traditions, and a positive view of the engineering profession. In addition, they value the traditional teaching with lectures and self-studies. They seem not to have been inspired by compulsory school teaching or teachers there. The male students have the same experiences and resources but there are differences. Among female students, a profile emerges which is absent among the male students and which emphasises the importance of doing good for society, people, and the environment in their future professional roles. Among male students, the student profiles which emerge include one with a primarily practical and technical capital despite the lack of a high degree of educational or scientific capital.

  • 9.
    Fahrman, Birgit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Norström, Per
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Gumaelius, Lena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Skogh, Inga-Britt
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Experienced technology teachers' teaching practices2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers' teaching practice plays a key role in the learning process of pupils, and for teaching to be successful, teachers must have knowledge in many different fields. This obviously also applies to teaching the subject technology. However, lower secondary school technology education in Sweden has reportedly been described in terms of teaching not following the curriculum along with widespread uncertainty among teachers regarding how to design their teaching practices. To address this national challenge, we need to understand the existing technology teaching practice. The purpose of this study is therefore to explore the considerations experienced technology teachers make. The study is based on interviews with technology teachers who work in lower secondary school (13--15-year-old pupils). The collected data consist of teacher's statements regarding their own expertise and teaching practice. To visualize the described teaching practice we have analysed collected data through the lens of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The results show both similarities and differences in the teachers' descriptions. Speaking in terms of PCK, the purpose and teaching focus expressed by the respondents, framed within the category `Orientations to teach technology', vary considerably. However, regarding `instructional strategies', the consensus among those experienced teachers is striking. Experienced technology teachers' teaching practices are proven to provide valuable information about the subject's potential, and the findings offer a basis for the future development of the subject of technology as well as future teacher education and professional development courses.

  • 10.
    Gumaelius, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Hartell, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Svärdh, Joakim
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Skogh, Inga-Britt
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Buckley, Jeffrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Outcome analyses of educational interventions: a case study of the Swedish “Boost of Technology” intervention2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 739-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there have been multiple large scale interventions to support compulsory school teachers generally and within specific subjects. Due to the costs associated with such interventions it is critical that interim evaluation measures exist which can indicate potential success. Additionally, evaluation measures which can measure the actual impact of interventions relative to their intended aim are also needed as validation tools. The Swedish regional 'Tekniklyftet' or 'Boost of Technology' project which ran from 2011 to 2013 is presented here as a case study exploring evaluation measures for educational interventions in technology education. Three different evaluation approaches were used as measures of the intended outcomes of the intervention. These included (1) analysing the preconditions which exist in schools for teachers of Technology, (2) analysing the use of local long term technology education planning documents (school work plans) developed during the intervention, and (3) analysing the potential change over time in student performance in Technology based on national grades at the end of compulsory school. The findings gained from each approach indicate that the Boost of Technology project was a success. However, there were shortcomings associated with each approach. They are therefore discussed in the Swedish context with the intention to support future international stakeholders in the evaluation of interventions aspiring to develop technology education.

  • 11.
    Hartell, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Exploring the (un-)usefulness of formative assessment documents in primary technology2014In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 141-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every student in the Swedish compulsory school system is entitled to information regarding their progress in all school subjects given. In 2008, a mandatory assessment tool, called the individual development plan (IDP) with written assessment, was introduced by the Government. The statutory purpose was to provide teachers with a formative assessment tool to be used mandatory in the follow-up of student’s progress all thru mandatory compulsory school (year 1–9). This study explores the use of the IDP documents in technology education. Authentic documents from different municipalities, different schools and different school years have been studied. In this article findings regarding formal assessment documents and teacher’s formal assessment practice in primary (year 1–6) technology education are presented.

