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  • 1.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The future of software tool chain safety qualification2015In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 74, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High profile systemic safety standards for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) development within the transportation domain have commonalities with regard to their view of the safety-related implications of tool usage. Their guidelines on tool qualification favor a bottom-up approach in which tools are dealt with in isolation and mostly if they may directly introduce faults into end products. This guidance may ignore risk introduced by the integration of software tools, especially if these risks are related to low levels of automation - such as process notifications and improper graphical user interfaces. This paper presents a study that ties weaknesses in support environments to software faults. Based on the observed weaknesses guidelines for a top-down software tool chain qualification are suggested for inclusion in the next generation of safety standards. This has implications not only for the surveyed standards in the transportation domain, but also for other standards for safety-critical CPS development that do not include a broader view on risks related to tool usage. Furthermore, given the type of omission identified in the surveyed standards, it is suggested that researchers interested in the safety-related implications of tool integration should approach organizational research in search of possibilities to set up theory triangulation studies.

  • 2.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Holland, Greg
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Odeh, Saleh
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Conflict as software levels diversify: Tactical elimination or strategic transformation of practice?2020In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 126, article id 104682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communities of Practice create a shared consensus on practice. Standards defining software levels enable firms to diversify practice based on a software component’s contribution to potential failure conditions. When industrial trends increase the importance of lower software levels, there is a risk that the consensus on practice for software engineers used to primarily working at higher levels of assurance is eroded. This study investigates whether this might lead to conflict and – if so – where this conflict will materialize, what the nature of it is and what it implies for safety management.

    A critical case study was conducted: 33 engineers were interviewed in two rounds. The study identified a disagreement between designers with different roles. Those involved in the day-to-day activities of software development advocated elimination of practice (dropping or doing parts less stringently), while those involved in expert advice and process planning suggested transforming practice (adopting realistic alternatives).

    This study contributes to practice by showing that this conflict has different implications for firms that do not lead vs those that lead the early adoption of technology. At the majority of firms, safety management might need to support the organisation of informal opinion leaders to avoid vulnerability. At early adopters, crowdsourcing could provide much-needed help to refine the understanding of new practice. Across entire industries, crowdsourcing could also benefit entire engineering standardization processes. The study contributes to theory by showing how less prescriptive standardization in the context of engineering does not automatically shift rulemaking towards allowing engineers to act more autonomously.

  • 3.
    Falk, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Wahlström, B.
    Nord Safety Management Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Challenges in performing technical safety reviews of modifications: A case study2012In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1558-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study, is to identify strengths and weaknesses of the technical safety review process at a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In this context, the function of safety reviews are understood as expert judgements on proposals for design modifications. 1" Design modifications" are here understood as alterations of an existing design. 1 and redesign of technical systems (i.e. commercial nuclear reactors), supported by formalised safety review processes. The chosen methodology is using two complementary methods: interviews of personnel performing safety reviews, and analysis of safety review reports from 2005 to 2009.The study shows that personal integrity is a trademark of the review staff and there are sufficient support systems to ensure high quality. The partition between primary and independent review is positive, having different focus and staff with different skills and perspectives making the reviews, which implies supplementary roles. The process contributes to " getting the right things done the right way" . The study also shows that though efficient communication, feedback, processes for continuous improvement, and " learning organizations" are well known success factors in academia, it is not that simple to implement and accomplish in real life.It is argued that future applications of safety review processes should focus more on communicating and clarifying the process and its adherent requirements, and improve the feedback system within the process.

