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  • 1.
    Brodu, Annalisa
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Debye Inst Nanomat Sci, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Ballottin, Mariana V.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, High Field Magnet Lab, HFML EMFL, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Buhot, Jonathan
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, High Field Magnet Lab, HFML EMFL, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    van Harten, Elleke J.
    Univ Utrecht, Debye Inst Nanomat Sci, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Dupont, Dorian
    Univ Ghent, Phys & Chem Nanostruct, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    La Porta, Andrea
    Univ Antwerp, EMAT, Electron Microscopy Mat Res, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Prins, P. Tim
    Univ Utrecht, Debye Inst Nanomat Sci, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Tessier, Mickael D.
    Univ Ghent, Phys & Chem Nanostruct, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Versteegh, Marijn A. M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Zwiller, Val
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Bals, Sara
    Univ Antwerp, EMAT, Electron Microscopy Mat Res, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Hens, Zeger
    Univ Ghent, Phys & Chem Nanostruct, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Rabouw, Freddy T.
    Univ Utrecht, Debye Inst Nanomat Sci, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Christianen, Peter C. M.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, High Field Magnet Lab, HFML EMFL, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Donega, Celso de Mello
    Univ Utrecht, Debye Inst Nanomat Sci, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel
    Univ Utrecht, Debye Inst Nanomat Sci, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Exciton Fine Structure and Lattice Dynamics in InP/ZnSe Core/Shell Quantum Dots2018In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 3353-3362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline InP quantum dots (QDs) hold promise for heavy-metal-free optoelectronic applications due to their bright and size tunable emission in the visible range. Photochemical stability and high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield are obtained by a diversity of epitaxial shells around the InP core. To understand and optimize the emission line shapes, the exciton fine structure of InP core/shell QD systems needs be investigated. Here, we study the exciton fine structure of InP/ZnSe core/shell QDs with core diameters ranging from 2.9 to 3.6 nm (PL peak from 2.3 to 1.95 eV at 4 K). PL decay measurements as a function of temperature in the 10 mK to 300 K range show that the lowest exciton fine structure state is a dark state, from which radiative recombination is assisted by coupling to confined acoustic phonons with energies ranging from 4 to 7 meV, depending on the core diameter. Circularly polarized fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy at 4 K under high magnetic fields (up to 30 T) demonstrates that radiative recombination from the dark F = +/- 2 state involves acoustic and optical phonons, from both the InP core and the ZnSe shell. Our data indicate that the highest intensity FLN peak is an acoustic phonon replica rather than a zero-phonon line, implying that the energy separation observed between the F = +/- 1 state and the highest intensity peak in the FLN spectra (6 to 16 meV, depending on the InP core size) is larger than the splitting between the dark and bright fine structure exciton states.

  • 2.
    Chung, Nguyen Xuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Photonics.
    Limpens, Rens
    de Weerd, Chris
    Lesage, Arnon
    KTH.
    Fujii, Minoru
    Gregorkiewicz, Tom
    Toward Practical Carrier Multiplication: Donor/Acceptor Codoped Si Nanocrystals in SiO22018In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 2843-2849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carrier multiplication (CM) is an interesting fundamental phenomenon with application potential in optoelectronics and photovoltaics, and it has been shown to be promoted by quantum confinement effects in nanostructures. However, mostly due to the short lifetimes of additional electronhole (e-h) pairs generated by CM, major improvements of quantum dot devices that exploit CM are limited. Here we investigate CM in SiO2 solid state dispersions of phosphorus and boron codoped Si nanocrystals (NCs): an exotic variant of Si NCs whose photoluminescence (PL) emission energy, the optical bandgap, is significantly red-shifted in comparison to undoped Si NCs. By combining the results obtained by ultrafast induced absorption (IA) with PL quantum yield (PL QY) measurements, we demonstrate CM with a long (around 100 mu s) lifetime of the additional e-h pairs created by the process, similar as previously reported for undoped Si NCs, but with a significantly lower CM threshold energy. This constitutes a significant step toward the practical implementation of Si-based NCs in optoelectronic devices: we demonstrate efficient CM at the energy bandgap optimal for photovoltaic conversion.

