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  • 1. Aad, G.
    et al.
    Jovicevic, Jelena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Kuwertz, Emma
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Lund-Jensen, Bengt
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Strandberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    et al.,
    A Particle Consistent with the Higgs Boson Observed with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 338, no 6114, p. 1576-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga-electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself.

  • 2.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Al Samarai, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Altmann, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Andeen, K.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Anton, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Arguelles, C.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Axani, S.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Bagherpour, H.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barron, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blot, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Boser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, O.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bourbeau, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Bourbeau, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Bradascio, F.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brenzke, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Bron, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Brostean-Kaiser, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Burgman, A.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Busse, R. S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Carver, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Clark, K.
    SNOLAB, 1039 Reg Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2, Canada..
    Classen, L.
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Collin, G. H.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Conrad, J. M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Coppin, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Correa, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Cross, R.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
    Dave, P.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    DeLaunay, J. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Guadalajara, Dept Fis, Ctr Univ Ciencias Exactase Ingn, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.;Univ Guadalajara, Ctr Univ Valles CUValles, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico..
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dujmovic, H.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Dvorak, E.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Eller, P.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Franckowiak, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Friedman, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Fritz, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardt, L.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Glauch, T.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Glusenkamp, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hallgren, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hoinka, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Hokanson-Fasig, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hunnefeld, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Hussain, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Iovine, N.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jones, B. J. P.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA..
    Kalaczynski, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kang, W.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Kappes, A.
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Kappesser, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kim, J.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Kim, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Kintscher, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Kittler, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kopke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Koschinsky, J. P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kruckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kunwar, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Kyriacou, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lauber, F.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Leonard, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Liu, Q. R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Mariscal, C. J. Lozano
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Lunemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Luszczak, W.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Mancina, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meier, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Micallef, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Momente, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Moore, R. W.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Moulai, M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nakarmi, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    O'Sullivan, E.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Peiffer, P.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    de los Heros, C. Perez
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Plum, M.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Radel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Rauch, L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Rea, I. C.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relethford, B.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.;Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Rysewyk, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Safa, I.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Salzer, T.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Herrera, S. E. Sanchez
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Santander, M.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.;Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.;Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Satalecka, K.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schlunder, P.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schneider, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Sclafani, S.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Soedingrekso, J.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stachurska, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stein, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stettner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stossl, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stuttard, T.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Tenholt, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Toennis, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tung, C. F.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Turley, C. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Ty, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Unger, E.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Van Driessche, W.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Eijk, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vogel, E.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Mallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandler, F. D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Waza, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Weaver, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Weiss, M. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Werthebach, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Whitehorn, N.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Wood, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Yuan, T.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Abdollahi, S.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Ajello, M.
    Clemson Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Kinard Lab Phys, Clemson, SC 29634 USA..
    Angioni, R.
    Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    Baldini, L.
    Univ Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Ballet, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA IRFU CNRS, Lab AIM, CEA Saclay,Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Barbiellini, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;INFN, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Bastieri, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis Astron G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Bechtol, K.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Bellazzini, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Berenji, B.
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90032 USA..
    Bissaldi, E.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Blandford, R. D.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Bonino, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, Italy.;Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Bottacini, E.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, F-34095 F- Montpellier, France..
    Bruel, P.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Buehler, R.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Burnett, T. H.
    Univ Washington, Dept Phys, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Burns, E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Buson, S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Cameron, R. A.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Caputo, R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;CRESST, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Caraveo, P. A.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Milano, Via E Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Italian Space Agcy, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Charles, E.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Chen, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Cheung, C. C.
    Naval Res Lab, Div Space Sci, Washington, DC 20375 USA..
    Chiang, J.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Chiaro, G.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Milano, Via E Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Ciprini, S.
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Snc, Via Politecnico, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, F-34095 F- Montpellier, France..
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Costantin, D.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis Astron G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Cutini, S.
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Snc, Via Politecnico, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    D'Ammando, F.
    INAF Ist Radioastron, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Astron, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    de Palma, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Univ Telemat Pegaso, Piazza Trieste & Trento 48, I-80132 Naples, Italy..
    Digel, S. W.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Di Lalla, N.
    Univ Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Di Mauro, M.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Di Venere, L.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Dominguez, A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Favuzzi, C.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Fusco, P.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Gargano, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Gasparrini, D.
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Snc, Via Politecnico, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Giglietto, N.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Giomi, M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Giommi, P.
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Snc, Via Politecnico, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Giordano, F.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Giroletti, M.
    INAF Ist Radioastron, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Glanzman, T.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Green, D.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Grenier, I. A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA IRFU CNRS, Lab AIM, CEA Saclay,Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Grondin, M. -H
    Guiriec, S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;George Washington Univ, Dept Phys, 725 21st St, Washington, DC 20052 USA..
    Harding, A. K.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Hayashida, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Konan Univ, 8 Chome 9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 6580072, Japan.;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Hays, E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Hewitt, J. W.
    Univ North Florida, Dept Phys, 1 UNF Dr, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Horan, D.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Johannesson, G.
    Univ Iceland, Inst Sci, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kadler, M.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Kensei, S.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Kocevski, D.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Krauss, F.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kreter, M.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Kuss, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    La Mura, G.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis Astron G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Larsson, S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Latronico, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan, France.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Li, J.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Longo, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Loparco, F.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Naval Res Lab, Div Space Sci, Washington, DC 20375 USA..
    Lubrano, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Magill, J. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Maldera, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Malyshev, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Manfreda, A.
    Univ Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    McEnery, J. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Meyer, M.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Michelson, P. F.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Mizuno, T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Monzani, M. E.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Morselli, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INFN Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Negro, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, Italy.;Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Nuss, E.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, F-34095 F- Montpellier, France..
    Ojha, R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Omodei, N.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Orienti, M.
    INAF Ist Radioastron, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Orlando, E.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Palatiello, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Paliya, V. S.
    Clemson Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Kinard Lab Phys, Clemson, SC 29634 USA..
    Perkins, J. S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Persic, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Osserv Astron Trieste, Ist Nazl Astrofis, I-34143 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy..
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Piron, F.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, F-34095 F- Montpellier, France..
    Porter, T. A.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Principe, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Raino, S.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Rando, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis Astron G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Rani, B.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Razzano, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Razzaque, S.
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Phys, Box 524, ZA-2006 Auckland, New Zealand..
    Reimer, A.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.;Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Theoret Phys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Reimer, O.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.;Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Theoret Phys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renault-Tinacci, N.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA IRFU CNRS, Lab AIM, CEA Saclay,Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;UPMC CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR7095, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Ritz, S.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Rochester, L. S.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Hong Kong, Dept Phys, Pokfulam Rd, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Univ Hong Kong, Lab Space Res, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sgro, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Siskind, E. J.
    NYCB Real Time Comp Inc, Lattingtown, NY 11560 USA..
    Spandre, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Spinelli, P.
    Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Suson, D. J.
    Purdue Univ Northwest, Hammond, IN 46323 USA..
    Tajima, H.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Nagoya Univ, Solar Terr Environm Lab, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan..
    Takahashi, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Tanaka, Y.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Thayer, J. B.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Thompson, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Tibaldo, L.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, UPS,CNES, F-31028 Toulouse, France..
    Torres, D. F.
    Inst Space Sci CSICIEEC, Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.;ICREA, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain..
    Torresi, E.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Tosti, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.;Univ Perugia, Dipartimento Fis, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Troja, E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Valverde, J.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Vianello, G.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Vogel, M.
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90032 USA..
    Wood, K.
    Praxis Inc, Alexandria, VA 22303 USA.;Naval Res Lab, Washington, DC 20375 USA..
    Wood, M.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Zaharijas, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.;Univ Nova Gorica, Ctr Astrophys & Cosmol, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Ahnen, M. L.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Ansoldi, S.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Arcaro, C.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Baack, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Babic, A.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.;BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Banerjee, B.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Bangale, P.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    URCA, CBPF, BR-2229018 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Barrio, J. A.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Gonzalez, J. Becerra
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Bednarek, W.
    Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Berti, A.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy..
    Bhattacharyya, W.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Biland, A.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Blanch, O.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Bonnoli, G.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Carosi, A.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.;Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Carosi, R.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Ceribella, G.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Chatterjee, A.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Colak, S. M.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Colin, P.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Colombo, E.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Contreras, J. L.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Cortina, J.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Covino, S.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Cumani, P.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Da Vela, P.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Dazzi, F.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    De Angelis, A.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Lotto, B.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Delfino, M.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.;Port Informac Cient PIC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Delgado, J.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Di Pierro, F.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Prester, D. . Dominis
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Dorner, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Doro, M.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Einecke, S.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Elsaesser, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ramazani, V. Fallah
    Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland.;Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Fernandez-Barral, A.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Fidalgo, D.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Foffano, L.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Pfrang, K.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Fonseca, M. V.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Font, L.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain..
    Franceschini, A.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, E-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Fruck, C.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Galindo, D.
    Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gallozzi, S.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Lopez, R. J. Garcia
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Garczarczyk, M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gaug, M.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain..
    Giammaria, P.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Godinovic, N.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Gora, D.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Phys, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Guberman, D.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hadasch, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Hahn, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Hassan, T.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Herrera, J.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Hose, J.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Hrupec, D.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Inoue, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan..
    Ishio, K.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Konno, Y.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Kubo, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Kushida, J.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Lelas, D.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland.;Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Lombardi, S.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Maggio, C.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain..
    Majumdar, P.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India..
    Makariev, M.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Maneva, G.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Manganaro, M.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Mannheim, K.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany..
    Maraschi, L.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Mariotti, M.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Martinez, M.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Masuda, S.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Mazin, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Minev, M.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    M, J. M.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Mirzoyan, R.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Moralejo, A.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Moreno, V.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain..
    Moretti, E.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Nagayoshi, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Neustroev, V.
    Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland.;Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Niedzwiecki, A.
    Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Rosillo, M. Nievas
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Nigro, C.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Nilsson, K.
    Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland.;Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland..
