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  • 1. Addessi, A. R.
    et al.
    Anelli, F.
    Benghi, D.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Corrigendum: Child-computer interaction at the beginner stage of music learning: Effects of reflexive interaction on children's musical improvisation [Front. Psychol.8 (2017)(65)]. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.000652017In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no MAR, article id 399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A corrigendum on Corrigendum: Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation by Addessi, A. R., Anelli, F., Benghi, D., and Friberg, A. (2017). Front. Psychol. 8:65. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00065 In the original article, there was an error. "she plays C3" was used instead of "it plays C3." A correction has been made to Observation and Theoretical Framework of Reflexive Interaction, paragraph 3: The little girl plays two consecutive notes, C2 and A2, and then stops to wait for the response of the system. The system responds by repeating the same notes. The child then play a single note, G2, and the system responds with a single note but this time introduces a variation: it plays C3, thus introducing a higher register. The girl, following the change introduced by the system, moves toward the higher register and plays a variant of the initial pattern, namely: D2-A2-E2-C3, and introduces a particular rhythm pattern. This "reflexive" event marks the beginning of a dialogue based on repetition and variation: the rhythmic-melodic pattern will be repeated and varied by both the system and the child in consecutive exchanges, until acquiring the form of a complete musical phrase. At some point in the dialogue, the child begins to accompany the system's response with arm movements synchronized with the rhythmic-melodic patterns, creating a kind of music-motor composition. In addition, EG1 and EG2 are incorrectly referred to within the text. A correction has been made to Duet Task, sub-section Results for Each Evaluative Criterion of the Duet Task, paragraph Reflexive Interaction: The data of Reflexive Interaction show that the EG2 obtained the highest score (4.17), followed by the CG (3.33) and the EG1 (2.61); see Table 6 and Figure 7. The difference between EG2, which only use the system with reflexive interaction, and EG1, which did not use the system with reflexive interaction, is significant (p = 0.043). Therefore, it could be said that the use of MIROR-Impro can enhance the use of the reflexive behaviors: mirroring, turn-taking, and co-regulation. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the Reflexive Interaction and the total score (r = 0.937; p < 0.01), and all other evaluative criteria, with correlations ranging from r = 0.87 (p < 0.01) for Musical Quality to r = 0.92 (p < 0.01) for Musical Organization. Thus, the higher the children's use of reflexive interaction, the better their results in each criterion and in the ability to improvise. This result can support the hypothesis that reflexive interaction is a fundamental component of musical improvised dialog. Instead, although the differences between the CG and the Experimental Groups 1 and 2 indicate that the use of the MIROR Impro appears to be "necessary" (CG > EG1) and "sufficient" (CG < EG2) to improve the ability to improvise, we cannot generalize these results because the results are not statistically significant (t-test, comparing CG and EG1: p = 0.388; CG and EG2: p = 0.285). Finally, due to the resolution of Figures 5-9 being low, they have been replaced with new figures with a higher resolution. The corrected Figures, Figures 5-9 appear below. The authors apologize for these errors and state that these do not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way.

  • 2. Addessi, Anna Rita
    et al.
    Anelli, Filomena
    Benghi, Diber
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article childrens musical improvisation is investigated through the reflexive interaction paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a reflexive output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the childrens abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the childrens ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary when they improvise in duets. However, these results are in general not statistically significant. The correlation between Reflexive Interaction and the ability to improvise is statistically significant. The results are discussed on the light of the recent literature in neuroscience and music education.

  • 3.
    Backlander, Gisela
    et al.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Med Management Ctr, Solna, Sweden..
    Falten, Rebecca
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Västerås, Sweden..
    Richter, Anne
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Med Management Ctr, Solna, Sweden..
    Development and Validation of a Multi-Dimensional Measure of Activity-Based Working Behaviors2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 655881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most work on activity-based working centers on the physical environment and digital technologies enabling flexible working. While important, we believe the key components for implementing activity-based working are employee and manager behaviors. To measure the degree of enactment of activity-based work, based on workshops with experienced practitioners as well as previous literature, we have developed and validated a behavior-focused measure of activity-based working behaviors. In our initial sample (Sample 1, N = 234), three subscales were identified: task - environment crafting, workday planning, and social needs prioritization. In the replication sample (Sample 2, N = 434), this model also showed adequate fit. Moreover, task - environment crafting was related to general health and lower stress in sample 1 (multi-organization sample), but not in the single-organization sample (sample 2). Workday planning was associated with higher concentration in both samples and in the second sample with general health and work engagement; the latter was also related to social needs prioritization.</p>