  • 4.
    Gummesson, Karl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Effective measures to decrease air contaminants through risk and control visualization - A study of the effective use of QR codes to facilitate safety training2016In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 82, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Woodworking industries still consists of wood dust problems. Young workers are especially vulnerable to safety risks. To reduce risks, it is important to change attitudes and increase knowledge about safety. Safety training have shown to establish positive attitudes towards safety among employees. The aim of current study is to analyze the effect of QR codes that link to Picture Mix EXposure (PIMEX) videos by analyzing attitudes to this safety training method and safety in student responses. Safety training videos were used in upper secondary school handicraft programs to demonstrate wood dust risks and methods to decrease exposure to wood dust. A preliminary study was conducted to investigate improvement of safety training in two schools in preparation for the main study that investigated a safety training method in three schools. In the preliminary study the PIMEX method was first used in which students were filmed while wood dust exposure was measured and subsequently displayed on a computer screen in real time. Before and after the filming, teachers, students, and researchers together analyzed wood dust risks and effective measures to reduce exposure to them. For the main study, QR codes linked to PIMEX videos were attached at wood processing machines. Subsequent interviews showed that this safety training method enables students in an early stage of their life to learn about risks and safety measures to control wood dust exposure. The new combination of methods can create awareness, change attitudes and motivation among students to work more frequently to reduce wood dust.

  • 5.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Safety is an inherently inconsistent concept2012In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1522-1527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some basic principles for philosophical definition work are introduced and then applied to safety and related concepts. Definitions are provided first for comparative safety concepts such as " safer than" and then for the monadic " safe" . It is shown that " safe" is an inherently inconsistent concept, i.e. it cannot be restored to consistency without giving up what we perceive as some of its central elements. The reason for this is that both absolute and relative conceptions of safety are entrenched in common usage of the term. In order to avoid the inconsistency a strategy of terminological ramification is proposed: We should distinguish between the two concepts " reasonably safe" and " absolutely safe" . Any usage of " safe" or " safety" . simpliciter should be seen as an abbreviated reference to one of these two closely related, remarkably confusable, but still unmergable concepts.

  • 6. Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Gummesson, Karl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Rydell, Alexis
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Safety motivation at work: Evaluation of changes from six interventions2016In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 82, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsafe work environments can be both unhealthy for employees and costly for organizations. Safety motivation is essential to enhancing safety behaviors among employees. The objective is to evaluate whether six different interventions including safety training increase safety motivation. A validated questionnaire was used at two metal companies, two municipal agencies, one paper mill, and one plastic company. Statistical tests were used to compare the results at the factorial and item levels. In three cases, safety motivation changed significantly at the factorial level. There was a significant difference in each intervention at the item level. The outcomes indicate that the degree of participation, the number of occasions, the primary target group, and the decision maker of the intervention affect safety motivation. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Irumba, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Spatial analysis of construction accidents in Kampala, Uganda2014In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 64, p. 109-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction work is one of the leading sources of occupational injuries and fatalities in Uganda. This paper set out to investigate the causes of construction accidents in Kampala, Uganda using ordinary least squares regression and spatial regression modeling. A cross-sectional survey of 201 large-size building projects commissioned by Kampala City Council in 2008 was undertaken. Data collected from the survey was supplemented by building records from Kampala City Council, safety statistics from the Department of Occupational Safety and Health, and accident investigation reports. The injury rate for Kampala is deduced to be 3797 per 100,000 workers and the fatality rate is 84 per 100,000 workers. The three most prevalent causes of accidents in Kampala are mechanical hazards (i.e. struck by machines, vehicles, hand tools, cutting edges, etc.), being hit by falling objects and falls from height. Congestion, a phenomenon which arises when there is evidence of high building density amidst many fulltime workers on site, is discussed. Through spatial statistical analysis, construction accidents that occur at one location were found to be related to those that occur in the neighborhood. To mitigate accidents occurrence, policies on regulating working hours, provision of safety equipment, equipment maintenance and on standards of acceptable building densities are suggested.