    Ninci, D.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Nishijima, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Noda, K.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Nogues, L.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Paiano, S.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Palacio, J.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Paneque, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Paoletti, R.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Paredes, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Pedaletti, G.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Peresano, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Moroni, P. G. Prada
    Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Prandini, E.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Puljak, I.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Garcia, J. Rodriguez
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Reichardt, I.
    Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Ribo, M.
    Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Rico, J.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Righi, C.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Rugliancich, A.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy..
    Saito, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Schweizer, T.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Sitarek, J.
    Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Snidaric, I.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Sobczynska, D.
    Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland..
    Stamerra, A.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Strzys, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Suric, T.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Tavecchio, F.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy..
    Temnikov, P.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Terzic, T.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Teshima, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Torres-Alba, N.
    Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Treves, A.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy..
    Tsujimoto, S.
    Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan..
    Vanzo, G.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Acosta, M. Vazquez
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Vovk, I.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Ward, J. E.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain..
    Will, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany..
    Zaric, D.
    Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.;Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia.;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia..
    Lucarelli, F.
    ASI Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF OAR, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Tavani, M.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Univ Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Viale Francesco Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Piano, G.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Donnarumma, I.
    ASI, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Pittori, C.
    ASI Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF OAR, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Verrecchia, F.
    ASI Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF OAR, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Bulgarelli, A.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Caraveo, P.
    INAF IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Cattaneo, P. W.
    INFN Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy..
    Colafrancesco, S.
    INAF OAR, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Costa, E.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;ASI, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Di Cocco, G.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Ferrari, A.
    Univ Turin, Phys Dept, CIFS, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy..
    Gianotti, F.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Giuliani, A.
    INAF IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Lipari, P.
    INFN Roma Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Mereghetti, S.
    INAF IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy.;IASF Milano, INAF, Via E Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Pacciani, L.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Paoletti, F.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;East Windsor RSD, 25a Leshin Lane, Hightstown, NJ 08520 USA..
    Parmiggiani, N.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Pellizzoni, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Cagliari, Via Sci 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA, Italy..
    Picozza, P.
    INFN Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Pilia, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Cagliari, Via Sci 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA, Italy..
    Rappoldi, A.
    INFN Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy..
    Trois, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Cagliari, Via Sci 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA, Italy..
    Vercellone, S.
    INAF Oss Astron Brera, Via E Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate, LC, Italy..
    Vittorini, V.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Stanek, K. Z.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave Columbus, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Kochanek, C. S.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave Columbus, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, 191 W Woodruff S9 Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Beacom, J. F.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave Columbus, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, 191 W Woodruff S9 Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 191 W Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Thompson, T. A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave Columbus, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Holoien, W. -S
    Dong, S.
    Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, 5 Yiheyuanlu, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Prieto, J. L.
    Univ Diego Port, Nucleo Astron, Fac Ingn Ciencias, Av Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile.;Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile. Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Shappee, B. J.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile. Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Holmbo, S.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Abeysekara, A. U.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT USA.;Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Albert, A.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA.;Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Alfaro, R.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Alvarez, C.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Arceo, R.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico..
    Rojas, D. Avila
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Solares, H. A. Ayala
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Becerril, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Belmont-Moreno, E.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Bernal, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Caballero-Mora, K. S.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Capistran, T.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico..
    Carraminana, A.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico..
    Casanova, S.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Phys, IFJ PAN, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Castillo, M.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico..
    Cotti, U.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico..
    Cotzomi, J.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico..
    de Leon, S. Coutino
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico..
    De Leon, C.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico..
    De la Fuente, E.
    Univ Guadalajara, Dept Fis, Ctr Univ Ciencias Exactase Ingn, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.;Univ Guadalajara, Ctr Univ Valles CUValles, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico..
    Hernandez, R. Diaz
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico..
    Dichiara, S.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Dingus, B. L.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA..
    DuVernois, M. A.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Phys, Madison, WI USA..
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    George Mason Univ, Sch Phys Astron & Computat Sci, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA..
    Engel, K.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Fiorino, D. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Fleischhack, H.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Phys, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Fraija, N.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Garcia-Gonzalez, J. A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Garfias, F.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Munoz, A. Gonzalez
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Gonzalez, M. M.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Goodman, J. A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hampel-Arias, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Phys, Madison, WI USA..
    Harding, J. P.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA..
    Hernandez, S.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Hona, B.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Phys, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Hui, C. M.
    NASA, George C Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Astrophys Off, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA..
    Huntemeyer, P.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Phys, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Iriarte, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Joshi, V.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kaufmann, S.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Kunde, G. J.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA..
    Lara, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Geofis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Lauer, R. J.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Phys & Astron, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Lee, W. H.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Lennarz, D.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Vargas, H. Leon
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Linnemann, J. T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Longinotti, A. L.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico..
    Luis-Raya, G.
    Univ Politecn Pachuca, Pachuca, Hgo, Mexico..
    Luna-Garcia, R.
    Inst Politecn Nacl, Ctr Invest Computac, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Malone, K.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Marinelli, S. S.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Martinez, O.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico..
    Martinez-Castellanos, I.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Martinez-Castro, J.
    Inst Politecn Nacl, Ctr Invest Computac, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Martinez-Huerta, H.
    IPN, Dept Phys, Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Matthews, J. A.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Phys & Astron, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Miranda-Romagnoli, P.
    Univ Autonoma Estado Hidalgo, Pachuca, Mexico..
    Moreno, E.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico..
    Mostafa, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Phys, IFJ PAN, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Nellen, L.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Ciencias Nucl, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Newbold, M.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Nisa, M. U.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
    Noriega-Papaqui, R.
    Univ Autonoma Estado Hidalgo, Pachuca, Mexico..
    Pelayo, R.
    Inst Politecn Nacl, Ctr Invest Computac, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Pretz, J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Perez-Perez, E. G.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA..
    Ren, Z.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Phys & Astron, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Rho, C. D.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
    Riviere, C.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Rosa-Gonzalez, D.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico..
    Rosenberg, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.;Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Greus, F. Salesa
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Phys, IFJ PAN, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Sandoval, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Schneider, M.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Schoorlemmer, H.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sinnis, G.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA..
    Smith, A. J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Springer, R. W.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Surajbali, P.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tibolla, O.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Tollefson, K.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Torres, I.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico..
    Villasenor, L.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico..
    Weisgarber, T.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Phys, Madison, WI USA..
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Yapici, T.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
    Gaurang, Y.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Zepeda, A.
    IPN, Dept Phys, Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Zhou, H.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA..
    Alvarez, J. D.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico..
    Abdalla, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Armand, C.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Becherini, Y.
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Phys & Elect Engn, S-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden..
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bonnefoy, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France..
    Buchele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia..
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Fussling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marti-Devesa, G. Guillem
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Niemiec, J.
    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland..
    Oakes, L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    O'Brien, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ostrowski, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Piel, Q.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Pita, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Poireau, V.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Noel, A. Priyana
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Prokoph, H.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Puhlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Raab, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Rauth, R.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Renaud, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    Rieger, F.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.;ITA Univ Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rinchiuso, L.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Rowell, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rudak, B.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France..
    Sasaki, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schwanke, U.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Seglar-Arroyo, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Shafi, N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Simoni, R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Sol, H.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Stegmann, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Steppa, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Tavernier, T.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tiziani, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Trichard, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Tsirou, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France..
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    van Rensburg, C.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    van Soelen, B.
    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wagner, S. J.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wagner, R. M.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France..
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany..
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland..
    Savchenko, V.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, ISDC, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Ferrigno, C.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, ISDC, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bazzano, A.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Diehl, R.
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Garching, Germany..
    Kuulkers, E.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Laurent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS IN2P3, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domont & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.;CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu Serv Astrophys, Bat 709 Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Natalucci, L.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Panessa, F.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Rodi, J.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Ubertini, P.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Morokuma, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Astron, Grad Sch Sci, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1810015, Japan..
    Ohta, K.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Dept Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan..
    Tanaka, Y. T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Mori, H.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Yamanaka, M.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Kawabata, K. S.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Utsumi, Y.
    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA..
    Nakaoka, T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Kawabata, M.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Nagashima, H.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Yoshida, M.
    Natl Inst Nat Sci, Subaru Telescope, Natl Astron Observ Japan, 650 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 USA..
    Matsuoka, Y.
    Ehime Univ, Res Ctr Space & Cosm Evolut, Matsuyama, Ehime 7908577, Japan..
    Itoh, R.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Dept Phys, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Tokyo 1528551, Japan..
    Keel, W.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Copperwheat, C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,Liverpool Sci Pk, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Steele, I.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,Liverpool Sci Pk, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Cenko, S. B.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Astrophys Sci Div, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Joint Space Sci Inst, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Evans, P. A.
    Univ Leicester, Xray & Observat Astron Res Grp, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Fox, D. B.
    Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, Ctr Theoret & Observat Cosmol, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kennea, J. A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Marshall, F. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Mail Code 660-1, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Osborne, J. P.
    Univ Leicester, Xray & Observat Astron Res Grp, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Tohuvavohu, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Archer, A.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Benbow, W.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA..
    Bird, R.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Brill, A.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Brose, R.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Buchovecky, M.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Buckley, J. H.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Bugaev, V.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Christiansen, J. L.
    Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, Dept Phys, San Luis Obispo, CA 94307 USA..
    Connolly, M. P.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Cui, W.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.;Tsinghua Univ, Dept Phys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Ctr Astrophys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Daniel, M. K.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA..
    Errando, M.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA..
    Falcone, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Davey Lab 525, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Feng, Q.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Finley, J. P.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Fortson, L.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Furniss, A.
    Calif State Univ East Bay, Dept Phys, Hayward, CA 94542 USA..
    Gueta, O.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hutten, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Hervet, O.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Hughes, G.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA..
    Humensky, T. B.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Johnson, C. A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Kaaret, P.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Kar, P.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Kelley-Hoskins, N.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kertzman, M.
    Depauw Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Greencastle, IN 46135 USA..
    Kieda, D.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Krause, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krennrich, F.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA..
    Kumar, S.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Lang, M. J.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Lin, T. T. Y.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Maier, G.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    McArthur, S.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Moriarty, P.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Mukherjee, R.
    Columbia Univ, Barnard Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Nieto, D.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    O'Brien, S.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Ong, R. A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Otte, A. N.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Park, N.
    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Petrashyk, A.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Pohl, M.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Popkow, A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Pueschel, E.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Quinn, J.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland..
    Ragan, K.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Cork Inst Technol, Dept Phys Sci, Cork, Ireland..
    Richards, G. T.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Roache, E.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA..
    Rulten, C.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Sadeh, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Scott, S. S.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Shahinyan, K.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Sushch, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Trepanier, S.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Tyler, J.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Wakely, S. P.
    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Weinstein, A.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA..
    Wells, R. M.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA..
    Wilcox, P.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Wilhelm, A.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Williams, D. A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Zitzer, B.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Tetarenko, A. J.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kimball, A. E.
    Natl Radio Astron Observ, 1003 Lopezville Rd, Socorro, NM 87801 USA..
    Miller-Jones, J. C. A.
    Curtin Univ, Int Ctr Radio Astron Res, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia..
    Sivakoff, G. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Multimessenger observations of a flaring blazar coincident with high-energy neutrino IceCube-170922A2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 6398, article id eaat1378Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Anderson, B.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Johannesson, G.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    et al,
    Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5942, p. 840-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants.