  • 4.
    Bisesi, Erica
    et al.
    Centre for Systematic Musicology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Parncutt, Richard
    Centre for Systematic Musicology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    A Computational Model of Immanent Accent Salience in Tonal Music2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no 317, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accents are local musical events that attract the attention of the listener, and can be either immanent (evident from the score) or performed (added by the performer). Immanent accents involve temporal grouping (phrasing), meter, melody, and harmony; performed accents involve changes in timing, dynamics, articulation, and timbre. In the past, grouping, metrical and melodic accents were investigated in the context of expressive music performance. We present a novel computational model of immanent accent salience in tonal music that automatically predicts the positions and saliences of metrical, melodic and harmonic accents. The model extends previous research by improving on preliminary formulations of metrical and melodic accents and introducing a new model for harmonic accents that combines harmonic dissonance and harmonic surprise. In an analysis-by-synthesis approach, model predictions were compared with data from two experiments, respectively involving 239 sonorities and 638 sonorities, and 16 musicians and 5 experts in music theory. Average pair-wise correlations between raters were lower for metrical (0.27) and melodic accents (0.37) than for harmonic accents (0.49). In both experiments, when combining all the raters into a single measure expressing their consensus, correlations between ratings and model predictions ranged from 0.43 to 0.62. When different accent categories of accents were combined together, correlations were higher than for separate categories (r = 0.66). This suggests that raters might use strategies different from individual metrical, melodic or harmonic accent models to mark the musical events.

  • 5.
    Blancke, Stefaan
    et al.
    Tilburg Univ, Tilburg Ctr Moral Philosophy Epistemol & Philosoph, Dept Philosophy, Tilburg, Netherlands..
    Edis, Taner
    Truman State Univ, Dept Phys, Kirksville, MO USA..
    Braeckman, Johan
    Univ Ghent, Dept Philosophy & Moral Sci, Ghent, Belgium..
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Landrum, Asheley R.
    Texas Tech Univ, Coll Media & Commun, Dept Advertising & Brand Strategy, Lubbock, TX USA..
    Shtulman, Andrew
    Occidental Coll, Dept Psychol, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Editorial: The Psychology of Pseudoscience2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 935645Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Downs, Johnny
    Kings Coll London, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Maudsley Biomed Res Ctr, Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol Med & Integra, London, England..
    Karali, Abubakrelsedik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Software and Computer systems, SCS. NVIDIA Corp, London, England..
    Pawlby, Susan
    South London & Maudsley Natl Hlth Serv Trust, Bethlem Royal Hosp, Channi Kumar Mother & Baby Unit, London, England..
    Toward Learning Machines at a Mother and Baby Unit2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 567310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agnostic analyses of unique video material from a Mother and Baby Unit were carried out to investigate the usefulness of such analyses to the unit. The goal was to improve outcomes: the health of mothers and their babies. The method was to implement a learning machine that becomes more useful over time and over task. A feasible set-up is here described, with the purpose of producing intelligible and useful results to healthcare professionals at the unit by means of a vision processing pipeline, grouped together with multi-modal capabilities of handling annotations and audio. Algorithmic bias turned out to be an obstacle that could only partly be handled by modern pipelines for automated feature analysis. The professional use of complex quantitative scoring for various mental health-related assessments further complicated the automation of laborious tasks. Activities during the MBU stay had previously been shown to decrease psychiatric symptoms across diagnostic groups. The implementation and first set of experiments on a learning machine for the unit produced the first steps toward explaining why this is so, in turn enabling decision support to staff about what to do more and what to do less of.

