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  • 1.
    Angelis, Jannis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Ribeiro da silva, Elias
    Blockchain adoption: a value driver perspective2019In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 307-314Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing discussion regarding blockchain technologies is focused primarily on cryptocurrencies, but blockchain features and functionalities have developed beyond financial instruments. As the technologies provide new functionalities, the associated value proposition changes as well. This study explores the relationship between blockchain technologies and their underlying value drivers. Four identified distinct blockchain stages of increased maturity are analyzed and discussed. This covers the evolutionary technology types focused on transactions, smart contracts, decentralized applications, and the introduction of artificial intelligence supporting decentralized decision making. In addition, we address management issues around appropriate blockchain adoption using a blockchain value driver-focused framework that gives decision makers actionable questions and recommendations. We provide practitioners with a method for assessing suitable blockchain adoption that addresses the specific value creation associated with a given organizational strategy. For academics, we critically identify and assess the characteristics of the blockchain stages and their strategy implications and provide a structured approach conceptualizing blockchain technology evolution.

  • 2.
    Boon, Edward
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Pitt, Leyland
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Managing information sharing in online communities and marketplaces2015In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 347-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies can engage with many online social networks and communities to attract customers, disseminate product information, conduct research, and stimulate innovation. However, for these activities to be successful, it is key that consumers at these platforms trust each other and are willing to share their knowledge freely. The study presented in this article assesses what companies can do to encourage members of online communities and marketplaces to share information with others. For this purpose, a netnographic study was conducted of Etsy.com, an online marketplace for handcrafted and vintage products. The study revealed several key findings: companies can stimulate information sharing through activities that build trust and develop a norm of reciprocity; rules and guidelines are helpful to discourage abuse, but do little to stimulate sharing; and companies should give the right example by sharing knowledge themselves. The guidelines that were developed based on these findings can be used by companies that own or manage an online community as well as by those who intend to engage with one.

  • 3.
    Brown, Terrence
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sensor-based entrepreneurship: A framework for developing new products and services2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 819-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Internet of Things (IoT) begins to dominate the technology landscape, there will be new products and services that will become technically and financially feasible. Internet technologies and advancements in social interac- tion tools have led to an increase in the use of the crowd as a provider of business solutions. Yet, we have seen a mere fraction of the possibilities of crowdsourcing technologies. This is because most of the development, discussion, and research around crowdsourcing has focused on active-input crowdsourcing. However, the real transformative pressure will come from passive sources of data generated primarily by developing and growing sensor technologies. This next generation of crowdsour- cing will be a game changer for entrepreneurial opportunities. As crowdsourcing systems proliferate, more input will be acquired from sensors, artificial intelligence, bots, and other devices. As a result of this explosion, the variety of product and service opportunities will swell as entrepreneurs become more aware of technologies merging–—such as the combination of crowdsourcing, sensors, and big data into a new type of entrepreneurship: sensor-based entrepreneurship. The purpose of this research is to contribute by (1) clarifying the next generation of crowdsourcing and (2) developing and presenting a framework to help sensor-based entrepreneurs plan, develop, and map their new products and services.

  • 4.
    Brown, Terrence
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Boon, Edward
    Pitt, Leyland
    Seeking funding in order to sell: Crowdfunding as a marketing tool2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 189-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Websites such as Indiegogo and Kickstarter have attracted much attention for their ability to enable organizations and individuals to raise funds from ordinary people who contribute for a number of reasons. This phenomenon is called crowd- funding. Crowdfunding permits organizations and individuals to obtain investments they otherwise might not receive from more traditional sources such as banks, angel investors, and stock markets. A number of now well-known startups had their origins in crowdfunding. More recently, established organizations have begun to use crowd- funding websites not only as a source of finance, but also as marketing platforms. In this way, they have been able to ensure a ready market for their new offerings, with full sales pipelines, and to use the platforms as vehicles to boost brand image and gain support for brand-related causes. This adaptation of crowdfunding for marketing purposes is not without its problems, however, and organizations would be well advised to consider not only the opportunities these platforms provide, but also their limitations

  • 5.
    Dabirian, Amir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Kietzmann, Jan
    Diba, Hoda
    A great place to work!?: Understanding crowdsourced employer branding2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 197-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits provided by employment and identified with a specific employing company are referred to as employer branding. We argue that when employees use IT to share and access work-related experiences openly across organizations, their expectations and assessments of workplaces change. We collected 38,000 reviews of the highest and lowest ranked employers on Glassdoor, an online crowdsourced employer branding platform. Using IBM Watson to analyze the data, we identify seven employer branding value propositions that current, former, and potential employees care about when they collectively evaluate employers. These propositions include (1) social elements of work, (2) interesting and challenging work tasks, (3) the extent to which skills can be applied in meaningful ways, (4) opportunities for professional development, (5) economic issues tied to compensation, (6) the role of management, and (7) work/life balance. We clarify that these value propositions do not all matter to the same extent and demonstrate how their relative valences and weights differ across organizations, especially if institutions are considered particularly good or bad places to work. Based on these findings, we show how employers can use crowdsourced employer branding intelligence to become great places to work that attract highly qualified employees.