  • 4. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Conrad, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ylinen, Tami
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5942, p. 848-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface.

  • 5. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, M.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    Conrad, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ylinen, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Detection of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5942, p. 845-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the detection of gamma-ray emissions above 200 megaelectron volts at a significance level of 17 sigma from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Globular clusters are expected to emit gamma rays because of the large populations of millisecond pulsars that they contain. The spectral shape of 47 Tucanae is consistent with gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars. The observed gamma-ray luminosity implies an upper limit of 60 millisecond pulsars present in 47 Tucanae.

  • 6. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Baughman, B. M.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, Oe
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    Costamante, L.
    Cutini, S.
    Davis, D. S.
    Dermer, C. D.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Famier, C.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Finke, J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Fortin, P.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Georganopoulos, M.
    Germani, S.
    Giebels, B.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Jackson, M. S.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kocian, M. L.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Madejski, G. M.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Meurer, C.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Rochester, S.
    Rodriguez, A. Y.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. -W
    Sambruna, R.
    Sanchez, D.
    Sander, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Starck, J. -L
    Stawarz, L.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wallace, E.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Ylinen, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    Hardcastle, M. J.
    Kazanas, D.
    Fermi Gamma-Ray Imaging of a Radio Galaxy2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 328, no 5979, p. 725-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields.

  • 7. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Berenji, B.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonamente, E.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bouvier, A.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brez, A.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Carrigan, S.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Çelik, Ö.
    Charles, E.
    Chaty, S.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    Corbel, S.
    Corbet, R.
    DeCesar, M. E.
    Den Hartog, P. R.
    Dermer, C. D.
    De Palma, F.
    Digel, S. W.
    Donato, D.
    Do Couto E Silva, E.
    Drell, P. S.
    Dubois, R.
    Dubus, G.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Fortin, P.
    Frailis, M.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Healey, S. E.
    Hill, A. B.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Itoh, R.
    Jean, P.
    Jóhannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, R. P.
    Johnson, T. J.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kamae, T.
    Katagiri, H.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knödlseder, J.
    Koerding, E.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Latronico, L.
    Lee, S. -H
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Llena Garde, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lott, B.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Makeev, A.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McConville, W.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Naumann-Godo, M.
    Nestoras, I.
    Nolan, P. L.
    Norris, J. P.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Ozaki, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Panetta, J. H.
    Parent, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Pepe, M.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Porter, T. A.
    Rainò, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Rea, N.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ripken, J.
    Ritz, S.
    Romani, R. W.
    Roth, M.
    Sadrozinski, H. F. -W
    Sander, A.
    Saz Parkinson, P. M.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schinzel, F. K.
    Sgrò, C.
    Shaw, M. S.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Smith, P. D.
    Sokolovsky, K. V.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stawarz, Ł.
    Strickman, M. S.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Tanaka, T.
    Tanaka, Y.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Tramacere, A.
    Uchiyama, Y.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vilchez, N.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Wallace, E.
    Wang, P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wolff, M. T.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yang, Z.
    Ylinen, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    Maehara, H.
    Nishiyama, K.
    Kabashima, F.
    Bach, U.
    Bower, G. C.
    Falcone, A.
    Forster, J. R.
    Henden, A.
    Kawabata, K. S.
    Koubsky, P.
    Mukai, K.
    Nelson, T.
    Oates, S. R.
    Sakimoto, K.
    Sasada, M.
    Shenavrin, V. I.
    Shore, S. N.
    Skinner, G. K.
    Sokoloski, J.
    Stroh, M.
    Tatarnikov, A. M.
    Uemura, M.
    Wahlgren, G. M.
    Yamanaka, M.
    Gamma-ray emission concurrent with the nova in the symbiotic binary V407 cygni2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 329, no 5993, p. 817-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novae are thermonuclear explosions on a white dwarf surface fueled by mass accreted from a companion star. Current physical models posit that shocked expanding gas from the nova shell can produce x-ray emission, but emission at higher energies has not been widely expected. Here, we report the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of variable γ-ray emission (0.1 to 10 billion electron volts) from the recently detected optical nova of the symbiotic star V407 Cygni. We propose that the material of the nova shell interacts with the dense ambient medium of the red giant primary and that particles can be accelerated effectively to produce π0 decay γ-rays from proton-proton interactions. Emission involving inverse Compton scattering of the red giant radiation is also considered and is not ruled out.