  • 7.
    Cao, Wei
    et al.
    South China Normal Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, South China Acad Adv Optoelect, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Song, Wenxu
    South China Normal Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, South China Acad Adv Optoelect, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Li, Xinge
    South China Normal Univ, Sch Psychol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Sixiao
    Fudan Univ, Acad Engn & Technol, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Ge
    Caihongqiao Children Rehabil & Serv Ctr Panyu Dis, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Yanting
    South China Normal Univ, Sch Psychol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    He, Sailing
    South China Normal Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, South China Acad Adv Optoelect, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Huilin
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Child Dev & Behav Ctr, Affiliated Hosp 3, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Interaction With Social Robots: Improving Gaze Toward Face but Not Necessarily Joint Attention in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that robot-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) hold promise, but the question remains as to whether social humanoid robots could facilitate joint attention performance in children with ASD. In this study, responsive joint attention was measured under two conditions in which different agents, a human and a robot, initiated joint attention via video. The participants were 15 children with ASD (mean age: 4.96 +/- 1.10 years) and 15 typically developing (TD) children (mean age: 4.53 +/- 0.90 years). In addition to analyses of fixation time and gaze transitions, a longest common subsequence approach (LCS) was employed to compare participants' eye movements to a predefined logical reference sequence. The fixation of TD toward agent's face was earlier and longer than children with ASD. Moreover, TD showed a greater number of gaze transitions between agent's face and target, and higher LCS scores than children with ASD. Both groups showed more interests in the robot's face, but the robot induced a lower proportion of fixation time on the target. Meanwhile participants showed similar gaze transitions and LCS results in both conditions, suggesting that they could follow the logic of the joint attention task induced by the robot as well as human. We have discussed the implications for the effects and applications of social humanoid robots in joint attention interventions.

  • 8.
    D'Amario, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Music Acoustics, mdw – University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria; RITMO Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Rhythm, Time and Motion, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Musicology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Goebl, Werner
    Department of Music Acoustics, mdw – University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Bishop, Laura
    RITMO Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Rhythm, Time and Motion, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Musicology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Body motion of choral singers2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent investigations on music performances have shown the relevance of singers’ body motion for pedagogical as well as performance purposes. However, little is known about how the perception of voice-matching or task complexity affects choristers’ body motion during ensemble singing. This study focussed on the body motion of choral singers who perform in duo along with a pre-recorded tune presented over a loudspeaker. Specifically, we examined the effects of the perception of voice-matching, operationalized in terms of sound spectral envelope, and task complexity on choristers’ body motion. Fifteen singers with advanced choral experience first manipulated the spectral components of a pre-recorded short tune composed for the study, by choosing the settings they felt most and least together with. Then, they performed the tune in unison (i.e., singing the same melody simultaneously) and in canon (i.e., singing the same melody but at a temporal delay) with the chosen filter settings. Motion data of the choristers’ upper body and audio of the repeated performances were collected and analyzed. Results show that the settings perceived as least together relate to extreme differences between the spectral components of the sound. The singers’ wrists and torso motion was more periodic, their upper body posture was more open, and their bodies were more distant from the music stand when singing in unison than in canon. These findings suggest that unison singing promotes an expressive-periodic motion of the upper body.

  • 9.
    Eerola, Tuomas
    et al.
    Department of Music, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland .
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Emotional expression in music: Contribution, linearity, and additivity of primary musical cues2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 487-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to manipulate musical cues systematically to determine the aspects of music that contribute to emotional expression, and whether these cues operate in additive or interactive fashion, and whether the cue levels can be characterized as linear or non-linear. An optimized factorial design was used with six primary musical cues (mode, tempo, dynamics, articulation, timbre, and register) across four different music examples. Listeners rated 200 musical examples according to four perceived emotional characters (happy, sad, peaceful, and scary). The results exhibited robust effects for all cues and the ranked importance of these was established by multiple regression. The most important cue was mode followed by tempo, register, dynamics, articulation, and timbre, although the ranking varied across the emotions. The second main result suggested that most cue levels contributed to the emotions in a linear fashion, explaining 77-89% of variance in ratings. Quadratic encoding of cues did lead to minor but significant increases of the models (0-8%). Finally, the interactions between the cues were non-existent suggesting that the cues operate mostly in an additive fashion, corroborating recent findings on emotional expression in music.

  • 10.
    Ekström, Axel G.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Motor constellation theory: A model of infants’ phonological development2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 996894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every normally developing human infant solves the difficult problem of mapping their native-language phonology, but the neural mechanisms underpinning this behavior remain poorly understood. Here, motor constellation theory, an integrative neurophonological model, is presented, with the goal of explicating this issue. It is assumed that infants' motor-auditory phonological mapping takes place through infants' orosensory "reaching" for phonological elements observed in the language-specific ambient phonology, via reference to kinesthetic feedback from motor systems (e.g., articulators), and auditory feedback from resulting speech and speech-like sounds. Attempts are regulated by basal ganglion-cerebellar speech neural circuitry, and successful attempts at reproduction are enforced through dopaminergic signaling. Early in life, the pace of anatomical development constrains mapping such that complete language-specific phonological mapping is prohibited by infants' undeveloped supralaryngeal vocal tract and undescended larynx; constraints gradually dissolve with age, enabling adult phonology. Where appropriate, reference is made to findings from animal and clinical models. Some implications for future modeling and simulation efforts, as well as clinical settings, are also discussed.

