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  • 1.
    Annosi, Maria Carmela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Martini, Antonella
    Appio, F. P.
    Social conduct, learning and innovation: An abductive study of the dark side of agile software development2015In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methodologies have been adopted by an increasing number of organizations to improve their responsiveness. However, few studies have empirically analysed the effect of Agile on long-term organizational goals such as learning and innovation. Using an abductive approach, this study examines the relationships between self-regulated teams’ social conduct and their resulting learning and innovation. Results indicate that the perceived time pressure to get the job done greatly impedes team engagement in learning and innovation activities. Time pressure is affected by the various control strategies deriving from the implementation of Agile, which constitute its dark side: concertive, belief, diagnostic and boundary controls.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH. The University of Gävle, Sweden .
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    Manzini, Raffaella
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    Tell, Fredrik
    Open to a Select Few?: Matching Partners and Knowledge Content for Open Innovation Performance2015In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 72-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to illuminate the costs and benefits of crossing firm boundaries in inbound open innovation (OI) by determining the relationships among partner types, knowledge content and performance. The empirical part of the study is based on a survey of OI collaborations answered by R&D managers in 415 Italian, Finnish and Swedish firms. The results show that the depth of collaboration with different partners (academic/consultants, value chain partners, competitors and firms in other industries) is positively related to innovation performance, whereas the number of different partners and size have negative effects. The main result is that the knowledge content of the collaboration moderates the performance outcomes and the negative impact of having too many different kinds of partners. This illustrates how successful firms use selective collaboration strategies characterized by linking explorative and exploitative knowledge content to specific partners, to leverage the benefits and limit the costs of knowledge boundary crossing processes.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Niss, Camilla
    von Haartman, Robin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.) (closed (20130101). University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Combining Master and Apprentice Roles: Potential for Learning in Distributed Manufacturing Networks2010In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore possible effects for learning when a manufacturing plant takes a double role, as being both master plant and apprentice plant, in a globally distributed industrialization process. Industrialization is here understood as the process of preparing new products for volume manufacturing. Two research questions are addressed. The first is what characterizes the dual roles. The second concerns how the dual roles affect knowledge integration and learning processes, and whether this arrangement facilitates learning between master and apprentice. Based on a study of a global telecom equipment company, the paper provides insights into some of the challenges and effects of dynamic switching of roles. By separating the network function from the strategic role of the plant, the study identifies four options for learning. The case adds to the literature on learning in manufacturing networks and to previous research on how distributed processes affect innovation capability.

  • 4. Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Low-Cost versus Innovation: Contrasting Outsourcing and Integration Strategies in Manufacturing2009In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how two different outsourcing manufacturing strategies relate to plant performance and innovation capability when taking into account the organizational integration of design and manufacturing as well as product complexity. The study discriminates between low-cost-oriented outsourcing and innovation-oriented outsourcing. The empirical data used is based on a survey of 267 engineering firms, of which half have outsourced manufacturing. We found that the two outsourcing strategies do have different effects, which illustrates that outsourcing represents a trade-off between improving innovation capability and lowering costs. The study furthermore shows that manufacturing and supplier integration in product design processes is mainly beneficial when applying innovation-oriented outsourcing, and in particular when products and manufacturing processes are complex.

  • 5.
    Bergendahl, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. SCA Hygiene Products, Sweden .
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Creating Ideas for Innovation: Effects of Organizational Distance on Knowledge Creation Processes2015In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 87-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is to a large extent considered a social and communicative process, and input from other individuals potentially improves the generation of novel and valuable ideas also in the early stages of idea creation and development. Both colleagues inside organizations and external parties have frequently been proposed as important sources of information and knowledge within this part of the innovation process. Other contributions addressing social networks and innovation bring into focus the potentially negative effects that certain network structures may have on innovation, pointing to inconsistencies in received theory. In order to address these inconsistencies, an empirical study of ideation in a Swedish multinational firm was performed, taking into account two different knowledge creation processes - combination and in-depth analysis - and their inter-relationships with organizational distance between contributing individuals. Data was collected using a survey and was analysed using regression models. It was found that different levels of organizational distance correlate with different knowledge creation processes. In-depth analysis occurred more often with employees' close colleagues, whereas the combination of existing ideas and information was more frequent in interaction with employees' close colleagues and with external parties. Both these interaction patterns were also found to be positive for the generation of patents, whereas no such relationship could be seen when individuals interacted with colleagues in other departments in the same firm. The findings have implications for theory on cognitive distance, and also suggest that management needs to facilitate different types of collaboration and networking when aiming to facilitate and support ideation, taking into consideration the type of innovation aimed for, as well as its supporting knowledge creation processes.