  • 8. Kristianssen, A. -C
    et al.
    Andersson, R.
    Belin, Matts-Åke
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Nilsen, P.
    Swedish Vision Zero policies for safety – A comparative policy content analysis2018In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 103, p. 260-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Vision Zero policy was adopted by the Swedish parliament in 1997 as a new direction for road traffic safety. The aim of the policy is that no one should be killed or seriously injured due to traffic accidents and that the design of the road transport system should be adapted to those requirements. Vision Zero has been described as a policy innovation with a focus on the tolerance of the human body to kinetic energy and that the responsibility for road safety falls on the system designers. In Sweden, the Vision Zero terminology has spread to other safety-related areas, such as fire safety, patient safety, workplace safety and suicide. The purpose of this article is to analyze, through a comparative content analysis, each Vision Zero policy by identifying the policy decision, policy problem, policy goal, and policy measures. How a policy is designed and formulated has a direct effect on implementation and outcome. The similarities and differences between the policies give an indication of the transfer method in each case. The results show that the Vision Zero policies following the Vision Zero for road traffic contain more than merely a similar terminology, but also that the ideas incorporated in Vision Zero are not grounded within each policy area as one would expect. The study shows that it is easier to imitate formulations in a seemingly successful policy and harder to transform Vision Zero into a workable tool in each policy area. 

  • 9.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Field, Brian
    Victorian Workcover Authority, Melbourne, Australia.
    The distribution of occupational injury risks in the State of Victoria2002In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 419-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a merger of workers' compensation data from the public fund Victorian Work-cover Authority for the period 1992-1998 and denominator data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 1996 Census, the relative distribution of occupational injury risk in the state of Victoria has been calculated. A reconstituted occupational code, made from combining the present Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) occupational and industrial codes, was used to differentiate occupations in relation to hazards. A four-part injury severity index, generated by the claims settling process, has been used to differentiate occupations, tasks and activities in terms of priorities for intervention and prevention. Occupational injury incidence and severity in Victoria between 1992 and 1998 has been analysed. Among large and small occupational groups the combined criteria of high annual injury incidence and extreme injury severity have identified the following occupational groups as the top priorities for prevention counter-measures in Victoria: Glass, clay, stone workers; Miners, drillers; Forestry and logging workers; Roof layers; Car and delivery drivers; Wood industry workers; Other construction workers. Ergonomic interventions, together with the prevention of falls and power tool incidents related to the relevant occupational exposures, were discussed.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Tore J
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Field, Brian
    Victorian Workcover Authority, Melbourne, Australia.
    The distribution of occupational injury risks in the Victorian construction industry: Part 22002In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 439-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a merger of workers' compensation data from the public fund Victorian Workcover Authority for the period 1996–1998 and denominator data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 1996 Census, the relative distribution of occupational injury risk in the Victorian construction industry has been calculated. A four-part injury severity index, generated by the claims settling process, has been used to differentiate occupations, tasks and activities in terms of priorities for intervention and prevention. Falls from height represents the major severe injury problem in the Victorian construction industry. However, the fall risk problem is associated with different equipment and different tasks among the different occupational groups in the construction process and requires a variety of architectural, engineering and design solutions.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Tore J
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Forsblom, M
    AFA Insurance, Sweden.
    Towards an international limit value for occupational trauma risk: industrial exposures associated with occupational trauma, permanent impairment and fatalities in a five-year national claims material2005In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide some advice on the priorities for occupational safety and health and the restriction of child labour in developing industrial systems, AFA—the Swedish labour market insurances—claims information system on work-related injuries associated with permanent impairment and fatalities was analysed for all occupations over the five-year period 1997– 2001.

