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  • 1.
    Frank, Anders
    Försvarshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Gaming the Game: A Study of the Gamer Mode in Educational Wargaming2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 43, p. 118-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A risk associated with the use of games in training and education is that players "game the game," instead of focusing on their learning goals. The term gamer mode is proposed to describe this attitude. A player with a gamer-mode attitude strives to achieve goals that are optimal for winning the game, but suboptimal with respect to educational objectives. In this study of cadets playing an educational wargame to learn ground warfare tactics, the author examined occurrences of gamer mode. The results show that gamer mode on and off emerged in all analyzed sessions. Cadets understanding of the wargame was different from what the instructors expected. This study discusses why it is important to avoid situations where the gamer mode emerges and also speculates on the sources that generate this attitude-the game itself, the educational setting, and the participants' previous experiences.

  • 2. Grüne-Yanoff, Till
    et al.
    Ruphy, Stephanie
    Simpson, John
    Weirich, Paul
    Philosophical and Epistemological Issues in Simulation and Gaming2011In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 151-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Philosophy finds simulation and gaming intriguing because of the epistemological issues that they raise. For example, how do simulations of a phenomenon help to explain that phenomenon? This collection of essays addresses such issues and hopes to stimulate additional investigations in this fascinating area.

  • 3.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    The Power of Sponges: Comparing High-Tech and Low-Tech Gaming for Innovation2015In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 512-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Innovation in transport systems has a need for simulated environments to experiment with new configurations, ideas, and solutions. Gaming is one such environment. This article applies the approach to the context of capacity allocation and traffic control innovation in the Dutch railway system. Both high-tech and low-tech games are built and applied. Aim and method. By comparing cases using low-tech and high-tech games for innovation in a related bundle of projects in the railway sector, this article aims to identify different patterns emerging from a retrospective cross case comparison. The cases aimed at testing and assessing various ideas about the innovation process through high- and low-tech gaming. Results. The high-tech cases were used to generate more quantitative data, for purposes where a concept had to be tested that has been formulated at a higher level of detail. It shows that, despite the higher precision, fidelity of high-tech simulators was not necessarily better than that of low-tech cases. None of the cases were set up to formally accept or reject hypotheses, but followed the typical innovation logic of testing and assessing ideas early in the process. Conclusions. The numerous qualitative data, gathered during the gaming sessions, illustrated the benefits and drawbacks of high- and low-tech gaming. The real world decisions made by the client, based on the gaming sessions, show that the scope of the project was broader than merely an intervention in an existing transport system. Low-tech games showed to be useful for dealing with rapid systems development (prototyping). They allow flexible role settings, varying rules, and resources. High-tech games did not provide obvious fidelity advantages, but yielded more quantitative data suitable for analysis. Recommendations. The article identifies the need for a new methodological approach: gaming supporting system/organization design.

  • 4.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    The Power of Sponges: High-tech and Low-tech Gaming Simulation for the Dutch Railways2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands .
    Mayer, Igor
    Van Luipen, Jelle
    Weitenberg, Natasha
    Gaming Rail Cargo Capacity Management: Exploring and Validating Alternative Modes of Organization2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 85-101Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholders in the Netherlands’ rail cargo sector exhibit strategic behavior that causes irregularity and unpredictability in freight trains. This leads to the suboptimal use of scarce rail capacity. The authors present the results of a research project that used gaming to explore and validate alternative organizational methods for the management of rail cargo capacity with decision makers and subject matter experts from ProRail, the Netherlands’ railway infrastructure manager. Various scenarios for the organization of rail cargo capacity management were played out, tested, and extensively debriefed in three project phases. The gaming sessions demonstrated that open information sharing among stakeholders does not depend on the introduction of price mechanisms and is, indeed, a more effective way of managing capacity. The authors conclude that it is vital to introduce gaming gradually and build up organizational acceptance for this method. However, once acceptance has been achieved, gaming can generate valuable insight into strategic behavior and the performance of sociotechnical infrastructures.

  • 6.
    Raghothama, Jayanth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Evaluating City Operations Design using Interactive SimulationsIn: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Games and simulations are evaluated for serving different functions, such as learning, design, communication and collaboration. Research on the relationship between the constructs of games and their outcomes can provide insights on the design of future games, to steer towards particular outcomes.

     

    Aim. The article aims to relate the constructs of two high fidelity, high tech and free form games to a conceptual evaluation framework, to better understand the relationships between constructs such as fidelity, validity and the functions a game is meant to serve.

     

    Method. The games are built for designing operational procedures for city management. The games are built using the ProtoWorld framework, and simulate the cities of Rome and Haifa through the integration of simulations. The framework enables run time interaction and intervention within the simulated city, such that players can manage and design procedures for their cities through a large scale, realistic simulation system. Controllers from both cities play the games for their respective cities, and attempt to design and manage their simulated cities. As experts on the system, their reflections on the use of such tools in their planning practice and the outcomes of the game sessions are analyzed to evaluate the games and game sessions.

     

    Results. Results point to the free form nature of the game enabling the design of tangible outcomes, which can be immediately validated and implemented in practice. The high fidelity nature of the simulation restricts facilitation, but enhances the players’ ability to comprehend complexity. The agency of the players enables their identification with the simulation, but restricts their creativity in the game. 