  • 6.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Knowledge Domain Spanners in Ideation2012In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideation is increasingly receiving attention as a management issue, and we can at present witness the emergence and diffusion of a range of different proactive approaches towards ideation. This development is hardly surprising in the light of the changed nature of innovation activities, including a higher reliance also on external sources for innovation and more focus on non-technological types of innovation, such as business model innovations. Firms need to handle both a larger number of sources for innovation and more different types of innovations. This article investigates how spanning different knowledge domains influences individuals' ideation performance. A study has been performed using data on all ideas created within an organization during three years. From this data, two broad set of knowledge domains are identified and the influence on ideation of the individuals spanning these domains the knowledge domain spanners in ideation are investigated. The empirical results show that knowledge domain spanners in ideation have higher ideation performance than individuals engaged in only one knowledge domain.

  • 7.
    Björk, Jennie
    et al.
    Center for Business Innovation, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Boccardelli, P.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ideation capabilities for continuous innovation2010In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 385-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores ideation capabilities in large organizations. Based on the dynamic capabilities framework, it is seen that ideation capabilities are managerial and organizational processes for the stimulation, identification, selection and implementation of ideas. In order to explore how these capabilities are manifested and used in firms, case studies of four Swedish companies have been performed. The results of the study show that there are different approaches to ideation. In terms of the nature of innovative ideas, the observations lead to the suggestion that ideation presents some seemingly paradoxical issues to management. Firms with an explicit focus on building ideation practices experience that there are some negative consequences of the resultant formalization. Furthermore, the extent to which many employees should be involved in ideation is a difficult aspect, even though new technologies make this more viable. Also the degree to which the search for ideas should be directed is a non-trivial question, as the ideation processes can be facilitated by both freedom and limitations. It is nevertheless seen that firms can benefit from more deliberate approaches to ideation, in particular if these are broad and balanced and focus on both building capabilities that formalize the informal, in terms of establishing explicit processes, roles and systems, and building capabilities needed to manage informal structures in new ways.

  • 8.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.).
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Bessant, John
    Convergence or National Specificity?: Testing the CI Maturity Model across Multiple Countries2007In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 348-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically tests the Continuous Improvement (CI) maturity model across multiple countries. The analysis is based on data from the 2nd International CINet Survey, limited to the situation in Australia, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Despite some differences in Continuous Improvement maturity level between countries, findings lend support to the convergence argument. Regardless of national specificity, Continuous Improvement behaviour patterns emerge in a similar fashion, and furthermore, correspond to improved operational performance if adopted. In addition, findings show that other contextual variables such as company size and type of production system are of limited importance. This implies that Continuous Improvement is something that can be implemented and developed successfully if managed properly, irrespective of contextual influences such as those stemming from cultural and industrial factors.

  • 9.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    The Influence of Internal Channels of Communication on Incremental and Radical Innovation in Swedish PharmaciesIn: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Networks for Innovation - But What Networks and What Innovation?2012In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is a social and interactive process in which collaboration and exchange of knowledge and information play crucial roles. Two conflicting hypotheses have been raised in previous research: Burt's structural hole hypothesis and the density hypothesis. In brief, the former of these hypotheses builds upon arguments for open network structures in the acquisition of innovation; the latter one builds upon arguments for closed network structures for innovation. To shed some light on this state of confusion, this paper tests these two conflicting hypotheses on two separate measures of innovation in a service industry setting. One innovation measure is more incremental in nature and regards the implementation of employees' ideas. The other innovation measure is more radical in nature and regards new services. Findings suggest that social network measures are, indeed, powerful predictors of innovation and, further, that the impact of these are likely to be radically different depending upon the type and measure of innovation. Consequently, this paper recommends caution when studying the impact of social network measures upon innovation, and that more fine-grained measurements in particular are needed rather than focusing upon inter-relationships of an overly general and superficial nature.

