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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Baltzopoulos, Apostolos
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    R & D strategies and entrepreneurial spawning2012In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 54-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how different R&D strategies of incumbent firms affect the quantity and quality of their entrepreneurial spawning. When examining entrepreneurial ventures of ex-employees of firms with different R&D strategies, three things emerge: First, firms with persistent R&D investments and a general superiority in sales, exports, productivity, profitability and wages are less likely to generate entrepreneurs than firms with temporary or no R&D investments. Second, start-ups from knowledge intensive business service (KIBS) firms with persistent R&D investments have a significantly increased probability of survival. No corresponding association between the R&D strategies of incumbents and survival of entrepreneurial spawns is found for incumbents in manufacturing sectors. Third, spin-outs from KIBS-firms are more likely to survive if they start in the same sector, indicating the importance of inherited knowledge. These findings suggest that R&D intensive firms are less likely to generate employee start-ups, but their entrepreneurial spawns tend to be of higher quality.

  • 2.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Economics.
    Working with distant researchers: distance and content in university-industry interaction2010In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1311-1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of geographic proximity for interaction on R&D by exploring the special case of formalised university-industry interaction in the engineering sector While numerous studies find that geographic proximity facilitates spillover effects between university and industry by utilising evidence from e g patenting and publishing activities the geographical dimension is largely understudied in studies that report evidence from direct interaction A series of interviews with R&D managers suggests that linkages in geographical proximity are more likely than distant linkages to generate impulses to innovation and create significant learning effects at the firm Similarly geographic proximate interaction is more likely to successfully contribute to R&D projects with short time to market For long-term R&D projects geographic proximity is generally seen as a less critical factor A survey to 425 R&D managers in Swedish engineering firms provides evidence that supports these hypotheses.

  • 3. Brown, James R.
    et al.
    Martinsson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Petersen, Bruce C.
    What promotes R&D? Comparative evidence from around the world2017In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 447-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D drives innovation and productivity growth, but appropriability problems and financing difficulties likely keep R&D investment well below the socially optimal level, particularly in high- technology industries. Though countries around the world are increasingly interested in using tax incentives and other policy initiatives to address this underinvestment problem, there is little empirical evidence comparing the effectiveness of alternative domestic policies and institutions at spurring R&D. Using data from a broad sample of OECD economies, we find that financial market rules that improve accounting standards and strengthen contract enforcement share a significant positive relation with R&D in more innovative industries, as do stronger legal protections for intellectual property. In contrast, stronger creditor rights and more generous R&D tax credits have a negative differential relation with R&D in more innovative industries. These results suggest that domestic policies directly dealing with appropriability and financing problems may be more effective than traditional tax subsides at promoting the innovative investments that drive economic growth.

  • 4. Dahlander, L.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Mats
    Department of Innovation Engineering and Management, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Relationships between Open Source Software Companies and Communities: Observations from Nordic Firms2005In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 481-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the relationships between firms and communities in open source software (OSS). A particular feature of OSS is that important resources are not directly controlled by firms, but partly reside within communities that co-exist with the firms. Despite this, firms explicitly try to utilize the resources within these communities in order to create and appropriate value. Consequently, the relationships that firms have to these communities influence their way of doing business. Based on case studies of Nordic OSS firms, a typology consisting of symbiotic, commensalistic, and parasitic approaches to handle the firm-community relationship is developed. Depending on the chosen approach, firms encounter different managerial issues and also use different operational means of subtle control. While firms relying on a symbiotic approach have greater possibility to influence the community through subtle means of control, they are also confronted with more challenging managerial issues.

  • 5.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    No Project is an island: Linking Projects to History and Context2003In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 5, no 32, p. 789-808Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Perkmann, Markus
    et al.
    Tartari, Valentina
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Autio, Erkko
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    D'Este, Pablo
    Fini, Riccardo
    Geuna, Aldo
    Grimaldi, Rosa
    Hughes, Alan
    Krabel, Stefan
    Kitson, Michael
    Llerena, Patrick
    Lissoni, Franceso
    Salter, Ammon
    Sobrero, Maurizio
    Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university-industry relations2013In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 423-442Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university-industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists' involvement in these activities to which we refer as 'academic engagement'. Apart from extracting findings that are generalisable across studies, we ask how academic engagement differs from commercialisation, defined as intellectual property creation and academic entrepreneurship. We identify the individual, organisational and institutional antecedents and consequences of academic engagement, and then compare these findings with the antecedents and consequences of commercialisation. Apart from being more widely practiced, academic engagement is distinct from commercialisation in that it is closely aligned with traditional academic research activities, and pursued by academics to access resources supporting their research agendas. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions.

  • 7. Tavassoli, S.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Persistence of various types of innovation analyzed and explained2015In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 1887-1901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the persistency in innovation behavior of firms. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behavior of firms over a ten-year period, i.e., between 2002 and 2012. We distinguish between four types of innovations: process, product, marketing, and organizational innovations. First, using transition probability matrix, we found evidence of (unconditional) state dependence in all types of innovation, with product innovators having the strongest persistent behavior. Second, using a dynamic probit model, we found evidence of "true" state dependency among all types of innovations, except marketing innovators. Once again, the strongest persistency was found for product innovators.

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