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  • 1.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Halldin, Torbjörn
    KTH.
    Born globals – presence, performance and prospects2019In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 60-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept born global firms has gained a spectacular increase in interest from both academic and political circles. Rigorous quantitative treatment of born global firms are however rare in the international business/economics literature. Implementing unique data on all Swedish start-ups during 1998–2008 in the manufacturing sector, we conclude that born global firms are a very rare event, that their prevalence seems invariant to time, and that they perform similar to other matched “twin” firms with regard to profitability and productivity but report a considerably higher growth in employment and sales. These results are robust to a wider definition of born global firms and to the timing of performance measurements.

  • 2.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    The Relationship Between Domestic and Outward Foreign Direct Investment: The Role of Industry-Specific Effects2005In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 677-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has been inconclusive as regards the effect of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) on domestic investments. In this article, we show that this inconclusiveness can be explained at a disaggregated level as a function of the way industries are organized. Based on a simple theoretical framework including monitoring and trade costs, we argue that a complementary relationship can be expected to prevail in vertically integrated industries, whereas a substitutionary relationship can be expected in horizontally organized production. The empirical analysis confirms a significant difference between the two categories of industry as regards the impact of outward FDI on domestic investment. The results may thus have profound policy implications.

  • 3. Cook, Gary
    et al.
    Pandit, Naresh R.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jonkoping International Business School.
    Geographic Clustering and Outward Foreign Direct Investment2012In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1112-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses an important neglected question: To what extent do geographic clusters promote outward foreign direct investment (ODI)? We find evidence that clusters do promote ODI and so support Porter’s argument that advantages gained in clusters can be the foundations of successful internationalisation. Digging deeper, we find that certain cluster incumbents promote more ODI than others, with more experienced firms and firms with stronger resource bases accounting for more ODI. We also find that firms located in clusters within major global nodes/cities engage in more ODI. Finally, we find that both localisation and urbanisation economies promote ODI. However, the former, within-industry effects, are more important. Overall, this study echoes Dunning’s call for more focus on the ‘L’ component of the OLI paradigm and particularly on the advantages that reside in clusters that make them not only attractive destinations for FDI but also fertile environments from which FDI can spring.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fjeldstad, T.
    Jonsson, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Transaction services and SME internationalization: The effect of home and host country bank relationships on international investment and growth2017In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 130-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on the argument put forward by North and Wallis (1994) that the transaction sector enables economic growth by lowering the costs of transacting, we investigate how internationalizing firms' host and home country bank relationships affect their international specific investments and growth. Banks provide payment, liquidity, and risk management services, which are essential to international business relationships, yet little is known about how banks affect international business relationships. In a sample of 255 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), we find that host and home country bank relationships affect the dependent variables differently. We contribute to the literature by explicating the role and effects of banks in international business relationships. Our findings have implications for understanding transaction services in international business as well as the choices made by their customers.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin. Stanford University, USA.
    Jonsson, Sara
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    Lindstrand, Angelika
    Modeling firm specific internationalization risk: An application to banks' risk assessment in lending to firms that do international business2014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1074-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on internationalization process theory, we develop a new model for firm-specific internationalization risk assessment. The model shows that firm-specific internationalization risks can be determined from a firm's experiences and from current business activities in a firm's network. Experiential risks are categorized as international, country market, network, or relationship experience risks. Risk assessment in current network activities can be determined from a firm's dependency on a network and from the network's performance and evolution. We apply our model to credit risk assessment by banks and other credit institutions. This article adds to research on financial institutions' credit risk assessment by focusing on firm-specific internationalization risk assessment, an area that has previously received little attention in the literature. In addition, this article provides a better understanding of risk assessment in the internationalization process, shedding light not only on the risks involved in firms' commitment to internationalization but also on the risks that banks and other institutions take when they commit by lending to internationalizing firms.

  • 6.
    Jonsson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The impact of institutional impediments and information and knowledge exchange on SMEs’ investments in international business relationships2010In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 548-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of institutional impediments and of knowledge and information exchange in international business relationships on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) specific investments in international business relationships and the outcome of such investments on the performance of SMEs. Using a sample of 255 internationalising SMEs, we develop and test three hypotheses with the linear structural relations (LISREL) model. The analysis shows that institutional impediments and the exchange of knowledge and information in business relationships lead to increased relationship specific investments (RSIs). Furthermore, such investment results in increased performance for the internationalising SME. Research commonly uses micro or macro properties of institutions to explain how institutional differences affect international business; however, limited research has been devoted to investigate how institutional differences, experienced through interaction in business relationships, affect the business relationship. This paper helps to close this gap by showing the effects of institutional differences on a relational level.

  • 7. Lindstrand, Angelika
    et al.
    Eriksson, Kent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Sharma, D. Deo
    The perceived usefulness of knowledge supplied by foreign client networks2009In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 26-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The network surrounding a firm’s foreign clients has large influence on its ability to act in the market. How firms can utilize the knowledge supplied by client networks is therefore of great importance to their business with clients. Many studies show the usefulness of foreign clients and suppliers, whereas less attention has been given to the usefulness of knowledge supplied by clients’ network, such as clients’ clients, clients’ supplementary suppliers and competitors to the firm. This study contributes to international business research on networks by investigating the knowledge supplied by client networks for a firm doing business with a specific foreign client on a sample of 494 firms. A LISREL analysis demonstrates that knowledge supplied by client networks is more useful the more experienced the firm. Client networks are also more useful the more knowledge the firm has of its client, the more the firm needs knowledge of its clients and suppliers, the higher the cost of the client relationship, and the more standardized the product. A major conclusion is that the client network knowledge is more useful the further a firm’s collaboration with the client, presumably as a result of the new, and more embedded business that the firm develops with the client. Implications are that client networks are resources that can be important competitive advantages for the internationalizing firm.

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