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  • 1.
    Barton, Adrien
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    How Tobacco Health Warnings Can Foster Autonomy2013In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 207-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate whether tobacco health warnings' interference with autonomy is ethically justifiable in order to deter people from smoking. I dissociate first the informational role and the persuasive role of tobacco health warnings and show that both roles enable typical addicted smokers to better rule themselves, fostering their autonomy. The fact that some messages address people's non-deliberative faculties is therefore compensated by a larger positive influence on their autonomy. However, misleading messages are not ethically justified and should be avoided. Tobacco health warnings' effect on autonomy highlights an important difference between libertarian paternalism and classical paternalism.

  • 2.
    Grill, Kalle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Liberalism, Altruism and Group Consent2009In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 146-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article first describes a dilemma for liberalism: On the one hand restricting their own options is an important means for groups of people to shape their lives. On the other hand, group members are typically divided over whether or not to accept option-restricting solutions or policies. Should we restrict the options of all members of a group even though some consent and some do not? This dilemma is particularly relevant to public health policy, which typically target groups of people with no possibility for individuals to opt out. The article then goes on to propose and discuss a series of aggregation rules for individual into group consent. Consideration of a number of scenarios shows that such rules cannot be formulated only in terms of fractions of consenters and non-consenters, but must incorporate their motives and how much they stand to win or lose. This raises further questions, including what is the appropriate impact of altruistic consenters and non-consenters, what should be the impact of costs and benefits and whether these should be understood as gross or net. All these issues are dealt with in a liberal, anti-paternalistic spirit, in order to explore whether group consent can contribute to the justification of option-restricting public health policy.

  • 3.
    Grill, Kalle
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Responsibility, Paternalism and Alcohol Interlocks2012In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drink driving causes great suffering and material destruction. The alcohol interlock promises to eradicate this problem by technological design. Traditional counter-measures to drink driving such as policing and punishment and information campaigns have proven insufficient. Extensive policing is expensive and intrusive. Severe punishment is disproportionate to the risks created in most single cases. If the interlock becomes inexpensive and convenient enough, and if there are no convincing moral objections to the device, it may prove the only feasible as well as the only justifiable solution to the problem of drink driving. A policy of universal alcohol interlocks, in all cars, has been proposed by several political parties in Sweden and is supported by the National Road Administration and the 2006 Alcohol Interlock Commission. This article assesses two possible moral objections to a policy of universal interlocks: (i) that it displaces the responsibility of individual drivers and (ii) that it constitutes a paternalistic interference with drivers. The first objection is found unconvincing, while the second has only limited bite and may be neutralized if paternalism is accepted for the sake of greater net liberty. Given the expected technological development, the proposed policy seems a commendable health promotion measure for the near future.

  • 4.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Roeser, S
    Ethical Problems with Information on Infant Feeding in Developed Countries2011In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 192-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most sources providing information on infant feeding strongly recommend breastfeeding. The WHO and UNICEF recommend that women breastfeed their babies and that health professionals promote breastfeeding. This creates severe pressure on women to breastfeed, a pressure which is ethically questionable since many women have physical or emotional problems with breastfeeding. In this article, we use insights from the ethics of risk to criticize the current breastfeeding policy. We argue that there are problems related to balancing aggregate wellbeing versus individual wellbeing, that not enough attention is paid to alternatives, that women's emotions and their need for free choice should be considered and that issues of equity are currently overlooked. We also criticize the way scientific information is presented in the current policy. We conclude that the official sources of information on infant feeding should be revised. Information should be more nuanced and designed to support mothers, and families in making a free choice on what is the best way to feed their babies.

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