  • 8. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    Conrad, Jan
    Jackson, Miranda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ylinen, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-32009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, no 5959, p. 1512-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  • 9. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Jackson, Miranda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ylinen, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    et al.,
    Gamma-Ray Emission from the Shell of Supernova Remnant W44 Revealed by the Fermi LAT2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 327, no 5969, p. 1103-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) hint that they accelerate cosmic rays to energies close to similar to 10(15) electron volts. However, the nature of the particles that produce the emission remains ambiguous. We report observations of SNR W44 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies between 2 x 10(8) electron volts and 3 x 10(11) electron volts. The detection of a source with a morphology corresponding to the SNR shell implies that the emission is produced by particles accelerated there. The gamma-ray spectrum is well modeled with emission from protons and nuclei. Its steepening above similar to 10(9) electron volts provides a probe with which to study how particle acceleration responds to environmental effects such as shock propagation in dense clouds and how accelerated particles are released into interstellar space.

  • 10. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Battelino, Milan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Conrad, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    McGlynn, Sinéad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ylinen, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    Moretti, Elena
    University and INFN of Trieste.
    Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080916C2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 323, no 5922, p. 1688-1693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gamma-ray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  • 11. Abdo, A. A.
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Conrad, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    McGlynn, Sinéad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ylinen, Tomi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ziegler, M.
    et al.,
    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova Remnant CTA 12008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 322, no 5905, p. 1218-1221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves [ supernova remnants (SNRs)] are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma- Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma- ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 milliseconds and a period derivative of 3.614 x 10(-13) seconds per second. Its characteristic age of 10(4) years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. We speculate that most unidentified Galactic gamma- ray sources associated with star- forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

  • 12.
    Abdollahi, S.
    et al.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan..
    Ajello, M.
    Clemson Univ, Kinard Lab Phys, Dept Phys & Astron, Clemson, SC 29634 USA..
    Helgason, K.
    KTH. Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johannesson, G.
    KTH. Univ Iceland, Sci Inst, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;.
    et al.,
    A gamma-ray determination of the Universe's star formation history2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 362, no 6418, p. 1031-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The light emitted by all galaxies over the history of the Universe produces the extragalactic background light (EBL) at ultraviolet, optical, and infrared wavelengths. The EBL is a source of opacity for gamma rays via photon-photon interactions, leaving an imprint in the spectra of distant gamma-ray sources. We measured this attenuation using 739 active galaxies and one gamma-ray burst detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of the EBL and determine the star formation history of the Universe over 90% of cosmic time. Our star formation history is consistent with independent measurements from galaxy surveys, peaking at redshift z similar to 2. Upper limits of the EBL at the epoch of reionization suggest a turnover in the abundance of faint galaxies at z similar to 6.

  • 13. Abi-Rached, Laurent
    et al.
    Jobin, Matthew J.
    Kulkarni, Subhash
    McWhinnie, Alasdair
    Dalva, Klara
    Gragert, Loren
    Babrzadeh, Farbod
    Stanford University, United States .
    Gharizadeh, Baback
    Luo, Ma
    Plummer, Francis A.
    Kimani, Joshua
    Carrington, Mary
    Middleton, Derek
    Rajalingam, Raja
    Beksac, Meral
    Marsh, Steven G. E.
    Maiers, Martin
    Guethlein, Lisbeth A.
    Tavoularis, Sofia
    Little, Ann-Margaret
    Green, Richard E.
    Norman, Paul J.
    Parham, Peter
    The Shaping of Modern Human Immune Systems by Multiregional Admixture with Archaic Humans2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 334, no 6052, p. 89-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole genome comparisons identified introgression from archaic to modern humans. Our analysis of highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, vital immune system components subject to strong balancing selection, shows how modern humans acquired the HLA-B*73 allele in west Asia through admixture with archaic humans called Denisovans, a likely sister group to the Neandertals. Virtual genotyping of Denisovan and Neandertal genomes identified archaic HLA haplotypes carrying functionally distinctive alleles that have introgressed into modern Eurasian and Oceanian populations. These alleles, of which several encode unique or strong ligands for natural killer cell receptors, now represent more than half the HLA alleles of modern Eurasians and also appear to have been later introduced into Africans. Thus, adaptive introgression of archaic alleles has significantly shaped modern human immune systems.

  • 14. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Allafort, A.
    Schady, P.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Bouvier, A.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Digel, S. W.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Domnguez, A.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Focke, W. B.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Glanzman, T.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Jackson, Miranda S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Jogler, T.
    Kataoka, J.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monte, C.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Tramacere, A.
    Nuss, E.
    Greiner, J.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reyes, L. C.
    Ritz, S.
    Rau, A.
    Romoli, C.
    Roth, M.
    Sanchez-Conde, M.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Stawarz, Lukasz
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 338, no 6111, p. 1190-1192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z similar to 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  • 15. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Ajello, M.
    Asano, K.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bonamente, E.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cecchi, C.
    Chaplin, V.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cleveland, W.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Collazzi, A.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Connaughton, V.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    DeKlotz, M.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Desiante, R.
    Diekmann, A.
    Di Venere, L.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Fegan, S. J.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Finke, J.
    Fitzpatrick, G.
    Focke, W. B.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Funk, S.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Gibby, M.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giles, M.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Granot, J.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grove, J. E.
    Gruber, D.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Horan, D.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Inoue, Y.
    Jogler, T.
    Johannesson, G.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kawano, T.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Pelassa, V.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Petrosian, V.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Ritz, S.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Sartori, A.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Sonbas, E.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Yamazaki, R.
    Younes, G.
    Yu, H. -F
    Zhu, S. J.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Byrne, D.
    Foley, S.
    Goldstein, A.
    Jenke, P.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    McBreen, S.
    Meegan, C.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Preece, R.
    Rau, A.
    Tierney, D.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    von Kienlin, A.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Xiong, S.
    Cusumano, G.
    La Parola, V.
    Cummings, J. R.
    Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6166, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest gamma-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  • 16. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Li, L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zampieri, L.
    et al.,
    An extremely bright gamma-ray pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 350, no 6262, p. 801-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsars are rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars, created in the gravitational collapse of massive stars. We report the detection of pulsed giga-electron volt gamma rays from the young pulsar PSR J0540-6919 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. This is the first gamma-ray pulsar detected in another galaxy. It has the most luminous pulsed gamma-ray emission yet observed, exceeding the Crab pulsar's by a factor of 20. PSR J0540-6919 presents an extreme test case for understanding the structure and evolution of neutron star magnetospheres.

  • 17. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bonechi, L.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Borisov, S.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carbone, R.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    Consiglio, L.
    De Pascale, M. P.
    De Santis, C.
    De Simone, N.
    Di Felice, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Gillard, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Grishantseva, L.
    Jerse, G.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Krutkov, S. Y.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Malvezzi, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Nikonov, N.
    Osteria, G.
    Palma, F.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Picozza, P.
    Pizzolotto, C.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Rossetto, Laura
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Sarkar, R.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Wu, Juan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    PAMELA Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 332, no 6025, p. 69-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protons and helium nuclei are the most abundant components of the cosmic radiation. Precise measurements of their fluxes are needed to understand the acceleration and subsequent propagation of cosmic rays in our Galaxy. We report precision measurements of the proton and helium spectra in the rigidity range 1 gigavolt to 1.2 teravolts performed by the satellite-borne experiment PAMELA (payload for antimatter matter exploration and light-nuclei astrophysics). We find that the spectral shapes of these two species are different and cannot be described well by a single power law. These data challenge the current paradigm of cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants followed by diffusive propagation in the Galaxy. More complex processes of acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays are required to explain the spectral structures observed in our data.