    After screening and merging with employment data, the occupational groups which exhibited a stable rate of trauma injuries associated with permanent impairment and fatality three times higher than the national average were selected and information about the typical accident mechanism and equipment/process resulting in trauma in these occupational groups was retrieved.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Tore Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Hagvide, Mona-Lisa
    Svanborg, Maria
    Borell, Lena
    Falls prevention through community intervention: A Swedish example2009In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 204-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to control and reduce fall-related injuries, particularly among women over the age of 55, a safety management and falls prevention campaign was structured and implemented during 2006-2007 in the small industrial town of Sodertalje, Sweden. A local campaign was launched to recruit falls prevention agents, to inform key target groups in the local community, and to educate older people about fall risks. A survey showed that the campaign had a greater impact among professionals with a special relation to fall risk than among the general population. Medical records were used in the evaluation of the outcomes. The results show that between 2005 and 2007 there was a drop of fractures related to falls in the council: an overall drop of 16.7% in the population; among men 55 or older a drop of 12%, among women 55 or older a drop of 15%, among home-dwelling women 55 or older a drop of 5.7% and among women in special accommodation a drop of 44.4%. Expressed in terms of years lost to disability (YLD), the overall drop in hip fractures treated at the local hospital between 2005 and 2007 was 48%. A comparison with National medical records for the same period shows the drop for the intervention area to be much larger than that for Sweden as a whole, although the effect was not statistically significant. The study demonstrates the advantages of a broad, community-based approach to injury prevention.

  • 13.
    Lindberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Learning from accidents: what more do we need to know?2010In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 714-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of experience feedback (the CHAIN model) that emphasizes the whole chain from initial reporting to preventive measures is used to identify important research needs in the field of learning from accidents. Based on the model, six quality criteria for experience feedback after an accident or incident are presented. Research on experience feedback from accidents is reviewed. The overall conclusion is that the discipline of experience feedback has not been sufficiently self-reflective. The process of experience feedback can and should be applied to experience feedback itself, but that is rarely done. Evaluation studies are needed that provide hard (evidence-based) information about the effects of various methodologies and organizational structures. Four types of studies are particularly important for the development of evidence-based accident investigation practices: (1) studies of the effects and the efficiency of different accident investigation methods, (2) studies of the dissemination of conclusions from accident investigation, (3) follow-up studies of the extent to which accident investigation reports give rise to actual preventive measures, and (4) studies of the integration of experience feedback systems into overall systems of risk management.

  • 14. Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    What-You-Look-For-Is-What-You-Find: The consequences of underlying accident models in eight accident investigation manuals2009In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 47, no 10, p. 1297-1311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident investigation manuals are influential documents on various levels in a safety management system, and it is therefore important to appraise them in the light of what we currently know - or assume about the nature of accidents. Investigation manuals necessarily embody or represent an accident model, i.e., a set of assumptions about how accidents happen and what the important factors are. in this paper we examine three aspects of accident investigation as described in a number of investigation manuals. Firstly, we focus on accident models and in particular the assumptions about how different factors interact to cause - or prevent - accidents, i.e., the accident "mechanisms". Secondly, we focus on the scope in the sense of the factors (or factor domains) that are considered in the models - for instance (hu)man, technology, and organization (MTO). Thirdly, we focus on the system of investigation or the activities that together constitute an accident investigation project/process. We found that the manuals all used complex linear models. The factors considered were in general (hu)man, technology, organization, and information. The causes found during an investigation reflect the assumptions of the accident model, following the 'What-You-Look-For-Is-What-You-Find' or WYLFIWYF principle. The identified causes typically became specific problems to be fixed during an implementation of solutions. This follows what can be called 'What-You-Find-Is-What-You-Fix' or WYFIWYF principle.

  • 15. Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Wilhelmson, Emma
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Self-reported incidents, accidents, and use of protective gear among small-scale forestry workers in Sweden2006In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 723-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported data were collected from 156 self-employed small-scale forestry workers regarding their work, including use of safety gear and number and type of incidents and accidents. About 40% of the respondents reported that during the previous 24 months they had some kind of work-related accident where an injury occurred, and/or experienced in incident, a close call that could have resulted in an injury. Of those injured or involved in an accident, 50% reported that at the time of the accident or incident they were not fully using their safety gear. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims reported seeking medical attention for their injuries. No significant relationships were found between production level, age, use of safety gear or sensation seeking tendencies and the reports of accidents and incidents. Accidents and incidents were most likely to occur during felling, thinning and transportation activities and were usually caused by unforeseen interactions with falling trees/branches or equipment. Compared to earlier surveys of Swedish small-scale forestry workers, consistent use of all required safety gear was down by 10% to 50%. Protective pants and gloves were the items least likely to be used while ear, eye and foot protection were most likely to be used. The results indicate that better planning during felling processes may be the key to reducing the number of accidents for this population.

