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  • 1.
    Lehnert, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Cosmic equilibrium of a photon gas in its gravitational field2008In: Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, ISSN 1313-1311, E-ISSN 1314-7609, Vol. 2, no 17, 837-843 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research indicates that the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate, and that dark energy and dark matter are underlying such a behaviour. In this paper the proposal is made that dark energy and matter are due to the zero point energy of a photon gas and its related Casimir force. For cosmical dimensions an equilibrium is shown to exist within such a gas, in the form of a balance between its pressure and gravitational forces. With commonly accepted values of the parameters involved, there is further an indication that the universe should be somewhat off such an equilibrium, and be governed by a pressure-dominated accelerated state. The obtained numerical results depend critically on the effective spectral contribution to the zero point pressure. Expansion at a constant rate is only possible at special conditions. This analysis can also be modified to apply to the hot photon gas prevailing during the earliest stages of the expansion, thereby leading to a strongly reduced characteristic radius within the parameter range of an equilibrium.

  • 2.
    Lehnert, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    On a flat expanding universe2013In: Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, ISSN 1313-1311, E-ISSN 1314-7609, Vol. 7, no 1-4, 191-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An earlier elaborated model of the expanding universe with its contents of dark energy, dark matter and normal matter is reconsidered and extended. The model is found to be reconcilable with the observed cosmical dimensions and with the magnitude of the present accelerated expansion. It has the form of a freely expanding cloud of zero-pointenergy photons, with the inclusion of a small amount of normal matter. On a macroscopic scale, within the radius of the observable universe, the model has the character of a flat Euclidian geometry, without the need of introducing curved space effects due to General Relativity. This flat geometry is found to be stable with respect to expansive and compressive perturbations, thus suggesting the universe to possess an intrinsic mechanism which aims at flat geometry.

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