  • 11. Karlsson, A.
    et al.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Establishing and managing a network for continuous innovation: Invoking organizational pressure2017In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 128-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social networks in organizations have been identified as important both in terms of increasing our understanding of innovation and for organizations to realize innovation outcomes. While previous studies have informed us of the importance of networks for innovation, we know little of how companies intentionally can design and utilize networks to achieve continuous innovation. The aim of this paper is to explore how a network for continuous innovation can be established and managed. A longitudinal case study has been performed using data covering the establishment and subsequent management of a network for supporting continuous innovation, spanning the product management and R&D department of a large multinational company. The results reveal the potential to use intra-organizational networks to invoke organizational pressure conducive for making innovation happen. This pressure is induced by autonomy and self-organizing in the network and consists of reciprocal expectations and demands between the top (management) and the bottom (employees involved in the network) of the organizational hierarchy. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  • 12.
    Kaulio, Matti A.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Rohrbeck, René
    Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University.
    Double Ambidexterity: How a telco incumbent used business-model and technology innovations to successfully respond to three major disruptions2017In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 26, p. 339-352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Lindgren, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Gender, Organisation and Management.
    Packendorff, Johann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Issues, responsibilities and identities: A distributed leadership perspective on biotechnology R&D management2011In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 157-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research reported here is to contribute to the ongoing development of R&D project leadership studies by applying a distributed leadership perspective in the analysis of a product development project in a small biotechnology venture. A distributed leadership perspective implies that leadership is studied as a process of social interaction, involving several individuals who continuously construct leadership activities together. From a case study of a bio-tech venture, we conclude that leadership work in R&D projects implies construction of issues, responsibilities and identities. That is, what people do - seen from this perspective - when performing leadership activities in this project is that they gradually move the project and the organization forward by processing issues, resolving ambiguities concerning responsibility, and develop their understandings on the identity bases involved.

  • 14.
    Lindskog, Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Hemphälä, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lean Tools Promoting Individual Innovation in Healthcare2016In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is a management concept that has been implemented in different sectors, including healthcare. In lean, employees continuously improve the work processes, which is closely associated with small step innovation. In moving away from the ambiguity surrounding lean in healthcare, this empirical study expands upon lean tools and innovation enabling job resources, as a contextual prerequisite, promoting healthcare employees’ individual innovation at work. Three public sector entities in Sweden participated in a longitudinal quantitative study (n=281). Idea generation and idea implementation, as individual innovation, were analysed using four-level multiple linear regression models. 5S and value stream mapping facilitated employee individual innovation. Hence, these lean tools are considered job resources for such innovation in the initial phase of implementing lean. After controlling for the lean context, job resources and job demands, visual follow-up boards and standardised work had no significant influence upon individual innovation, while development resources and information as participation promoted individual innovation. This study contributes to the understanding of how individual innovation is associated with lean tools and other innovation-related resources in healthcare. These results add to the knowledge of methods and resources promoting individual innovation when initiating a lean implementation.

  • 15.
    Lund Stetler, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. Institute for Management of Innovation and Technology, Sweden .
    Exploring the tension between clarity and ambiguity in goal setting for innovation2015In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 231-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we analyse the role of goal setting for innovation in an R&D context. The literature on goal setting for innovation is inconclusive; some scholars claim that goals should be ambiguous in order to inspire novel ideas, but others claim that clear project goals are important in order to undertake innovation projects in an efficient manner. We aim to explain this inconsistency by taking a more fine-grained view of innovation where we study goal setting in relation to exploratory aspects such as idea generation separately from exploitatory aspects such as idea implementation. The results from an empirical survey study in the R&D department of an automotive company reveal that a general ambition to be innovative is positively related to all phases of innovation, but the effects of clear project goals are more complex. We found that idea novelty increases under conditions of either high or low levels of goal clarity, whereas mid-range levels of goal clarity are related to fewer novel ideas. These findings inform existing knowledge about goal setting and innovation, and in particular challenge the body of literature showing that only high levels of ambiguity in goal setting are a fruitful means for innovation.