  • 12.
    Hartell, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Gumaelius, Lena
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Svärdh, Joakim
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Investigating technology teachers’ self-efficacy on assessment2015In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores possible differences in the views on assessment between two groups of teachers teaching technology in compulsory school: 1) teachers with subject-specific teacher training in technology education; and 2) teachers without such training. This topic is of particular interest because of the recent changes in the regulations that govern compulsory schools in Sweden, such that only certified teachers now will be permitted to teach and assign grades, despite the clear lack of certified teachers in technology education. The study is situated in two fields of interest—technology education and assessment. Both topics are highly relevant, especially in combination, because previous research on teachers’ assessment practices in technology is rare. In this study, the goal is to contribute to deepening the understanding of how subject-specific teacher training affects teachers’ ability to assess students’ knowledge while maintaining alignment with stated regulations. The results show significant difference between these two groups’ use of curriculum documents as the basis of their teaching and their self-efficacy in assessing student’s knowledge in technology. The results suggest interesting possibilities for curriculum alignment and indicate that the opportunities for student learning increase according to whether teachers are specifically trained in the subject. 

  • 13.
    Hartell, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Strimel, Greg
    Purdue University.
    What is it called and how does it work: examining content validity and item design of teacher-made tests2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines content validity in teacher made tests in elementary technology education—an interdisciplinary subject mandatory for all pupils in compulsory school in Sweden. The context of teacher-based assessments relies heavily on trust for teachers to cope with demands. Even though the system is challenged and preconditions for teachers’ assessment practices are not always adequate to support instruction, much is unknown about teachers’ assessment practices. In this explorative study, 30 teacher-designed tests in technology education from 12 elementary schools were scrutinized in regards to content validity and the types of questions used to assess student knowledge supporting technological literacy. The results present the content validity of these tests in its current form, which may call into question the validity in terms of content and ability. Furthermore, the tests indicate how the technology school subject continues to struggle with shifting epistemologies and technologies far removed from pupils’ everyday lives, which seem to contradict the aims and purpose of the subject.

  • 14.
    Hultén, Magnus
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Technology as the language of schooling: utopian visions of technology in Swedish general education in the 1960s2013In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 581-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the state-of-the-art Glass Project run by the Swedish National Agency for Education during the second half of the 1960s, a new type of comprehensive technology education was developed. The project had little impact on school practice and was soon forgotten about. However, the project is interesting from several points of view. First, it elaborated an interesting curricular idea where school activities were to centre around technology, thus creating a meaningful whole for the pupils, a sort of "language of schooling". Second, the Glass Project illustrates a utopian logic of educational reform. The school had become an important area of reform in the mid-twentieth century, and in this the pedagogy of the "old school" was heavily criticised. Technology education clearly became a tool for progressive ideas in Sweden in the 1960s.

  • 15.
    Hultén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Artman, Henrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    House, David
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    A model to analyse students’ cooperative ideageneration in conceptual design2018In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 451-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus on the co-creation of ideas. Through the use of concepts from collaborative learning and communication theory we suggest a model that will enable the cooperative nature of creative design tasks to emerge. Four objectives of the model are stated and elaborated on in the paper: that the model should be anchored in previous research; that it should allow for collaborative aspects of creative design to be accounted for; that it should address the mechanisms by which new ideas are generated, embraced and cultivated during actual design; and that it should have a firm theoretical grounding. The model is also exemplified by two test sessions where two student pairs perform a time-constrained design task. We hope that the model can play a role both as an educational tool to be used by students and a teacher in design education, but primarily as a model to analyse students' cooperative idea generation in conceptual design.

  • 16.
    Hultén, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Technical Science Education.
    Epistemic habits: primary school teachers' development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in a design-based research project2016In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalist primary school teachers often have little or no training in school subjects such as science and technology. Not surprisingly, several studies show that they often experience difficulties when teaching these subjects, in fact some primary teachers even avoid teaching them. The over all aim of this study is to contribute to new theoretical and methodological tools for the study of how teachers develop knowledge for teaching, i.e. pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). And based on this, elaborate on implications for the professional development of primary school teachers. The teachers in the study participated in a designbased research project concerning technology education in Grade 1. We were especially interested in whether the teachers displayed any habits that contributed to the development of their personal PCK.We found three significant patterns in how the teachers, together with the researcher, developed knowledge of how to teach a specific topic in technology. We argue that these patterns tell us something about the teachers’ epistemic habits in relation to the teaching of technology. The existence of these habits could help to explain how teachers with little or no experience of teaching a subject can develop relevant PCK.