  • 6.
    Hall, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Pitt, L.
    Wallström, A.
    The secrets of secret societies: The case of wine2015In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secret societies have intrigued humanity since earliest times. In this article we explore secret societies in the context of wine and how these institutions might be insightful in formulating marketing strategies. We contrast the characteristics of secret societies with those of existing secret wine societies such as The Wine Society and La Confrérie. Yet while some of these functions and characteristics transfer well, many ’secret’ wine societies aren’t actually that secret. Some of the characteristics of secret societies are also found in consumer brand communities. Armed with this knowledge, wine marketers can exploit the characteristics of secret societies to target market segments with precision and to gain the benefits of focused distribution opportunities.

  • 7. Hannah, David
    et al.
    Parent, Michael
    Pitt, Leyland
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Berthon, Pierre
    It’s a secret: Marketing value and the denial of availability2014In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marketing thrives on secrets, yet surprisingly little formal attention has been paid to how the marketing of secrecy and the secrecy of marketing can play a significant role in contemporary organizations. We draw upon the fields of organizational studies, psychology, and marketing to develop a typology of secrets that reflects their marketing value and their knowledge value. Marketing secrets can have value to the firm (strategic value), to the customer (marketing value), or to both parties. Based on these two dimensions, we identify four different types of marketing secrets: (1) appealing secrets have high strategic value, as well as high marketing value; (2) mythical secrets mean little to the firm but a tot to the customer; (3) plain secrets are critical to the firm but are irrelevant to customers; and (4) weak secrets have neither strategic value nor marketing value. Our typology enables academics to formulate research questions regarding secrecy in marketing, and serves as a guide for practitioners in the construction of strategies that can exploit the strategic value of secrets by 'romancing' them, and increase their knowledge value by 'educating' the secrets.

  • 8. Morkunas, Vida J.
    et al.
    Paschen, Jeannette
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Boon, Edward
    How blockchain technologies impact your business model2019In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 295-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the attention surrounding blockchain today is focused on financial services, with very little discussion about nonfinancial services firms and how blockchain technology may affect organizations, their business models, and how they create and deliver value. In addition, some confusion remains between the block chain (with definite article) and blockchain (no article), distributed ledger technologies, and their applications. Our article offers a primer on blockchain technology aimed at general managers and executives. The key contributions of this article lie in providing an explanation of blockchain, including how a blockchain transaction works and a clarification of terms, and outlining different types of blockchain technologies. We also discuss how different types of blockchain impact business models. Building on the well-established business model framework by Osterwalder and Pigneur, we outline the effect that blockchain technologies can have on each element of the business model, along with illustrations from firms developing blockchain technology. 

  • 9.
    Paschen, Jeannette
    KTH.
    Choose wisely: Crowdfunding through the stages of the startup life cycle2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowdfunding is attractive to startups as an alternative funding source and offers nonmonetary resources through organizational learning. It encompasses the outsourcing of an organizational function, through IT, to a strategically defined network of actors (i.e., the crowd) in the form of an open call specifically, requesting monetary contributions toward a commercial or social business goal.. Nonetheless, many startups are hesitant to consider crowdfunding because little guidance exists on how the various types of crowdfunding add value in different life cycle stages and which type is best suited for which stage. In response to this gap, this article introduces a typology of crowdfunding, the benefits it offers, and how specific benefits relate to the identified crowdfunding types. On this basis, we present a framework for choosing the right crowdfunding type for each stage in the startup life cycle, in addition to providing practical advice on crowdfunding best practices. The best practices outlined have shown demonstrable contributions toward achieving funding goals and are likely to prove valuable for startups.

  • 10.
    Pitt, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Botha, Elsamari
    Stellenbosch Univ, Business Sch, Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    Ferreira, Joao J.
    Univ Beira Interior, Res Unit Business Sci NECE, Covilha, Portugal..
    Kietzmann, Jan
    Univ Victoria, Gustayson Sch Business, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada..
    Employee brand engagement on social media: Managing optimism and commonality2018In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 635-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers how employees engage with B2B firms on social media, a topic that is largely overlooked in the extant brand engagement literature. Using the results from a large-scale study of employee brand engagement on social media, we identify two key drivers of employee brand engagement using the content analysis tool DICTION-namely, optimism and commonality. Employees of top-ranked and -rated firms express higher levels of optimism and commonality in their reviews of their employers on social media than do their counterparts in bottom-ranked and -rated firms. This permits the construction of a 2 x 2 matrix that allows managers to diagnose strategies for increasing or improving employee brand engagement. This creates four different kinds of employee brand engagement situations, and offers human resources and marketing managers different strategies in each case. We demonstrate how practitioners and scholars can shed new light on the way stake-holders engage with brands.

