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  • 1. Breuer, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Felde, Moritz
    Steininger, Bertram I.
    Department of Finance, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 64, Aachen, 52056, Germany.
    The Financial Impact of Firm Withdrawals from “State Sponsor of Terrorism” Countries2017In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 144, no 3, p. 533-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an event-study framework, we examine the stock market reaction to the announcement of firm withdrawal from countries designated as "State Sponsors of Terrorism" by the U.S. Department of State. We find that such announcements are, on average, linked to a statistically significant increase in firm value-an effect which already kicks in a few days before the announcement date. The observed abnormal returns are positively associated with the U.S. domicile, the intensity of a firm's hitherto existing engagement in a designated country, the number of countries that it withdraws from, as well as with a withdrawal from Iran compared to a withdrawal from other countries. Evidence suggests an increase in demand for stocks of withdrawing firms as a plausible cause of the positive stock price reaction. Pension and endowment funds are significantly less likely to own strategic stakes in firms with intensive involvements in countries designated as "State Sponsors of Terrorism." We find some statistical evidence that firms remaining active in such countries have abnormally positive returns in the long run.

  • 2.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Informed consent out of context2006In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 149-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several attempts have been made to transfer the concept of informed consent from medical and research ethics to dealing with affected groups in other areas such as engineering, land use planning, and business management. It is argued that these attempts are unsuccessful since the concept of informed consent is inadequate for situations in which groups of affected persons are dealt with collectively (rather than individually, as in clinical medicine). There are several reasons for this. The affected groups from which informed consent is sought cannot be identified with sufficient precision. Informed consent is associated with individual veto power, but it does not appear realistic to give veto power to all individuals who are affected for instance by an engineering project. Most importantly, the concept of informed consent puts focus on the public's acceptance of ready-made proposals rather than on its participation in the decision-making process as a whole, which includes the development of alternatives for the decision. Therefore, the concept of informed consent is not applicable to a company's relations with groups and collectives. It may, however, be applicable to a company's relations with individual persons such as customers and employees.

  • 3.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The transformation of transparency - on the act on public procurement and the right to appeal in the context of the war on corruption2007In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the alleged anti-corruption effects of procurement reforms by presenting the European Act on Public Procurement and the increasing number of appeals filed by suppliers due to perceived misevaluations of tenders and perceived impairments of transparency. The delays and costs that arise from this right to appeal are studied in the Swedish context with the aim of contributing to the debate on corruption in two ways. First, instead of using the modern definition of corruption, the ancient definition is introduced to explain anti-corruption efforts, focusing on corruption as deviations from a pristine standard as opposed to corruption as the abuse of public power for private gain. Second, it will be argued that the fight against corruption in the practical implementation of the European Act on Public Procurement jeopardizes efficiency and might devaluate competence. However, striving for the total elimination of corruption-an evil that has to be fought disregarding the consequences-is integral in the war against it.

  • 4.
    Lindblom, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Dissolving the moral dilemma of whistleblowing2007In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 413-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethical debate on whistleblowing concerns centrally the conflict between the right to political free speech and the duty of loyalty to the organization where one works. This is the moral dilemma of whistleblowing. Political free speech is justified because it is a central part of liberal democracy, whereas loyalty can be motivated as a way of showing consideration for one's associates. The political philosophy of John Rawls is applied to this dilemma, and it is shown that the requirement of loyalty, in the sense that is needed to create the moral dilemma of whistleblowing, is inconsistent with that theory. In this sense, there is no moral dilemma of whistleblowing. This position has been labelled extreme in that it says that whistleblowing is always morally permitted. In a discussion and rejection of Richard De George's criteria on permissible whistleblowing, it is pointed out that the mere rejection of loyalty will not lead to an extreme position; harms can still be taken into account. Furthermore, it is argued that the best way is, in this as in most other political circumstances, to weigh harms is provided by the free speech argument from democracy.

  • 5.
    Lindblom, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    The Structure of a Rawlsian Theory of Just Work2011In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 577-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article outlines the structure of a Rawlsian theory of justice in the employment relationship. A focus on this theory is motivated by the role it plays in debates in business ethics. The Rawlsian theory answers three central questions about justice and the workplace. What is the relationship between social justice and justice at work? How should we conceive of the problem of justice in the economic sphere? And, what is justice in the workplace? To see fully what demands justice makes on the workplace, we should first spell out the implications that domestic justice has for working conditions. When this is done, we can develop a conception of workplace justice and investigate what content such local justice should have. John Rawls's political liberalism was constructed for the specific problem of a just basic structure; in order to apply it to another problem the key theoretical concepts must be revised. Reasons for a specific construction of a local original position are given and arguments are presented in support of a principle of local justice, which takes the form of a choice egalitarian local difference principle.