  • 18.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Designed to degrade Suitably designed degradable polymers can play a role in reducing plastic waste2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6365, p. 872-873Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Departments of Earth and Planetary Science and Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley.
    Banfield, J. F.
    Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 320, no 5879, p. 1047-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viruses shape microbial community structure and function by altering the fitness of their hosts and by promoting genetic exchange. The complexity of most natural ecosystems has precluded detailed studies of virus-host interactions. We reconstructed virus and host bacterial and archaeal genome sequences from community genomic data from two natural acidophilic biofilms. Viruses were matched to their hosts by analyzing spacer sequences that occur among clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) that are a hallmark of virus resistance. Virus population genomic analyses provided evidence that extensive recombination shuffles sequence motifs sufficiently to evade CRISPR spacers. Only the most recently acquired spacers match coexisting viruses, which suggests that community stability is achieved by rapid but compensatory shifts in host resistance levels and virus population structure.

  • 20.
    Belonoshko, Anatoly B.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    Rosengren, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Elastic anisotropy of Earth's inner core2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 319, no 5864, p. 797-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth's solid- iron inner core is elastically anisotropic. Sound waves propagate faster along Earth's spin axis than in the equatorial plane. This anisotropy has previously been explained by a preferred orientation of the iron alloy hexagonal crystals. However, hexagonal iron becomes increasingly isotropic on increasing temperature at pressures of the inner core and is therefore unlikely to cause the anisotropy. An alternative explanation, supported by diamond anvil cell experiments, is that iron adopts a body- centered cubic form in the inner core. We show, by molecular dynamics simulations, that the body- centered cubic iron phase is extremely anisotropic to sound waves despite its high symmetry. Direct simulations of seismic wave propagation reveal an anisotropy of 12%, a value adequate to explain the anisotropy of the inner core.

  • 21.
    Belonoshko, Anatoly
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics.
    Skorodumova, Natalia
    Department of Physics, Uppsala University.
    Davis, Sergio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Osiptsov, Alexander
    Rosengren, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Origin of the Low Rigidity of the Earth's Inner Core2007In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 316, p. 1603-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth's solid-iron inner core has a low rigidity that manifests itself in the anomalously low velocities of shear waves as compared to shear wave velocities measured in iron alloys. Normally, when estimating the elastic properties of a polycrystal, one calculates an average over different orientations of a single crystal. This approach does not take into account the grain boundaries and defects that are likely to be abundant at high temperatures relevant for the inner core conditions. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that, if defects are considered, the calculated shear modulus and shear wave velocity decrease dramatically as compared to those estimates obtained from the averaged single-crystal values. Thus, the low shear wave velocity in the inner core is explained.

  • 22. Burch, J. L.
    et al.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Phan, T. D.
    Chen, L. -J
    Moore, T. E.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Eastwood, J. P.
    Gershman, D. J.
    Cassak, P. A.
    Argall, M. R.
    Wang, S.
    Hesse, M.
    Pollock, C. J.
    Giles, B. L.
    Nakamura, R.
    Mauk, B. H.
    Fuselier, S. A.
    Russell, C. T.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Drake, J. F.
    Shay, M. A.
    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Marklund, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Wilder, F. D.
    Young, D. T.
    Torkar, K.
    Goldstein, J.
    Dorelli, J. C.
    Avanov, L. A.
    Oka, M.
    Baker, D. N.
    Jaynes, A. N.
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Cohen, I. J.
    Turner, D. L.
    Fennell, J. F.
    Blake, J. B.
    Clemmons, J.
    Goldman, M.
    Newman, D.
    Petrinec, S. M.
    Trattner, K. J.
    Lavraud, B.
    Reiff, P. H.
    Baumjohann, W.
    Magnes, W.
    Steller, M.
    Lewis, W.
    Saito, Y.
    Coffey, V.
    Chandler, M.
    Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 352, no 6290, p. 1189-+Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy; (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy; and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.

  • 23. Caspeta, Luis
    et al.
    Chen, Yun
    Ghiaci, Payam
    Feizi, Amir
    Buskov, Steen
    Hallström, Björn M.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Petranovic, Dina
    Nielsen, Jens
    Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 346, no 6205, p. 75-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at >= 40 degrees C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at >= 40 degrees C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol desaturase gene, and increased expression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Additionally, large chromosome III rearrangements and mutations in genes associated with DNA damage and respiration were found, but contributed less to the thermotolerant phenotype.

  • 24.
    DIVNE, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    STAHLBERG, J
    REINIKAINEN, T
    RUOHONEN, L
    PETTERSSON, G
    KNOWLES, JKC
    TEERI, TT
    JONES, TA
    THE 3-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE OF THE CATALYTIC CORE OF CELLOBIOHYDROLASE-I FROM TRICHODERMA-REESEI1994In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 265, no 5171, p. 524-528Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Dubrovinsky, L.
    et al.
    Dubrovinskaia, N.
    Narygina, O.
    Kantor, I.
    Kuznetzov, A.
    Prakapenka, V. B.
    Vitos, Levente
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Mikhaylushkin, A. S.
    Simak, S. I.
    Abrikosov, I. A.
    Body-centered cubic iron-nickel alloy in Earth's core2007In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 316, no 5833, p. 1880-1883Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Emami, S. Noushin
    et al.
    Lindberg, Bo G.
    Hua, Susanna
    Hill, Sharon R.
    Mozuraitis, Raimondas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Lehmann, Philipp
    Birgersson, Goran
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Ignell, Rickard
    Faye, Ingrid
    A key malaria metabolite modulates vector blood seeking, feeding, and susceptibility to infection2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria infection renders humans more attractive to Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes than uninfected people. The mechanisms remain unknown. We found that an isoprenoid precursor produced by Plasmodium falciparum, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), affects A. gambiae s. l. blood meal seeking and feeding behaviors as well as susceptibility to infection. HMBPP acts indirectly by triggering human red blood cells to increase the release of CO2, aldehydes, and monoterpenes, which together enhance vector attraction and stimulate vector feeding. When offered in a blood meal, HMBPP modulates neural, antimalarial, and oogenic gene transcription without affecting mosquito survival or fecundity; in a P. falciparum-infected blood meal, sporogony is increased.

  • 27. Gilbert, P. M.
    et al.
    Havenstrite, K. L.
    Magnusson, Klas E. G.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Sacco, A.
    Leonardi, N. A.
    Kraft, P.
    Nguyen, N. K.
    Thrun, S.
    Lutolf, M. P.
    Blau, H. M.
    Substrate Elasticity Regulates Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Self-Renewal in Culture2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 329, no 5995, p. 1078-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stem cells that naturally reside in adult tissues, such as muscle stem cells (MuSCs), exhibit robust regenerative capacity in vivo that is rapidly lost in culture. Using a bioengineered substrate to recapitulate key biophysical and biochemical niche features in conjunction with a highly automated single-cell tracking algorithm, we show that substrate elasticity is a potent regulator of MuSC fate in culture. Unlike MuSCs on rigid plastic dishes (similar to 10(6) kilopascals), MuSCs cultured on soft hydrogel substrates that mimic the elasticity of muscle (12 kilopascals) self-renew in vitro and contribute extensively to muscle regeneration when subsequently transplanted into mice and assayed histologically and quantitatively by noninvasive bioluminescence imaging. Our studies provide novel evidence that by recapitulating physiological tissue rigidity, propagation of adult muscle stem cells is possible, enabling future cell-based therapies for muscle-wasting diseases.

  • 28. Giocomo, Lisa M.
    et al.
    Zilli, Eric A.
    Fransén, Erik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Hasselmo, Michael E.
    Temporal frequency of subthreshold oscillations scales with entorhinal grid cell field spacing2007In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 315, no 5819, p. 1719-1722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grid cells in layer II of rat entorhinal cortex fire to spatial locations in a repeating hexagonal grid, with smaller spacing between grid fields for neurons in more dorsal anatomical locations. Data from in vitro whole-cell patch recordings showed differences in frequency of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in entorhinal neurons that correspond to different positions along the dorsal-to-ventral axis, supporting a model of physiological mechanisms for grid cell responses.