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  • 11.
    Ekström, Axel G.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Edlund, Jens
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Evolution of the human tongue and emergence of speech biomechanics2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1150778Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tongue is one of the organs most central to human speech. Here, the evolution and species-unique properties of the human tongue is traced, via reference to the apparent articulatory behavior of extant non-human great apes, and fossil findings from early hominids - from a point of view of articulatory phonetics, the science of human speech production. Increased lingual flexibility provided the possibility of mapping of articulatory targets, possibly via exaptation of manual-gestural mapping capacities evident in extant great apes. The emergence of the human-specific tongue, its properties, and morphology were crucial to the evolution of human articulate speech.

  • 12. Farisco, M.
    et al.
    Kotaleski, Jeanette H.
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Solna, Sweden.
    Evers, K.
    Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness. Mapping technical and conceptual issues2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, no April, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate the plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g., Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State. Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

  • 13.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Bisesi, Erica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Inst Pasteur, France.
    Addessi, Anna Rita
    Univ Bologna, Dept Educ Studies, Bologna, Italy..
    Baroni, Mario
    Univ Bologna, Dept Arts, Bologna, Italy..
    Probing the Underlying Principles of Perceived Immanent Accents Using a Modeling Approach2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the question of how the perception of the "immanent accents" can be predicted and modeled. By immanent accent we mean any musical event in the score that is related to important points in the musical structure (e.g., tactus positions, melodic peaks) and is therefore able to capture the attention of a listener. Our aim was to investigate the underlying principles of these accented notes by combining quantitative modeling, music analysis and experimental methods. A listening experiment was conducted where 30 participants indicated perceived accented notes for 60 melodies, vocal and instrumental, selected from Baroque, Romantic and Posttonal styles. This produced a large and unique collection of perceptual data about the perceived immanent accents, organized by styles consisting of vocal and instrumental melodies within Western art music. The music analysis of the indicated accents provided a preliminary list of musical features that could be identified as possible reasons for the raters' perception of the immanent accents. These features related to the score in different ways, e.g., repeated fragments, single notes, or overall structure. A modeling approach was used to quantify the influence of feature groups related to pitch contour, tempo, timing, simple phrasing, and meter. A set of 43 computational features was defined from the music analysis and previous studies and extracted from the score representation. The mean ratings of the participants were predicted using multiple linear regression and support vector regression. The latter method (using cross-validation) obtained the best result of about 66% explained variance (r = 0.81) across all melodies and for a selected group of raters. The independent contribution of each feature group was relatively high for pitch contour and timing (9.6 and 7.0%). There were also significant contributions from tempo (4.5%), simple phrasing (4.4%), and meter (3.9%). Interestingly, the independent contribution varied greatly across participants, implying different listener strategies, and also some variability across different styles. The large differences among listeners emphasize the importance of considering the individual listener's perception in future research in music perception.

  • 14.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST). Stockholm Univ, Dept Linguist, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Univ Rochester, Dept Brain & Cognit Sci, Rochester, NY USA.;Univ Rochester, Dept Comp Sci, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
    A Rational Model of Incremental Argument Interpretation: The Comprehension of Swedish Transitive Clauses2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 674202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central component of sentence understanding is verb-argument interpretation, determining how the referents in the sentence are related to the events or states expressed by the verb. Previous work has found that comprehenders change their argument interpretations incrementally as the sentence unfolds, based on morphosyntactic (e.g., case, agreement), lexico-semantic (e.g., animacy, verb-argument fit), and discourse cues (e.g., givenness). However, it is still unknown whether these cues have a privileged role in language processing, or whether their effects on argument interpretation originate in implicit expectations based on the joint distribution of these cues with argument assignments experienced in previous language input. We compare the former, linguistic account against the latter, expectation-based account, using data from production and comprehension of transitive clauses in Swedish. Based on a large corpus of Swedish, we develop a rational (Bayesian) model of incremental argument interpretation. This model predicts the processing difficulty experienced at different points in the sentence as a function of the Bayesian surprise associated with changes in expectations over possible argument interpretations. We then test the model against reading times from a self-paced reading experiment on Swedish. We find Bayesian surprise to be a significant predictor of reading times, complementing effects of word surprisal. Bayesian surprise also captures the qualitative effects of morpho-syntactic and lexico-semantic cues. Additional model comparisons find that it-with a single degree of freedom-captures much, if not all, of the effects associated with these cues. This suggests that the effects of form- and meaning-based cues to argument interpretation are mediated through expectation-based processing.