  • 11. Selling, T.I.
    et al.
    Nordlund, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    The problem of management bias in accounting estimates: An investor perspective on root causes and solutions2015In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 501-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standards of the PCAOB implicitly, yet unmistakably, presume that auditors are capable of eliminating the material effects of management bias by constraining point estimates to a ’reasonable’ range. Yet, from inspection results of the PCAOB and its global counterparts we can confidently infer that auditors far too often fail to exercise sufficient skepticism of management’s estimates. The consequences could be profound. Therefore, we are proposing fundamental changes to the rules of engagement between the auditor and its client. We would, incrementally over time, transfer the responsibility for financial statement judgments to independent appraisers. Auditing would become solely a verification service, and financial statements would better serve investors and the public interest.

  • 12.
    Vigar-Ellis, Deborah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing. School of Management, IT and Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Pitt, L.
    Simon Fraser University.
    Berthon, P.
    Bentley University.
    Knowing what they know: A managerial perspective on consumer knowledge2015In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 679-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What a consumer knows about a product or service is crucial to how it is marketed, and this is particularly true in the case of information-intensive products. However, there are two important sides to consumer knowledge: first, there is what consumers really know, or objective knowledge; second, there is what consumers think they know, or subjective knowledge. Interestingly, relatively little is known about the relationship between these two aspects of consumer knowledge or about the variables that impact this knowledge. Using data from a study of consumers’ knowledge of wine, the relationships between and influencers of objective and subjective knowledge are explored in this installment of Technology & Marketing, and a typology of customer knowledge is developed. This has useful implications for the marketing of wine and other information-rich products.

  • 13.
    Wiid, Ria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Pitt, L.
    Mills, A. J.
    Every story tells a picture: Lessons from cartoons on corporate governance2012In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 543-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While pictures tell stories, in the case of cartoons, stories also tell pictures. A theory of cartooning suggests that cartoons reflect public sentiment toward issues. As such, cartoons are a useful way of gauging and tracking public sentiment over time. This article uses a historical cartoon analysis to track public sentiment toward issues surrounding corporate governance. Specifically, it compares what cartoons reflected prior to the economic crash of 2008 and what they portrayed after. The criteria of narrative, location, binary struggle, and normative transfer were used as a framework to analyze 258 cartoons. We found that three major changes emerged after the 2008 crash that hold important lessons for those who govern corporations: the public's concern is no longer so much about corporate and individual fraudulent behavior as it is about corporate and individual greed; there is an impression that corporations do not do bad things so much as they do not do any good things; and ordinary people, workers, and taxpayers are those who suffer most when corporations are not governed well.

  • 14.
    Wilson, Matthew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Where is the power in numbers?: Understanding firm and consumer power when crowdsourcing2018In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 545-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work utilizes the theory of social power as a lens through which to analyze the power structure of firms and consumers involved in crowdsourcing and discusses the managerial implications of this power balance. The results of this analysis reveal how power is structured differently in each form of crowdsourcing, with consumer power being strongest in the case of idea crowdsourcing and weakest in the case of microtask crowdsourcing. These differences in power have implications for managers who initiate and maintain crowdsourcing endeavors. Understanding the structure of consumer power in different types of crowdsourcing allows firms to better prepare for the wide range of possible outcomes as consumers inevitably push their own agendas regardless of whether or not these agendas are aligned with those of the firm.

  • 15.
    Wilson, Matthew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Robson, Karen
    Botha, Elsamari
    Crowdsourcing in a time of empowered stakeholders: Lessons from crowdsourcing campaigns2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowdsourcing can test a company's willingness to relinquish control to key stakeholders. Using past examples of four failed crowdsourcing initiatives, we explore the negative and unintended consequences of crowdsourcing in an age when stakeholders are empowered to speak their minds, make a mockery of organizational initiatives, and direct initiatives as it suits their own agenda. The concepts of crowdthink and crowd hijacking are introduced, and advice is given on how managers can avoid or anticipate some of the potential issues that arise during crowdsourcing endeavors. With these considerations, managers can harness the power of crowds effectively to achieve organizational goals with limited negative consequences.

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