  • 29. Heathman, S.
    et al.
    Haire, R. G.
    Le Bihan, T.
    Lindbaum, A.
    Idiri, M.
    Normile, P.
    Li, S.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Lander, G. H.
    A high-pressure structure in curium linked to magnetism2005In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 309, no 5731, p. 110-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Curium ties at the center of the actinide series and has a half-filled shell. with seven 5f electrons spatially residing inside its radon core. As a function of pressure, curium exhibits five different crystallographic phases up to 100 gigapascals, of which all but one are also found in the preceding element, americium. We describe here a structure in curium, Cm III, with monoctinic symmetry, space group C2/c, found at intermediate pressures (between 37 and 56 gigapascals). Ab initio electronic structure calculations agree with the observed sequence of structures and establish that it is the spin polarization of curium's 5f electrons that stabilizes Cm Ill. The results reveal that curium is one of a few elements that has a lattice structure stabilized by magnetism.

  • 30. Hugosson, Håkan Wilhelm
    et al.
    Jansson, U.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Eriksson, O.
    Restricting dislocation movement in transition metal carbides by phase stability tuning2001In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 293, no 5539, p. 2434-2437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanism to enhance hardness in multilayer coatings is proposed. Using the technologically important hard transition metal carbides as prototypes, although the principle is transferable also to other systems, we demonstrate, from first-principles calculations, that by suitable alloying the energy difference between several competing structures in the transition meta[ carbides is small or tunable. This creates multiphase/polytypic compounds with a random or controllable layer stacking sequence, systems in which the propagation of dislocations can be strongly suppressed by a large number of interfaces between structures with different glide systems, accordingly allowing the possibility of a greatly enhanced hardness. With modern thin-film technologies, it should therefore be possible to deposit such materials that will express multilayer characteristics with only minor changes in the chemical constitution of the material, which is in contrast to conventional superlattices.

  • 31. Kim, Kyung Hwan
    et al.
    Spah, Alexander
    Pathak, Harshad
    Perakis, Fivos
    Mariedahl, Daniel
    Amann-Winkel, Katrin
    Sellberg, Jonas A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lee, Jae Hyuk
    Kim, Sangsoo
    Park, Jaehyun
    Nam, Ki Hyun
    Katayama, Tetsuo
    Nilsson, Anders
    Maxima in the thermodynamic response and correlation functions of deeply supercooled water2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Femtosecond x-ray laser pulses were used to probe micrometer-sized water droplets that were cooled down to 227 kelvin in vacuum. Isothermal compressibility and correlation length were extracted from x-ray scattering at the low-momentum transfer region. The temperature dependence of these thermodynamic response and correlation functions shows maxima at 229 kelvin for water and 233 kelvin for heavy water. In addition, we observed that the liquids undergo the fastest growth of tetrahedral structures at similar temperatures. These observations point to the existence of a Widom line, defined as the locus of maximum correlation length emanating from a critical point at positive pressures in the deeply supercooled regime. The difference in the maximum value of the isothermal compressibility between the two isotopes shows the importance of nuclear quantum effects.

  • 32.
    Kim, Kyung Hwan
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Spah, Alexander
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pathak, Harshad
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Perakis, Fivos
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mariedahl, Daniel
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Amann-Winkel, Katrin
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sellberg, Jonas A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Lee, Jae Hyuk
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang 37673, Gyeongbuk, South Korea..
    Kim, Sangsoo
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang 37673, Gyeongbuk, South Korea..
    Park, Jaehyun
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang 37673, Gyeongbuk, South Korea..
    Nam, Ki Hyun
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang 37673, Gyeongbuk, South Korea..
    Katayama, Tetsuo
    Japan Synchrotron Radiat Res Inst, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 6795198, Japan..
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Response to Comment on "Maxima in the thermodynamic response and correlation functions of deeply supercooled water"2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 360, no 6390, article id eaat1729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caupin et al. have raised several issues regarding our recent paper on maxima in thermodynamic response and correlation functions in deeply supercooled water. We show that these issues can be addressed without affecting the conclusion of the paper.

  • 33.
    Kärkäs, Markus D.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.
    Matsuura, Bryan S.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.
    Stephenson, Corey R. J.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.
    Enchained by Visible Light–Mediated Photoredox Catalysis2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 349, no 6254, p. 1285-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free radicals are exploited in biology, often through highly controlled enzymatic reactions, to drive many reactions that would be difficult via nonradical routes that transfer two electrons (1). In synthetic chemistry, visible-light photoredox catalysis has emerged as an economical and environmentally benign route for promoting free radical transformations in the lab (24). Although the initial light-sensitization steps are well established (5), insufficient attention has been dedicated to essential mechanistic features of the closed catalytic cycle (6). Several reports have hypothesized that these photocatalyzed reactions are terminated through a closed catalytic cycle, which delivers the final product and regenerates the ground state of the photosensitizer (PS). However, Cismesia and Yoon (6) highlight that some of the mechanistic proposals may be incomplete and may involve radical chains.

  • 34.
    Mohseni, Seyed Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Redjai Sani, Sohrab
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Persson, J.
    Nguyen, T. N. Anh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Chung, Sunjae
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Pogoryelov, Ye
    Muduli, P. K.
    Iacocca, E.
    Eklund, R. K.
    Dumas, R. K.
    Bonetti, Stefano
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Deac, A.
    Hoefer, M.
    Åkerman, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Spin Torque-Generated Magnetic Droplet Solitons2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, no 6125, p. 1295-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissipative solitons have been reported in a wide range of nonlinear systems, but the observation of their magnetic analog has been experimentally challenging. Using spin transfer torque underneath a nanocontact on a magnetic thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), we have observed the generation of dissipative magnetic droplet solitons and report on their rich dynamical properties. Micromagnetic simulations identify a wide range of automodulation frequencies, including droplet oscillatory motion, droplet "spinning," and droplet "breather" states. The droplet can be controlled by using both current and magnetic fields and is expected to have applications in spintronics, magnonics, and PMA-based domain-wall devices.

  • 35.
    Nielsen, Jens
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Chalmers, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Tech Univ Denmark, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Ctr Biosustainabil, DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark.;Royal Inst Technol, Sci Life Lab, SE-17121 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yeast cell factories on the horizon2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 349, no 6252, p. 1050-1051Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36. Nyblom, Maria
    et al.
    Poulsen, Hanne
    Gourdon, Pontus
    Reinhard, Linda
    Andersson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lindahl, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics, Theoretical & Computational Biophysics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fedosova, Natalya
    Nissen, Poul
    Crystal Structure of Na+, K+-ATPase in the Na+-Bound State2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 342, no 6154, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Na+, K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) maintains the electrochemical gradients of Na+ and K+ across the plasma membrane-a prerequisite for electrical excitability and secondary transport. Hitherto, structural information has been limited to K+-bound or ouabain-blocked forms. We present the crystal structure of a Na+-bound Na+, K+-ATPase as determined at 4.3 angstrom resolution. Compared with the K+-bound form, large conformational changes are observed in the a subunit whereas the beta and gamma subunit structures are maintained. The locations of the three Na+ sites are indicated with the unique site III at the recently suggested IIIb, as further supported by electrophysiological studies on leak currents. Extracellular release of the third Na+ from IIIb through IIIa, followed by exchange of Na+ for K+ at sites I and II, is suggested.