  • 15.
    Jones, Gabriel
    et al.
    University of Leeds, School of Music, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Probing the underlying principles of dynamics in piano performances using a modelling approach2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1269715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in dynamics are an essential component of musical performance in most instruments. To study the factors that contribute to dynamic variations, we used a model approaching, allowing for determination of the individual contribution of different musical features. Thirty monophonic melodies from 3 stylistic eras with all expressive markings removed were performed by 20 pianists on a Disklavier piano. The results indicated a relatively high agreement among the pianists (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88). The overall average dynamics (across pianists) could be predicted quite well using support vector regression (R2 = 66%) from a set of 48 score-related features. The highest contribution was from pitch-related features (37.3%), followed by phrasing (12.3%), timing (2.8%), and meter (0.7%). The highest single contribution was from the high-loud principle, whereby higher notes were played louder, as corroborated by the written feedback of many of the pianists. There were also differences between the styles. The highest contribution from phrasing, for example, was obtained from the Romantic examples, while the highest contribution from meter came from the Baroque examples. An analysis of each individual pianist revealed some fundamental differences in approach to the performance of dynamics. All participants were undergraduate-standard pianists or above; however, varied levels of consistency and predictability highlighted challenges in acquiring a reliable group in terms of expertise and preparation, as well as certain pianistic challenges posed by the task. Nevertheless, the method proved useful in disentangling some underlying principles of musical performance and their relation to structural features of the score, with the potential for productive adaptation to a wider range of expressive and instrumental contexts.

  • 16.
    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    Measuring Collaboration Load with Pupillary Responses -Implications for the Design of Instructions in Task-Oriented HRI2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 17.
    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Intelligent Syst, Div Speech Mus & Hearing, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Measuring Collaboration Load With Pupillary Responses-Implications for the Design of Instructions in Task-Oriented HRI2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 623657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In face-to-face interaction, speakers establish common ground incrementally, the mutual belief of understanding. Instead of constructing "one-shot" complete utterances, speakers tend to package pieces of information in smaller fragments (what Clark calls "installments"). The aim of this paper was to investigate how speakers' fragmented construction of utterances affect the cognitive load of the conversational partners during utterance production and comprehension. In a collaborative furniture assembly, participants instructed each other how to build an IKEA stool. Pupil diameter was measured as an outcome of effort and cognitive processing in the collaborative task. Pupillometry data and eye-gaze behaviour indicated that more cognitive resources were required by speakers to construct fragmented rather than non-fragmented utterances. Such construction of utterances by audience design was associated with higher cognitive load for speakers. We also found that listeners' cognitive resources were decreased in each new speaker utterance, suggesting that speakers' efforts in the fragmented construction of utterances were successful to resolve ambiguities. The results indicated that speaking in fragments is beneficial for minimising collaboration load, however, adapting to listeners is a demanding task. We discuss implications for future empirical research on the design of task-oriented human-robot interactions, and how assistive social robots may benefit from the production of fragmented instructions.

  • 18.
    Latapie, Hugo
    et al.
    Cisco Syst, Emerging Technol & Incubat, San Jose, CA 95134 USA..
    Kilic, Ozkan
    Cisco Syst, Emerging Technol & Incubat, San Jose, CA 95134 USA..
    Thorisson, Kristinn R.
    Reykjavik Univ, Iceland Inst Intelligent Machines, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Reykjavik Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Wang, Pei
    Temple Univ, Dept Comp & Informat Sci, Philadelphia, PA USA..
    Hammer, Patrick
    KTH. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neurosymbolic Systems of Perception and Cognition: The Role of Attention2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 806397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cognitive architecture aimed at cumulative learning must provide the necessary information and control structures to allow agents to learn incrementally and autonomously from their experience. This involves managing an agent's goals as well as continuously relating sensory information to these in its perception-cognition information processing stack. The more varied the environment of a learning agent is, the more general and flexible must be these mechanisms to handle a wider variety of relevant patterns, tasks, and goal structures. While many researchers agree that information at different levels of abstraction likely differs in its makeup and structure and processing mechanisms, agreement on the particulars of such differences is not generally shared in the research community. A dual processing architecture (often referred to as System-1 and System-2) has been proposed as a model of cognitive processing, and they are often considered as responsible for low- and high-level information, respectively. We posit that cognition is not binary in this way and that knowledge at any level of abstraction involves what we refer to as neurosymbolic information, meaning that data at both high and low levels must contain both symbolic and subsymbolic information. Further, we argue that the main differentiating factor between the processing of high and low levels of data abstraction can be largely attributed to the nature of the involved attention mechanisms. We describe the key arguments behind this view and review relevant evidence from the literature.