  • 16. Reiman, Teemu
    et al.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Pietikainen, Elina
    Heikkila, Jouko
    Principles of adaptive management in complex safety-critical organizations2015In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 71, p. 80-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to safety management by bringing in ideas from organizational complexity theories. Much of the studies and the literature on organizations as complex adaptive systems have focused on how to produce new innovations or how to increase financial effectiveness. We take the view that safety-critical organizations can be perceived as complex adaptive systems, and we discuss what this means for the management of safety. Our aim is to elaborate on the issue of what kinds of principles the management of safety should be based on in complex adaptive systems. In brief, we suggest that safety management should be adaptive, building on several different principles. Based on literature on complex adaptive systems we first identify the general features of complex adaptive systems, such as self-organizing and non-linearity, which need to be considered in management. Based on the features of complex adaptive systems, we define eight key principles of adaptive safety management and illustrate usefulness of the principles in making sense of the practice of safety management.

  • 17.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Can focus on safety culture become an excuse for not rethinking design of technology?2010In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 268-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two generic organisational contexts associated with technological designs in relation to safety culture are discussed: (1) operating organisations using existing technologies, and (2) design organisations as producers of technologies. It is argued that the concept of safety culture, if misused, may lead to the adoption of non-effective change strategies in the operational context. On the other hand, it is also argued that design organisations should invest more attention to issues commonly subsumed under the concept of safety culture. In this case, however, the concept of safety culture has to be adapted to fit the demands facing design organisations. Issues of morality and their association with the safety culture concept will be discussed. It is suggested that a stronger focus on understanding innovation and safety together should nourish future research about culture's influence on design and safety.

  • 18.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Event investigations at nuclear power plants in Sweden: Reflections about a method and some associated practices2011In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 21-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MTO-E method for event investigation is described in the light of almost 20 years of usage in the Swedish nuclear industry. Various problems are addressed in the context of the method, e.g. accident models, causality, the use of the barrier concept, the meaning of safety culture, and the process of going from problem identification to problem solving. It is argued that future applications of in-depth investigations should focus more on (innovative) methods when suggesting remedial actions as a consequence of information derived from event investigations.

  • 19. Rollenhagen, Carl
    et al.
    Alm, Helen
    Karlsson, Karl-Henrik
    Experience feedback from in-depth event investigations: How to find and implement efficient remedial actions2017In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 99, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research focuses on the processes of identifying remedial actions subsequent to incidents at two Swedish nuclear power plants. Data from 106 in-depth analyses were analysed together with interviews with event investigators. The results and previous research in the domain indicated a need to further develop the process for identifying remedial actions. A method was developed that focuses on process descriptions and identifications of strengths and weaknesses inherent in the process(es) in which an incident occurred. The method uses a participatory approach with actors from the relevant process (es). A case study was conducted which showed promising results. The method is discussed in terms of generalising to a more process-oriented experience feedback than usually is applied.

  • 20.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Westerlund, J.
    Näswall, K.
    Professional subcultures in nuclear power plants2013In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 59, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a safety climate survey as the point of departure, the present study explores some aspects of plant cultures vs. professional subcultures in three Swedish nuclear power plants (named A, B and C). The ratings on the safety climate survey by workers on power plant A were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis. A six-factor solution explained a total of 56.0% of the variance in the items included. The six factors were considered to measure Safety management, Change management and experience feedback, Immediate working group, Knowledge and participation, Occupational safety, and Resources. The six factor model was tested by running a confirmatory factor analysis on the ratings by workers on power plant B and C, respectively. The model fit for both plants was acceptable and supported the six factor structure. For each of the six factors, a 3 × 3 ANOVA was conducted on the ratings, with the three largest departments (Operation, Maintenance, Engineering support) and power plants (A, B, C) as the between-subjects factors. Differences between power plants as well as differences between departments were found for several factors. Overall, the differences between departments were larger than those between power plants. The results are discussed in terms of challenges for creating safety climate in organizations that harbor several professional subcultures.