  • 37. Obersteiner, M.
    et al.
    Azar, C.
    Kauppi, P.
    Mollersten, K.
    Moreira, J.
    Nilsson, S.
    Read, P.
    Riahi, K.
    Schlamadinger, B.
    Yamagata, Y.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    van Ypersele, J. P.
    Managing climate risk2001In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 294, no 5543, p. 786-787Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Pellizzoni, A.
    et al.
    Trois, A.
    Tavani, M.
    Pilia, M.
    Giuliani, A.
    Pucella, G.
    Esposito, P.
    Sabatini, S.
    Piano, G.
    Argan, A.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bulgarelli, A.
    Burgay, M.
    Caraveo, P.
    Cattaneo, P. W.
    Chen, A. W.
    Cocco, V.
    Contessi, T.
    Costa, E.
    D’Ammando, F.
    Del Monte, E.
    De Paris, G.
    Di Cocco, G.
    Di Persio, G.
    Donnarumma, I.
    Evangelista, Y.
    Feroci, M.
    Ferrari, A.
    Fiorini, M.
    Fuschino, F.
    Galli, M.
    Gianotti, F.
    Hotan, A.
    Labanti, C.
    Lapshov, I.
    Lazzarotto, F.
    Lipari, P.
    Longo, F.
    Marisaldi, M.
    Mastropietro, M.
    Mereghetti, S.
    Moretti, Elena
    University and INFN of Trieste.
    Morselli, A.
    Pacciani, L.
    Palfreyman, J.
    Perotti, F.
    Picozza, P.
    Pittori, C.
    Possenti, A.
    Prest, M.
    Rapisarda, M.
    Rappoldi, A.
    Rossi, E.
    Rubini, A.
    Santolamazza, P.
    Scalise, E.
    Soffitta, P.
    Striani, E.
    Trifoglio, M.
    Vallazza, E.
    Vercellone, S.
    Verrecchia, F.
    Vittorini, V.
    Zambra, A.
    Zanello, D.
    Giommi, P.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Antonelli, A.
    Salotti, L.
    D’Amico, N.
    Bignami, G. F.
    Detection of Gamma-Ray Emission from the Vela Pulsar Wind Nebula with AGILE2010In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 327, no 5966, p. 663-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsars are known to power winds of relativistic particles that can produce bright nebulae by interacting with the surrounding medium. These pulsar wind nebulae are observed by their radio, optical, and x-ray emissions, and in some cases also at TeV (teraelectron volt) energies, but the lack of information in the gamma-ray band precludes drawing a comprehensive multiwavelength picture of their phenomenology and emission mechanisms. Using data from the AGILE satellite, we detected the Vela pulsar wind nebula in the energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. This result constrains the particle population responsible for the GeV emission and establishes a class of gamma-ray emitters that could account for a fraction of the unidentified galactic gamma-ray sources.

  • 39. Pletsch, H. J.
    et al.
    Guillemot, L.
    Fehrmann, H.
    Allen, B.
    Kramer, M.
    Aulbert, C.
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    de Angelis, A.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bechtol, K.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Borgland, A. W.
    Bottacini, E.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Casandjian, J. M.
    Cecchi, C.
    Celik, Oe
    Charles, E.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Chiang, J.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Conrad, J.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Digel, S. W.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Dubois, R.
    Dumora, D.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Grove, J. E.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    den Hartog, P. R.
    Hayashida, M.
    Hays, E.
    Hill, A. B.
    Hou, X.
    Hughes, R. E.
    Johannesson, G.
    Jackson, Miranda S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Jogler, T.
    Johnson, A. S.
    Johnson, W. N.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kerr, M.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Massaro, F.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Mehault, J.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mitthumsiri, W.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Murgia, S.
    Nakamori, T.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    de Palma, F.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Ray, P. S.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Reposeur, T.
    Ritz, S.
    Romani, R. W.
    Romoli, C.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    do Couto e Silva, E.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Tanaka, T.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thompson, D. J.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Waite, A. P.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Wood, M.
    Yang, Z.
    Zimmer, S.
    Binary Millisecond Pulsar Discovery via Gamma-Ray Pulsations2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 338, no 6112, p. 1314-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millisecond pulsars, old neutron stars spun up by accreting matter from a companion star, can reach high rotation rates of hundreds of revolutions per second. Until now, all such "recycled" rotation-powered pulsars have been detected by their spin-modulated radio emission. In a computing-intensive blind search of gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (with partial constraints from optical data), we detected a 2.5-millisecond pulsar, PSR J1311-3430. This unambiguously explains a formerly unidentified gamma-ray source that had been a decade-long enigma, confirming previous conjectures. The pulsar is in a circular orbit with an orbital period of only 93 minutes, the shortest of any spin-powered pulsar binary ever found.

  • 40. Preece, R.
    et al.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    University of Alabama in Huntsville, United States.
    von Kienlin, A.
    Bhat, P. N.
    Briggs, M. S.
    Byrne, D.
    Chaplin, V.
    Cleveland, W.
    Collazzi, A. C.
    Connaughton, V.
    Diekmann, A.
    Fitzpatrick, G.
    Foley, S.
    Gibby, M.
    Giles, M.
    Goldstein, A.
    Greiner, J.
    Gruber, D.
    Jenke, P.
    Kippen, R. M.
    Kouveliotou, C.
    McBreen, S.
    Meegan, C.
    Paciesas, W. S.
    Pelassa, V.
    Tierney, D.
    van der Horst, A. J.
    Wilson-Hodge, C.
    Xiong, S.
    Younes, G.
    Yu, H. -F
    Ackermann, M.
    Ajello, M.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Baldini, L.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Baring, M. G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bonamente, E.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brigida, M.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Buson, S.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Claus, R.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cominsky, L. R.
    Conrad, J.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Dermer, C. D.
    Desiante, R.
    Digel, S. W.
    Di Venere, L.
    Drell, P. S.
    Drlica-Wagner, A.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gehrels, N.
    Germani, S.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Giroletti, M.
    Godfrey, G.
    Granot, J.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Guiriec, S.
    Hadasch, D.
    Hanabata, Y.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hayashida, M.
    Iyyani, S.
    Jogler, T.
    Joannesson, G.
    Kawano, T.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kocevski, D.
    Kuss, M.
    Lande, J.
    Larsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Larsson, S.
    Latronico, L.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Lubrano, P.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Moretti, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Morselli, A.
    Murgia, S.
    Nemmen, R.
    Nuss, E.
    Nymark, Tanja
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Ohno, M.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Okumura, A.
    Omodei, N.
    Orienti, M.
    Paneque, D.
    Perkins, J. S.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Racusin, J. L.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Razzaque, S.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Ritz, S.
    Roth, M.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Sartori, A.
    Scargle, J. D.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, H.
    Thayer, J. G.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Tinivella, M.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Usher, T. L.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Vasileiou, V.
    Vianello, G.
    Vitale, V.
    Werner, M.
    Winer, B. L.
    Wood, K. S.
    Zhu, S.
    The First Pulse of the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A: A Test Lab for Synchrotron Shocks2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, no 6166, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A is one of the most energetic GRBs ever observed. The initial pulse up to 2.5 seconds is possibly the brightest well-isolated pulse observed to date. A fine time resolution spectral analysis shows power-law decays of the peak energy from the onset of the pulse, consistent with models of internal synchrotron shock pulses. However, a strongly correlated power-law behavior is observed between the luminosity and the spectral peak energy that is inconsistent with curvature effects arising in the relativistic outflow. It is difficult for any of the existing models to account for all of the observed spectral and temporal behaviors simultaneously.

  • 41.
    Savolainen, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Zhang, Y. P.
    Luo, J.
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Leitner, T.
    Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of domestic dogs2002In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 298, no 5598, p. 1610-1613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding events, as well as where and when these occurred, is not known. To address these questions, we examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation among 654 domestic dogs representing all major dog populations worldwide. Although our data indicate several maternal origins from wolf, >95% of all sequences belonged to three phylogenetic groups universally represented at similar frequencies, suggesting a common origin from a single gene pool for all dog populations. A larger genetic variation in East Asia than in other regions and the pattern of phylogeographic variation suggest an East Asian origin for the domestic dog, similar to15,000 years ago.

  • 42.
    Stahl, Patrik L.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Salmen, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Vickovic, Sanja
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Lundmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Navarro, Jose Fernandez
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Magnusson, Jens
    Giacomello, Stefania
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Asp, Michaela
    Westholm, Jakub O.
    Huss, Mikael
    Mollbrink, Annelie
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Linnarsson, Sten
    Codeluppi, Simone
    Borg, Ake
    Ponten, Fredrik
    Costea, Paul Igor
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sahlen, Pelin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Mulder, Jan
    Bergmann, Olaf
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.
    Frisen, Jonas
    Visualization and analysis of gene expression in tissue sections by spatial transcriptomics2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 353, no 6294, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the pattern of proteins or messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in histological tissue sections is a cornerstone in biomedical research and diagnostics. This typically involves the visualization of a few proteins or expressed genes at a time. We have devised a strategy, which we call "spatial transcriptomics," that allows visualization and quantitative analysis of the transcriptome with spatial resolution in individual tissue sections. By positioning histological sections on arrayed reverse transcription primers with unique positional barcodes, we demonstrate high-quality RNA-sequencing data with maintained two-dimensional positional information from the mouse brain and human breast cancer. Spatial transcriptomics provides quantitative gene expression data and visualization of the distribution of mRNAs within tissue sections and enables novel types of bioinformatics analyses, valuable in research and diagnostics.