  • 17.
    Isaksson Persson, Helena
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    What is the function of a figurine? Can the repertory grid technique tell?2015In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Isakssson Persson, Helena
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    What is the function of a figurine?: Can the repertory grid technique tell?2016In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 541-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching design and product development at upper secondary school level in Sweden is a matter of interdisciplinary considerations. Education in product development, at this level, prepares students for further studies and career in engineering or industrial design. Knowledge of artefacts is an important element in the education. In coherence with the visual and rhetorical strategies characterising the knowledge field, students learn how to develop an idea to a final product. In this study twelve engineers and industrial designers, professionals representing the knowledge field of product development are studied regarding their interpretations of eight pre-selected artefacts. Data is collected and analysed using repertory grid technique. The aim of the study is to examine whether/what we can learn from the informants' experiences and knowledge that is relevant to education in design and product development at upper secondary school level. Findings show that four of the artefacts appear to be carriers of attributes that reveal the interviewees' definitions of the artefacts' functional nature. From these findings it is shown that the interviewees' definitions of concepts concerning aesthetics/decoration and function can be seen as cultural expressions. How the repertory grid technique is used in this particular study is thoroughly described and the results relevance for education is discussed.

  • 19.
    Karlgren, Klas
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholms Universitet, Sweden.
    Artman, Henrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Designing Interaction: How interaction design students address interaction2016In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 439-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive and difficult to describe. Moreover, current trends in interaction design introduce physical materials to a higher degree resulting in even more complex design situations. There is a lack of knowledge about how interaction designers, and especially students, address the very phenomenon of interaction. This study contributes by describing how interaction design students attempt to address aspects of interaction and by presenting an in-depth analysis in the context of an interactionary-type design exercise.

    The quantitative and qualitative findings showed that (1) the design students brought up aspects of interactivity and dynamics through talk and gestures but (2) a comprehensive design idea about interaction did not guide the design work and they were to a little degree engaged in planning sequences of interactions or interaction on a longer time scale; (3) using physical materials disrupted interaction design, and, (4) there was a lack of continuity throughout a design session when addressing interaction compared to how proposals about artifacts were pursued.

    As interaction is the core of interaction design, the findings are discussed in terms of how the immaterial design materials may “talk back” to designers. Practical strategies for how the observed phenomena could be constructively addressed within interaction design education are suggested.

  • 20.
    Norström, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Engineers' non-scientific models in technology education2013In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 377-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineers commonly use rules, theories and models that lack scientific justification. Examples include rules of thumb based on experience, but also models based on obsolete science or folk theories. Centrifugal forces, heat and cold as substances, and sucking vacuum all belong to the latter group. These models contradict scientific knowledge, but are useful for prediction in limited contexts and they are used for this when convenient. Engineers’ work is a common prototype for the pupils’ work with product development and systematic problem solving during technology lessons. Therefore pupils should be allowed to use the engineers’ non-scientific models as well as scientific ones when doing design work in school technology. The acceptance of the non-scientific models for action guidance could be experienced as contradictory by pupils and teachers alike: a model that is allowed, or even encouraged in technology class is considered wrong when doing science. To account for this, different epistemological frameworks must be used in science and technology.Technology is first and foremost what leads to useful results, not about finding the truth or generally applicable laws. This could cause pedagogical problems, but also provide useful examples to explain the limitations of models, the relation between model and reality, and the differences between science and technology.

  • 21.
    Norström, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    How technology teachers understand technological knowledge2014In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 19-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish technology teachers’ views of technological knowledge are examined through a written survey and a series of interviews. The study indicates that technology teachers’ understandings of what constitutes technological knowledge and how it is justified vary considerably. The philosophical discussions on the topic are unknown to them. This lack of a proper framework for what constitutes technological knowledge and how it is justified might affect both how curricula are interpreted and how pupils’ knowledge is assessed.