  • 19. Laukka, P.
    et al.
    Neiberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Elfenbein, HA
    Classification of affective speech within and across cultures2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affect in speech is conveyed by patterns of pitch, intensity, voice quality and temporal features. The authors investigated how consistently emotions are expressed within and across cultures using a selection of 3,100 emotion portrayals from the VENEC corpus. The selection consisted of 11 emotions expressed with 3 levels of emotion intensity portrayed by professional actors from 5 different English speaking cultures (Australia, India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA). Classification experiments (nu-SVM) based on acoustic measures were performed in conditions where training and evaluation were conducted either within the same or different cultures and/or emotion intensities. Results first showed that average recall rates were 2.4-3.0 times higher than chance for intra- and inter-cultural conditions, whereas performance dropped 7-8 percentage units for cross-cultural conditions. This provides the first demonstration of an in-group advantage in cross-cultural emotion recognition using acoustic-feature-based classification. When further observed that matching the intensity level in training and testing data gave an advantage for high and medium intensity levels, but when classifying stimuli of unknown intensity the best performance was achieved with models trained on high intensity stimuli. Finally, classification performance across conditions varied as a function of emotion, with largest consistency for happiness, lust and relief. Implications for studies on cross-cultural emotion recognition and cross-corpora classification will be discussed.

  • 20.
    Linder, Noah
    et al.
    Gävle University.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households - Evidence from a Longitudinal Field Experiment2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals.

  • 21.
    Morillo-Mendez, Lucas
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Ctr Appl Autonomous Sensor Syst, Örebro, Sweden..
    Stower, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Sleat, Alex
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Schreiter, Tim
    Örebro Univ, Ctr Appl Autonomous Sensor Syst, Örebro, Sweden..
    Leite, Iolanda
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Mozos, Oscar Martinez
    Örebro Univ, Ctr Appl Autonomous Sensor Syst, Örebro, Sweden..
    Schrooten, Martien G. S.
    Örebro Univ, Sch Behav Social & Legal Sci, Örebro, Sweden..
    Can the robot "see" what I see?: Robot gaze drives attention depending on mental state attribution2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1215771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentalizing, where humans infer the mental states of others, facilitates understanding and interaction in social situations. Humans also tend to adopt mentalizing strategies when interacting with robotic agents. There is an ongoing debate about how inferred mental states affect gaze following, a key component of joint attention. Although the gaze from a robot induces gaze following, the impact of mental state attribution on robotic gaze following remains unclear. To address this question, we asked forty-nine young adults to perform a gaze cueing task during which mental state attribution was manipulated as follows. Participants sat facing a robot that turned its head to the screen at its left or right. Their task was to respond to targets that appeared either at the screen the robot gazed at or at the other screen. At the baseline, the robot was positioned so that participants would perceive it as being able to see the screens. We expected faster response times to targets at the screen the robot gazed at than targets at the non-gazed screen (i.e., gaze cueing effect). In the experimental condition, the robot's line of sight was occluded by a physical barrier such that participants would perceive it as unable to see the screens. Our results revealed gaze cueing effects in both conditions although the effect was reduced in the occluded condition compared to the baseline. These results add to the expanding fields of social cognition and human-robot interaction by suggesting that mentalizing has an impact on robotic gaze following.

  • 22.
    Paunov, Yavor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, Philosophy.
    Vogel, Tobias
    Darmstadt Univ Appl Sci, Fac Social Sci, Business Psychol Inst, Darmstadt, Germany..
    Ingendahl, Moritz
    Univ Mannheim, Fac Social Sci, Consumer & Econ Psychol, Mannheim, Germany..
    Waenke, Michaela
    Univ Mannheim, Fac Social Sci, Consumer & Econ Psychol, Mannheim, Germany..
    Transparent by choice: Proactive disclosures increase compliance with digital defaults2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 981497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Default nudges successfully guide choices across multiple domains. Online use cases for defaults range from promoting sustainable purchases to inducing acceptance of behavior tracking scripts, or "cookies." However, many scholars view defaults as unethical due to the covert ways in which they influence behavior. Hence, opt-outs and other digital decision aids are progressively being regulated in an attempt to make them more transparent. The current practice of transparency boils down to saturating the decision environment with convoluted legal information. This approach might be informed by researchers, who hypothesized that nudges could become less effective once they are clearly laid out: People can retaliate against influence attempts if they are aware of them. A recent line of research has shown that such concerns are unfounded when the default-setters proactively discloses the purpose of the intervention. Yet, it remained unclear whether the effect persists when defaults reflect the current practice of such mandated transparency boils down to the inclusion of information disclosures, containing convoluted legal information. In two empirical studies (N = 364), respondents clearly differentiated proactive from mandated transparency. Moreover, they choose the default option significantly more often when the transparency disclosure was voluntary, rather than mandated. Policy implications and future research directions are discussed.