  • 6.
    Modin, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Moral and Instrumental Norms in Food Risk Communication2011In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 313-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major normative recommendations in the literature on food risk communication can be summarized in the form of seven practical principles for such communication: (1) Be honest and open. (2) Disclose incentives and conflicts of interest. (3) Take all available relevant knowledge into consideration. (4) When possible, quantify risks. (5) Describe and explain uncertainties. (6) Take all the public's concerns into account. (7) Take the rights of individuals and groups seriously. We show that each of these proposed principles can be justified both in terms of more fundamental ethical principles and instrumentally in terms of the communicating agent's self-interest. The mechanisms of this concordance of justifications are discussed. It is argued that the concordance is specific for areas such as food risks in which agents such as companies and public authorities are highly dependent on the public's trust and confidence. The implications of these findings both for moral philosophy and for practical food risk communication are discussed.

  • 7.
    Munter, Dan
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Beyond Coercion: Moral Assessment in the Labour Market2017In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 142, no 1, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some libertarians argue that informed consent alone makes transactions in the labour market morally justified. In contrast, some of their critics claim that such an act of consent is no guarantee against coercion. To know whether agreements are voluntary, we need to assess the quality of the offers or the prevailing background conditions. ISCT theorists argue that it is imperative to take social norms into account when evaluating the labour market. We present a novel framework for moral assessment in the labour market, which takes consent, background conditions and norms into account, but which mainly focuses on the offers and demands made. Consent renders a transaction legitimate in the same way we regard a fair election legitimate even if we object to its outcome. For offers to be substantially justified, exploitation must be avoided and offers must give expression to the value of community. Only then they are morally justified.

  • 8.
    Persson, Anders J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    The contract of employment: ethical dimensions2006In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 407-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the nature of the contract of employment is explored from an ethical point of view. It is argued that certain normative arguments should be taken into account in order to justify such a contract. Furthermore, an argument is developed against the claim that (a) the individual's freedom of decision and (b) the practice of institutional arrangements are sufficient to justify a contract of employment. The dimensional analysis offered shows that further conditions are needed: (a) must be elaborated and interpreted to the extent that this condition is not sufficient - rather sub-criteria regarding the agent's state of knowledge must be met; and (b) should be supplemented by a demand for fairness. A tentative analysis of existing work contracts is the starting point for the ethical analysis. The aim is to show what a legitimate, or reasonable, contract of employment will require. Finally, some important normative implications and consequences regarding the contract's normative status are discussed.

  • 9.
    Persson, Anders J.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Privacy at work: ethical criteria2003In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 42, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technologies and practices, such as drug testing, genetic testing, and electronic surveillance infringe upon the privacy of workers on workplaces. We argue that employees have a prima facie right to privacy, but this right can be overridden by competing moral principles that follow, explicitly or implicitly, from the contract of employment. We propose a set of criteria for when intrusions into an employee's privacy are justified. Three types of justification are specified, namely those that refer to the employer's interests, to the interests of the employee her- or himself, and to the interests of third parties such as customers and fellow workers. For each of these three types, sub-criteria are proposed that can be used to determine whether a particular infringement into an employee's privacy is morally justified or not.

  • 10.
    Sandin, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Approaches to Ethics for Corporate Crisis Management2009In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethics of corporate crisis management is a seriously underdeveloped field. Among recent proposals in the area, two contributions stand out: Seeger and Ulmer's (2001) virtue ethics approach to crisis management ethics and Simola's (2003) ethics of care. In the first part of the paper, I argue that both contributions are problematic: Seeger and Ulmer focus on top management and propose virtues that lack substance and are in need of further development. Simola's proposal is also fraught with difficulty, since it seems to conceive of ethics of care as a course of action that can be chosen in a crisis, something which runs contrary to the idea of caring. In the second part of the paper, I argue that Simola and Seeger and Ulmer are nevertheless on the right track, and I propose some directions for further development of the ethics of corporate crisis management. I argue that the value of codes of conduct is limited. Furthermore, I propose a way of identifying relevant virtues for corporate crisis management and discuss a problem that is prevalent in crisis management ethics (the temptation of ad hoc utilitarianism).

  • 11.
    Sinha, Vikash Kumar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico Di Milano.
    Arena, Marika
    Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico Di Milano.
    Manifold Conceptions of the Internal Auditing of Risk Culture in the Financial Sector2018In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study investigates the manifold conceptions of the internal auditing (IA) of risk culture prevalent among four influential actors of the financial sector—regulators, normalizers, consultants, and implementers. By inductive analysis of 20 interviews and 295 documents, we illustrate a two-step interpretive scheme utilized by the four actors in their IA approaches of risk culture: defining broad goals and designing visibility schemes. The visibility schemes were tied to the demarcation, measurement, as well as the IA data collection techniques of risk culture. Our results indicate two dichotomous interpretations among the four actors concerning the IA of risk culture. The first interpretation, prevalent among regulators and implementers, promotes the control of risk culture primarily through verification. The second interpretation, adopted by consultants and normalizers, promotes the control of risk culture by IA along with the empowerment of employees through training programs. Our results not only contribute to understanding IA expansions, specifically to non-tangible domains such as risk culture but also enrich the literature exploring the mechanisms different stakeholders utilize to shape weakly professionalized IA practices.

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