  • 21.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Hollnagel, Erik
    The context and habits of accident investigation practices: A study of 108 Swedish investigators2010In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 859-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context and habits of accident investigation practices were explored by means of questionnaire data obtained from accident investigators in the healthcare, transportation, nuclear and rescue sectors in Sweden. Issues explored included; resources, training, time spent in different phases of an investigation, methods and procedures, beliefs about causes to accidents, communication issues, etc. Examples of findings were: differences in the extent to which the 'human factor' was perceived as a dominant cause to accidents; manning resources to support investigations were perceived as rather scarce; underutilization of data from safety related processes such as risk analysis and auditing data; the phase of suggesting remedial actions (recommendations) were comparatively brief and generally not well supported. A majority of the investigators thought that the investigations were free from pressures to follow a specific direction; the investigators also thought that performing an investigation in itself (regardless of the specific results) had positive influences on safety. A majority of the investigators thought that upper management had a relatively strong influence on safety in the organizations. The results are discussed in terms of suggestions for strategies to strengthen investigation practices - particularly those conducted as part-time work in organizations.

  • 22.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering. IVL - Swedish Environment Research Institute, Sweden.
    Implementation of the chemicals regulation REACH: Exploring the impact on occupational health and safety management among Swedish downstream users2015In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 80, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we have examined how the European chemicals regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) has influenced occupational risk management of chemicals at Swedish downstream user companies. The data were collected through interviews with occupational health and safety professionals, safety representatives and authority employees. The results show that most of the informants had scarce knowledge about REACH and that REACH implementation has not had any major impacts on downstream users’ occupational risk management, but the impacts the regulation has had were perceived as positive. For instance, clear substance identification and increased hazard information were appreciated improvements of safety data sheets (SDS). However, with regards to identifying how to safely use a substance or product neither the SDSs nor the attached exposure scenarios were perceived as sufficient. REACH was not perceived as a major driver for substitution but has had some impact on substitution, either by requiring it for certain substances as through the authorisation procedure or facilitating the identification of relevant substances to substitute as more information on hazards has become available. The obstacles to REACH implementation are similar to those of occupational health and safety legislation; lack of awareness, understanding and/or incentives to take action. Especially smaller companies with their limited resources lag behind. Reaching the full potential of REACH requires more work on motivating and supporting downstream users to fulfil their REACH obligations.

  • 23. Wahlstrom, Bjorn
    et al.
    Rollenhagen, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Safety management: A multi-level control problem2014In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 69, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activities in safety management build on a control metaphor by which control loops are built into the man, technology, organisational and information (MTOI) systems to ensure a continued safety of the operated systems. In this paper we take a closer look on concepts of control theory to investigate their relationships with safety management. We argue that successful control relies on four necessary conditions, i.e. a system model, observability, controllability and a preference function. The control metaphor suggests a division of the state space of the modelled system into regions of safe and unsafe states. Models created for selected subsystems of the MTOI-system provide a focus for control design and safety assessments. Limitations in predicting system response place impediments to risk assessments, which suggest that new complementary approaches would be needed. We propose that polycentric control may provide a concept to consider in a search for a path forward. We investigate approaches for modelling management systems and safety management. In spite of promises in the use of a control metaphor for safety management there are still dilemmas that have to be solved case by case. As a conclusion we argue that the control metaphor provides useful insights in suggesting requirements on and designs of safety management systems. The paper draws on experience from the Vattenfall Safety Management Institute (SMI), which started its operation in 2006.

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