  • 23. Seinfeld, S.
    et al.
    Bergstrom, Illias
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Pomes, A.
    Arroyo-Palacios, J.
    Vico, F.
    Slater, M.
    Sanchez-Vives, M. V.
    Influence of music on anxiety induced by fear of heights in virtual reality2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no JAN, article id 1969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music is a potent mood regulator that can induce relaxation and reduce anxiety in different situations. While several studies demonstrate that certain types of music have a subjective anxiolytic effect, the reported results from physiological responses are less conclusive. Virtual reality allows us to study diverse scenarios of real life under strict experimental control while preserving high ecological validity. We aimed to study the modulating effect of music on the anxiety responses triggered by an immersive virtual reality scenario designed to induce fear of heights. Subjects experienced a virtual scenario depicting an exterior elevator platform ascending and descending the total height of its 350 meters tall supporting structure. Participants were allocated to either a group that experienced the elevator ride with background music or without, in a between-groups design. Furthermore, each group included participants with different degrees of fear of heights, ranging from low to high fear. Recordings of heart rate, galvanic skin response, body balance, and head movements were obtained during the experiments. Subjective anxiety was measured by means of three questionnaires. The scenario produced significant changes in subjective and physiological measures, confirming its efficacy as a stressor. A significant increase in state anxiety was found between pre and post-assessment in the silence group, but not in the music group, indicating that post-stress recovery was faster in the musical group. Results suggest that music can ameliorate the subjective anxiety produced by fear of heights.

  • 24.
    Silverstein, David N.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC. Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    A computational investigation of feedforward and feedback processing in metacontrast backward masking2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In human perception studies, visual backward masking has been used to understand the temporal dynamics of subliminal vs. conscious perception. When a brief target stimulus is followed by a masking stimulus after a short interval of <100 ms, performance on the target is impaired when the target and mask are in close spatial proximity. While the psychophysical properties of backward masking have been studied extensively, there is still debate on the underlying cortical dynamics. One prevailing theory suggests that the impairment of target performance due to the mask is the result of lateral inhibition between the target and mask in feedforward processing. Another prevailing theory suggests that this impairment is due to the interruption of feedback processing of the target by the mask. This computational study demonstrates that both aspects of these theories may be correct. Using a biophysical model of V1 and V2, visual processing was modeled as interacting neocortical attractors, which must propagate up the visual stream. If an activating target attractor in V1 is quiesced enough with lateral inhibition from a mask, or not reinforced by recurrent feedback, it is more likely to burn out before becoming fully active and progressing through V2 and beyond. Results are presented which simulate metacontrast backward masking with an increasing stimulus interval and with the presence and absence of feedback activity. This showed that recurrent feedback diminishes backward masking effects and can make conscious perception more likely. One model configuration presented a metacontrast noise mask in the same hypercolumns as the target, and produced type-A masking. A second model configuration presented a target line with two parallel adjacent masking lines, and produced type-B masking. Future work should examine how the model extends to more complex spatial mask configurations.

  • 25. Stavrou, N. A. M.
    et al.
    Debevec, T.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, I. B.
    Hypoxia worsens affective responses and feeling of fatigue during prolonged bed rest2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, no MAR, article id 362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research, although limited, suggests that both hypoxia and bed rest influence psychological responses by exaggerating negative psychological responses and attenuating positive emotions. The present study investigated the effect of a 21-day prolonged exposure to normobaric hypoxia and bed rest on affective responses and fatigue. Eleven healthy participants underwent three 21-day interventions using a cross-over design: (1) normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB), (2) normobaric hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and (3) normoxic bed rest (NBR). Affective and fatigue responses were investigated using the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, which were completed before (Pre), during (Day 7, Day 14, and Day 21) and after (Post) the interventions. The most negative psychological profile appeared during the HBR intervention. Specifically, tiredness, tension, general and physical fatigue significantly increased on days 7, 14, and 21, as well as at Post. After the HBR intervention, general and physical fatigue remained higher compared to Pre values. Additionally, a deterioration of psychological responses was also noted following HAMB and NBR. In particular, both hypoxia and BR per se induced subjective fatigue and negative affective responses. BR seems to exert a moderate negative effect on the sensation of fatigue, whereas exercise attenuates the negative effects of hypoxia as noted during the HAMB condition. In conclusion, our data suggest that the addition of hypoxia to bed rest-induced inactivity significantly worsens affective responses and feeling of fatigue.