  • 16.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Product and process novelty in small companies’ design processes2010In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 405-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This article explores the design processes in small companies and investigates how these design processes are executed. The influence of two different kinds of novelty on the design processes is further examined: the relative novelty of the product being developed and the relative novelty of design processes. The relative novelty of the product is high if it is a radically new product to develop. High relative novelty for design processes typically means no experience or knowledge about design processes. Based on an embedded multiple case study of three small companies in Sweden, eight different design processes are described and analysed. The results show that the design processes differ, even within the same company, and that relative novelty affects the design process. If the relative novelty of both the product to be developed and of the design processes is low, a formalized and linear design process was found to work. A design process that is cyclical, iterative and knowledge-creating was found to work irrespective of the relative novelty. Customers and users were found to play a large and important role in the design processes.

  • 17.
    Magnusson, Mats
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Boccardelli, P.
    Börjesson, S.
    Managing the Efficiency-Flexibility Tension in Innovation: Strategic and Organizational Aspects2009In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 2-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Mascia, Daniele
    et al.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Organizing Ideation, Creativity and Innovation: The Role of Social Networks2012In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 458-459Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Mascia, Daniele
    et al.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    The Role of Social Networks in Organizing Ideation, Creativity and Innovation: An Introduction2015In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Nilsson, Susanne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Exploring the Use of Innovation Performance Measurement to Build Innovation Capability in a Medical Device Company2014In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 183-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase their innovation capability, many organizations make the effort to actively change their R&D working practices. In parallel, measurement is an important issue with regard to managing innovation. In this paper, innovation management and measurement theory are combined with empirical investigations of experiences of using measurement as a support to the development of innovation capability in practice. The paper reports results from analysis of measurement data and a semi-structured interview study, encompassing 19 interviews with managers and engineers involved in the current change activities of the case company. The study reveals that various innovation measurement mechanisms are used in different departments in the R&D organization, reflecting the diverse views of what constitutes innovation that dominate in each group, as well as the group's level of involvement in the on-going building of innovation capability - from heavily involved (innovation leaders) to attentiveness from a distance (innovation laggards and progress evaluators). This, together with challenges related to identifying relevant metrics to support both incremental and radical innovation and managing existing reward and goal-setting systems, is seen to have implications on the capability development in the organization requiring attention to how innovation measurement is designed, implemented and used in practice.

  • 21. Sandström, C.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Jörnmark, J.
    Exploring Factors Influencing Incumbents’ Response to Disruptive Innovation2009In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how certain incumbent characteristics influence an established firm's response to disruptive innovation. More specifically, it looks at the challenges a middle size, top segment company faced and how this affected its reaction to the disruptive threat. This is done by conducting an in-depth case study of Hasselblad, a manufacturer of professional cameras. It can be seen in this case study that Hasselblad's limited resources and its niche strategy affected how it managed the transition from analogue to digital camera technology. These characteristics made it difficult to allow experimentation with digital imaging in the main business since the available resources were severely limited and this initially inferior technology could harm the brand image. Instead, Hasselblad pursued collaborations and eventually launched a hybrid camera, which was compatible both with film and digital backs but did not become the expected success. Being close to bankruptcy, the digital resources needed were acquired and the company eventually survived the disruption. In conclusion, this paper argues that the managerial challenges and solutions to the innovator's dilemma depend upon the particular characteristics of incumbents and that this heterogeneity has not been sufficiently captured by previous literature. It also suggests that medium size, top segment firms can survive disruptive innovation through collaboration and acquisitions.

  • 22. Sandström, Christian
    et al.
    Berglund, Henrik
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Symmetric Assumptions in the Theory of Disruptive Innovation: Theoretical and Managerial Implications2014In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 472-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on disruptive innovation has convincingly explained why many established firms encounter problems under conditions of discontinuous change. Incumbents fail to invest in new technologies that are not demanded by their existing customers. This argument is grounded in resource dependency theory and the associated assumption that existing customers control a firm's internal resource allocation processes. While the problem of disruptive innovation has been convincingly explained, there is still a need for managerial solutions. We argue that a key reason why such solutions are lacking can be found in the asymmetric assumptions made in the original theory of disruptive innovation. Specifically, we identify two related forms of asymmetry. First, the focal (incumbent) firm is treated as a collection of heterogeneous actors with different preferences, incentives and competencies, whereas firms in the surrounding environment are treated as if they contained no such heterogeneity. Second, the theory of disruptive innovation describes incumbents as controlled by their environment, but has failed to recognize that the environment can also be influenced. In this paper we argue that a more symmetric theory of disruptive innovation-i.e. one that treats all similar entities in the same way-opens up for a range of interesting managerial solutions.

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