  • 22.
    O’Connor, A.
    et al.
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Seery, Niall
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Canty, D.
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    The experiential domain: Developing a model for enhancing practice in D&T education2016In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creativity and innovation are leading topics for the twenty-first century, not only in individual, cultural or social contexts but also within a wider perspective in business or economic development. For that reason, creative and innovative activities have started to feature in many design-based programs in second level education. Design and Technology (D&T) education has a special importance in promoting creativity and innovation, particularly when conceptual and material aspects of the design process reciprocally support one another. In the classroom, it is common for pupils to take part in creative and innovative activities in pairs or small groups. However, the complex and non-linear nature of these design-based activities calls for dynamic, collaborative problem solving. While collaborative settings and virtual learning environments in D&T education are receiving considerable attention in current research literature, we know very little about shared interactions in design-based activity. Accordingly, there is a need to examine both the collaborative and individual evidence of design-based activity by turning our attention to the interactions around that evidence as teachers and pupils engage in these activities. The purpose of this paper is to examine a pedagogical approach focusing on the social and cognitive interaction of teachers and pupils which is supported by technology and situated in the context of design-based activity. This research found that such interactions not only augmented the design process but led to a conceptual model which demonstrates evidence-based progress through the active configuration of knowledge and understanding.

  • 23. Rolandsson, L.
    et al.
    Skogh, Inga-Britt
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Männikkö Barbutiu, S.
    Bridging a gap: in search of an analytical tool capturing teachers’ perceptions of their own teaching2016In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computing and computers are introduced in school as important examples of technology, sometimes as a subject matter of their own, and sometimes they are used as tools for other subjects. All in all, one might even say that learning about computing and computers is part of learning about technology. Lately, many countries have implemented programming in their curricula as a means to address society’s dependence on, and need for programming knowledge and code. Programming is a fairly new school subject without educational traditions and, due to the rapid technological development, in constant change. This means that most programming teachers must decide for themselves what and how to teach. In this study, programming teachers’ teaching is studied. With the aim of exploring the connection/possible gap between teacher’s intentions and the teacher’s instructional practice, an expansion of the conceptual apparatus of phenomenography and variation theory is tested. In the article, phenomenography and variation theory and the suggested supplementary theoretical tool (Georg Henrik von Wright’s model of logic of events) are briefly presented and then deployed upon one selected case. Findings reveal that teachers’ intentions (reflected in their actions) include an emphasis (of teachers’ side) on the importance of balancing theory and practice, using different learning strategies, encouraging learning by trial-and-error and fostering collaboration between students for a deeper understanding of concepts. In conclusion, logic of events interpretations proves to be useful as a complementary tool to the conceptual apparatus of phenomenography.

  • 24.
    Seery, Niall
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Buckley, Jeffrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Delahunty, Thomas
    Canty, Donal
    University of Limerick.
    Integrating learners into the assessment process using adaptive comparative judgement with an ipsative approach to identifying competence based gains relative to student ability levels2019In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 4, p. 701-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational assessment has profound effects on the nature and depth of learning that students engage in. Typically there are two core types discussed within the pertinent literature; criterion and norm referenced assessment. However another form, ipsative assessment, refers to the comparison between current and previous performance within a course of learning. This paper gives an overview of an ipsative approach to assessment that serves to facilitate an opportunity for students to develop personal constructs of capability and to provide a capacity to track competence based gains both normatively and ipsatively. The study cohort (n = 128) consisted of undergraduate students in a Design and Communication Graphics module of an Initial Technology Teacher Education programme. Four consecutive design assignments were designed to elicit core graphical skills and knowledge. An adaptive comparative judgment method was employed to rank responses to each assignment which were subsequently analysed from an ipsative perspective. The paper highlights the potential of this approach in developing students' epistemological understanding of graphical and technological education. Significantly, this approach demonstrates the capacity of ACJ to track performance over time and explores this relative to student ability levels in the context of conceptual design.

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