  • 26.
    Troije, Charlotte Petersson
    et al.
    Malmö Univ, Dept Urban Studies, Malmö, Sweden.;Mälardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Sociol, Västerås, Sweden..
    Jensen, Ebba Lisberg
    Malmö Univ, Dept Urban Studies, Malmö, Sweden..
    Stenfors, Cecilia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, Solna, Sweden..
    Danielsson, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Hoff, Eva
    Lund Univ, Dept Psychol, Lund, Sweden..
    Martensson, Fredrika
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept People & Soc, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Div Sociol, Västerås, Sweden..
    Outdoor Office Work - An Interactive Research Project Showing the Way Out2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 636091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The physical boundaries of office work have become increasingly flexible. Work is conducted at multiple locations outside the office, such as at clients' premises, at home, in cafes, or when traveling. However, the boundary between indoor and outdoor environment seems to be strong and normative regarding how office work is performed. The aim of this study was to explore how office work may be conducted outdoors, understanding how it is being experienced by office employees and identifying its contextual preconditions. Based on a two-year interactive research project, the study was conducted together with a Swedish municipality. Fifty-eight participants engaged in the collaborative learning process, including 40 half-day workshops and reflective group discussions, co-interviews, and participants' independent experimentation of bringing work activities outdoors. Data was collected via interviews, group discussions and a custom-made mobile application. The results showed that a wide range of work activities could be done outdoors, both individually and in collaboration with others. Outdoor work activities were associated with many positive experiences by contributing to a sense of well-being, recovery, autonomy, enhanced cognition, better communication, and social relations, but also with feelings of guilt and illegitimacy. Conditions of importance for outdoor office work to happen and function well were found in the physical environment, where proximity to urban greenspaces stood out as important, but also in the sociocultural and organizational domains. Of crucial importance was managers' attitudes, as well as the overall organizational culture on this idea of bringing office work outdoors. To conclude, if working life is to benefit from outdoor office work, leaders, urban planners and policymakers need to collaborate and show the way out.

  • 27.
    Xiong, Ailun
    et al.
    Chongqing Technol & Business Univ, Res Ctr Enterprise Management, Chongqing, Peoples R China..
    Xia, Senmao
    Coventry Univ, Int Ctr Transformat Entrepreneurship, Coventry, W Midlands, England.;Coventry Univ, Ctr Business Soc, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Wang, Qing
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Business Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Lockyer, Joan
    Coventry Business Sch, Sch Strategy & Leadership, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Cao, Dongmei
    Coventry Business Sch, Sch Strategy & Leadership, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Li, Hongyi
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Decis Sci & Managerial Econ, Sha Tin, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Queen Bees: How Is Female Managers' Happiness Determined?2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 741576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to study the determinants of subjective happiness among working females with a focus on female managers. Drawn on a large social survey data set (N = 10470) in China, this paper constructs gender development index at sub-national levels to study how institutional settings are related to female managers' happiness. We find that female managers report higher levels of happiness than non-managerial employees. However, the promoting effect is contingent on individual characteristics and social-economic settings. The full sample regression suggests that female managers behaving in a masculine way generally report a high level of happiness. Meanwhile, female managers who refuse to support gender equality report low happiness levels. Sub-sample analysis reveals that these causalities are conditioned on regional culture. Masculine behavior and gender role orientation significantly predict subjective happiness only in gender-egalitarian regions. This study is one of the first to consider both internal (individual traits) and external (social-economic environment) factors when investigating how female managers' happiness is impacted. Also, this study challenges the traditional wisdom on the relationship between female managers' job satisfaction and work-home conflict. This study extends the literature by investigating the impacts of female managers' masculine behavior on their happiness. This study is useful for promoting female managers' leadership effectiveness and happiness.

1 - 27 of 27
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