  • 7.
    Raghothama, Jayanth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Rigor in Gaming for Design: Conditions for Transfer Between Game and Reality2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 246-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The increasing cognizance of complexity in systems has brought into focus important questions about the methods and tools we use to address them. Games for design, where games and computer simulations are used together to create concrete and tangible designs in a pluralistic way, with multiple stakeholders within the game is a new area for simulation gaming. Aim. In this article about gaming for design, embedded in the design science approach towards game science, we raise important philosophical questions about this new area, as well as attempt to address practical questions at the application level. We attempt to bridge the analytical science and design science approaches to games, and analyze them through meta-constructs of games such as fidelity, abstraction and resolution. Results. Results from two applications, through analysis of game play and debriefing of game sessions from two applications, COMPLEX and ProtoWorld are gathered and analyzed to understand the respresentational requirements for simulations and games. Conclusion. Results point to the need for rigor in gaming, particularly when modeling reference systems and rigor in assessing effects, both during game play and while debriefing. Results also point to expanded definitions of meta-constructs of games, as well as to their linked nature.

  • 8.
    Roungas, Bill
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Multiactor Syst, Jaffalaan, Delft, Netherlands.;ALBA Grad Business Sch, Athens, Greece..
    Bekius, Femke
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Multiactor Syst, Jaffalaan, Delft, Netherlands..
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics. Delft Univ Technol, Fac Technol Policy & Management, Jaffalaan, Delft, Netherlands.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Hlth Syst Engn, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Game Between Game Theory and Gaming Simulations: Design Choices2019In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 180-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The abstraction of complex systems, which is required by default when modelling gaming simulations, is a convoluted and time-consuming process. For gaming simulations to be efficient and effective, the problem of the real system they imitate needs to be narrowed down and simplified as much as possible. Additionally, even after abstraction of the real system, multiple design decisions need to be made and these may differ depending on the gaming simulation. Aim. This article proposes a framework for formalizing, and consequently standardizing, expediting and simplifying, the modelling of gaming simulations. Method. The proposed framework applies game concepts pertaining to game theory in the abstraction of the real system and the game design decisions. Results. Application of the framework in three case studies reveals several advantages of incorporating game theory into game design, such as formally defining the game design elements and identifying the worst-case scenarios in the real-systems, to name but two. Conclusions. Given the framework's advantages in general, and the game design recommendations it offers in particular, it is safe to conclude that, for the cases presented in this article, the framework make positive contributions towards the development of gaming simulations.

  • 9. van den Hoogen, J.
    et al.
    Lo, J.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics.
    Debriefing Research Games: Context, Substance and Method2016In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 368-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Debriefing is an intrinsic part of games for learning and proper debriefing can also be beneficial to research games. However, the literature on how to debrief research games is sparse and only provides the professional with an abstract topic guide. Aim. The purpose of this study was to design a framework for the debriefing of research games that are used in ongoing innovation processes. Method. We used the literature on debriefing and experimental research and our experience as game designers to build a framework that tackles the context, substance and method of debriefing research games. Results. Our framework provides three contributions. First, it shows how the context in which a research game is applied sometimes impacts the functionality of the game in negative ways. This can be helped by designing both the game and the debriefing together. Second, we operationalize validity to a greater extent, as this is the core of a good research game. Third, we provide a methodology for debriefing professionals that opens up the black box of the gaming simulation session. Conclusion. The debriefing framework provides a method to collectively assess the validity, reliability and robustness of the causal claims associated with the research conducted.

  • 10. van den Hoogen, J.
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gaming and Simulation for Railway Innovation: A Case Study of the Dutch Railway System2015In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 489-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Gaming simulation allows decision-makers to experiment with sociotechnical systems, similar to computer simulation. However, the value of these tools in comparison with each other remains uncertain, especially when focusing on their real-life application in systemic innovation processes. Aim. This article builds a framework based on the literature related to innovation of complex systems in a multi-actor environment and intends to use this framework to differentiate between the value of computer simulation and gaming simulation in innovation processes. Method. Using a case study of the introduction of gaming simulation to ProRail, the Dutch railway infrastructure manager, this article explores the advantages and disadvantages of using the two tools in situations where radical innovations need to be invented, explored, tested, and implemented in an incumbent system. Results. Computer simulations, as closed exercises, allow for more radical innovations to be studied. The openness of gaming sessions as well as the need for gamers to interact with a recognizable system inhibit the use of gaming simulation in envisioning radical innovations. However, they are more suitable for the joint commissioning of research and the stepwise testing of small-scale improvements. Gaming simulation is therefore a more appropriate tool for planning a concerted transition in a multi-actor setting. Conclusion. Computer simulation better allows for the building of experimental niches, and gaming simulation better helps in the concerted planning of the implementation of innovations. The article ends with concrete directions for further research as well as ideas about combining the two tools.

  • 11. Van den Hoogen, Jop
    et al.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    When Innovations should be Gamed: The value of gaming simulations for systemic transformations of networked infrastructures2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. van Lankveld, G.
    et al.
    Sehic, E.
    Lo, J. C.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Health Care Logistics. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Assessing Gaming Simulation Validity for Training Traffic Controllers2017In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 219-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The Dutch railway company ProRail is performing large-scale capacity upgrades to their infrastructure network. As part of these upgrades, ProRail uses gaming simulations to help prepare train traffic controllers for new infrastructure situations. Researching the validity of these gaming simulations is essential, since the conclusions drawn from gaming simulation use may result in decisions with large financial and social impact for ProRail and Dutch train passengers. Aim. In this article, we aim to investigate the validity of the gaming simulations for training traffic controllers for new situations in rail infrastructure. We also aim to contribute to the discussion on the minimum level of fidelity required to develop and conduct gaming simulations in a valid way. Method. We investigate the validity by using training sessions in conjunction with questionnaires. We based the approach and questionnaires on the earlier work of Raser. Results. Our results show that the validity of the gaming simulation ranges from medium to good. They also show that while the fidelity of the gaming simulation is not like the real-world operating conditions, this does not reduce validity to low levels. Conclusions. We conclude that the gaming simulation used in this study was of medium to good validity. We also conclude that maximum fidelity is not required in order to run a valid gaming simulation session.

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