  • 43. Steffen, Will
    et al.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    et al.,
    Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundary framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Several of the boundaries now have a two-tier approach, reflecting the importance of cross-scale interactions and the regional-level heterogeneity of the processes that underpin the boundaries. Two core boundaries—climate change and biosphere integrity—have been identified, each of which has the potential on its own to drive the Earth system into a new state should they be substantially and persistently transgressed.

  • 44.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    A closer mimic of the oxygen evolution complex of photosystem II2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 348, no 6235, p. 635-636Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Thul, Peter J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Åkesson, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wiking, Mikaela
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mahdessian, Diana
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Geladaki, A.
    Ait Blal, Hammou
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Alm, Tove L.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Asplund, A.
    Björk, Lars
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Breckels, L. M.
    Bäckström, Anna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Danielsson, Frida
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fagerberg, Linn
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fall, Jenny
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gatto, L.
    Gnann, Christian
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hober, Sophia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Hjelmare, Martin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Fredric
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lee, Sunjae
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lindskog, C.
    Mulder, J.
    Mulvey, C. M.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Oksvold, Per
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rockberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Schutten, Rutger
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sivertsson, Åsa
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sjöstedt, E.
    Skogs, Marie
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Stadler, Charlotte
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sullivan, Devin P.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tegel, Hanna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Winsnes, Casper F.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zhang, Cheng
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zwahlen, Martin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mardinoglu, Adil
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pontén, F.
    von Feilitzen, Kalle
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lilley, K. S.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Lundberg, Emma
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    A subcellular map of the human proteome2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 356, no 6340, article id 820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resolving the spatial distribution of the human proteome at a subcellular level can greatly increase our understanding of human biology and disease. Here we present a comprehensive image-based map of subcellular protein distribution, the Cell Atlas, built by integrating transcriptomics and antibody-based immunofluorescence microscopy with validation by mass spectrometry. Mapping the in situ localization of 12,003 human proteins at a single-cell level to 30 subcellular structures enabled the definition of the proteomes of 13 major organelles. Exploration of the proteomes revealed single-cell variations in abundance or spatial distribution and localization of about half of the proteins to multiple compartments. This subcellular map can be used to refine existing protein-protein interaction networks and provides an important resource to deconvolute the highly complex architecture of the human cell.

  • 46.
    Torbert, R. B.
    et al.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA.;Southwest Res Inst SwRI, San Antonio, TX 78228 USA..
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Saito, Y.
    et al,
    Electron-scale dynamics of the diffusion region during symmetric magnetic reconnection in space2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 362, no 6421, p. 1391-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic reconnection is an energy conversion process that occurs in many astrophysical contexts including Earth's magnetosphere, where the process can be investigated in situ by spacecraft. On 11 July 2017, the four Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft encountered a reconnection site in Earth's magnetotail, where reconnection involves symmetric inflow conditions. The electron-scale plasma measurements revealed (i) super-Alfvenic electron jets reaching 15,000 kilometers per second; (ii) electron meandering motion and acceleration by the electric field, producing multiple crescent-shaped structures in the velocity distributions; and (iii) the spatial dimensions of the electron diffusion region with an aspect ratio of 0.1 to 0.2, consistent with fast reconnection. The well-structured multiple layers of electron populations indicate that the dominant electron dynamics are mostly laminar, despite the presence of turbulence near the reconnection site.

  • 47. Tuskan, G. A.
    et al.
    DiFazio, S.
    Jansson, S.
    Bohlmann, J.
    Grigoriev, I.
    Hellsten, U.
    Putnam, N.
    Ralph, S.
    Rombauts, S.
    Salamov, A.
    Schein, J.
    Sterck, L.
    Sterky, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    et al,
    The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray)2006In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 313, no 5793, p. 1596-1604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event survived in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication, and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially more slowly in Populus than in Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average from 1.4 to 1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis, meristem development, disease resistance, and metabolite transport.

  • 48.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Fagerberg, Linn
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hallström, Björn M
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Oksvold, Per
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mardinoglu, Adil
    Sivertsson, Åsa
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kampf, Caroline
    Sjöstedt, Evelina
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Asplund, Anna
    Olsson, IngMarie
    Edlund, Karolina
    Lundberg, Emma
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Navani, Sanjay
    Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Odeberg, Jacob
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Djureinovic, Dijana
    Takanen, Jenny Ottosson
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Hober, Sophia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Alm, Tove
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik
    Berling, Holger
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Tegel, Hanna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Mulder, Jan
    Rockberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Schwenk, Jochen M
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hamsten, Marica
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    von Feilitzen, Kalle
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Forsberg, Mattias
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Persson, Lukas
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Fredric
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zwahlen, Martin
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    von Heijne, Gunnar
    Nielsen, Jens
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Tissue-based map of the human proteome2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6220, p. 1260419-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative transcriptomics at the tissue and organ level, combined with tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, to achieve spatial localization of proteins down to the single-cell level. Our tissue-based analysis detected more than 90% of the putative protein-coding genes. We used this approach to explore the human secretome, the membrane proteome, the druggable proteome, the cancer proteome, and the metabolic functions in 32 different tissues and organs. All the data are integrated in an interactive Web-based database that allows exploration of individual proteins, as well as navigation of global expression patterns, in all major tissues and organs in the human body.

  • 49.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. Center for Biosustainability, Danish Technical University, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Zhang, Cheng
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lee, Sunjae
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sjöstedt, Evelina
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Department of Immunology Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fagerberg, Linn
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bidkhori, Gholamreza
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Benfeitas, Rui
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Arif, Muhammad
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Liu, Zhengtao
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Edfors, Fredrik
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sanli, Kemal
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    von Feilitzen, Kalle
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Oksvold, Per
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lundberg, Emma
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hober, Sophia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Nilsson, Peter
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mattsson, Johanna
    Schwenk, Jochen M.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Brunnstrom, Hans
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Sjoblom, Tobias
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik
    Djureinovic, Dijana
    Micke, Patrick
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Mardinoglu, Adil
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Ponten, Fredrik
    A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 357, no 6352, p. 660-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and there is great interest in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of individual tumors. We used systems-level approaches to analyze the genome-wide transcriptome of the protein-coding genes of 17 major cancer types with respect to clinical outcome. A general pattern emerged: Shorter patient survival was associated with up-regulation of genes involved in cell growth and with down-regulation of genes involved in cellular differentiation. Using genome-scale metabolic models, we show that cancer patients have widespread metabolic heterogeneity, highlighting the need for precise and personalized medicine for cancer treatment. All data are presented in an interactive open-access database (www.proteinatlas.org/pathology) to allow genome-wide exploration of the impact of individual proteins on clinical outcomes.

  • 50. Vashisht, Ajay A.
    et al.
    Zumbrennen, Kimberly B.
    Huang, Xinhua
    Powers, David N.
    Durazo, Armando
    Sun, Dahui
    Bhaskaran, Nimesh
    Persson, Anja
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Sangfelt, Olle
    Spruck, Charles
    Leibold, Elizabeth A.
    Wohlschlegel, James A.
    Control of Iron Homeostasis by an Iron-Regulated Ubiquitin Ligase2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, no 5953, p. 718-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eukaryotic cells require iron for survival and have developed regulatory mechanisms for maintaining appropriate intracellular iron concentrations. The degradation of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) in iron-replete cells is a key event in this pathway, but the E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for its proteolysis has remained elusive. We found that a SKP1-CUL1-FBXL5 ubiquitin ligase protein complex associates with and promotes the iron-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of IRP2. The F-box substrate adaptor protein FBXL5 was degraded upon iron and oxygen depletion in a process that required an iron-binding hemerythrin-like domain in its N terminus. Thus, iron homeostasis is regulated by a proteolytic pathway that couples IRP2 degradation to intracellular iron levels through the stability and activity of FBXL5.

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