  • 3.
    Fognini, A.
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci Delft, NL-2628 CJ Delft, Netherlands. hmadi, A..
    Ahmadi, A.
    Zeeshan, M.
    Fokkens, J. T.
    Gibson, S. J.
    Sherlekar, N.
    Daley, S. J.
    Dalacu, D.
    Poole, P. J.
    Jöns, Klaus D.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Zwiller, Val
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Reimer, M. E.
    Dephasing Free Photon Entanglement with a Quantum Dot2019In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 1656-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generation of photon pairs from quantum dots with near-unity entanglement fidelity has been a long-standing scientific challenge. It is generally thought that the nuclear spins limit the entanglement fidelity through spin flip dephasing processes. However, this assumption lacks experimental support. Here, we show two-photon entanglement with negligible dephasing from an indium rich single quantum dot comprising a nuclear spin of 9/2 when excited quasi-resonantly. This finding is based on a significantly close match between our entanglement measurements and our model that assumes no dephasing and takes into account the detection system's timing jitter and dark counts. We suggest that neglecting the detection system is responsible for the degradation of the measured entanglement fidelity in the past and not the nuclear spins. Therefore, the key to unity entanglement from quantum dots comprises a resonant excitation scheme and a detection system with ultralow timing jitter and dark counts.

  • 4. Friese, D. H.
    et al.
    Bast, Radovan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC.
    Ruud, K.
    Five-photon absorption and selective enhancement of multiphoton absorption processes2015In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 572-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process.

  • 5.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Yan, Zhenyu
    Chen, Hongzheng
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Veinot, Jonathan G. C.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Photostable Polymer/Si Nanocrystal Bulk Hybrids with Tunable Photoluminescence2016In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 1575-1580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid polymer/Si nanocrystal bulk nanocomposites were fabricated from solutions of alkene- and hydride-terminated silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in toluene. The photoluminescence peak position of hydride-terminated SiNCs before polymerization was tuned by photoassisted hydrofluoric acid etching. Optical properties of obtained PMMA/NC hybrids, such as quantum yield, luminescence lifetime, and dispersion factor, were evaluated over time. Photostability of these transparent bulk polymer/SiNC hybrids over months was confirmed. The emission covers the visible to near-infrared range with a quantum yield of similar to 30-40% for yellow-red nanocomposites.

  • 6.
    Mensi, Mounir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ivanov, Ruslan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Uzdavinys, Tomas Kristijonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Kelchner, Kathryn M.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mat, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Nakamura, Shuji
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mat, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    DenBaars, Steven P.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mat, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Speck, James S.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Mat, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    Direct Measurement of Nanoscale Lateral Carrier Diffusion: Toward Scanning Diffusion Microscopy2018In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 528-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multimode scanning near-field optical microscopy technique that allows the mapping of surface morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra in illumination and illumination-collection modes, and PL dynamics, all in one scan, has been developed along with a method to use it for evaluation of carrier diffusion. The method allows measuring diffusion lengths as small as similar to 100 nm and their anisotropy and spatial distribution, parameters remaining inaccessible to conventional far-field techniques. The procedure has been applied to study ambipolar carrier diffusion in a nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well. The diffusion was found to be highly anisotropic with diffusion coefficients along and perpendicular to the wurtzite c axis equal to 0.4 and 1.9 cm(2)/s, respectively. The large diffusion anisotropy confirms band structure calculations that suggest that the topmost valence band in an m-plane InGaN quantum well is highly anisotropic.

  • 7.
    Mounir, Mensi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Ivanov, Ruslan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Uždavinys, Tomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Kelchner, Kathryn
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Nakamura, Shuji
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    DenBaars, Steven P.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Speck, James S.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    Marcinkevičius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Direct measurement of nanoscale lateral carrier diffusion: toward scanning diffusion microscopy2017In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A multimode scanning near-field optical microscopy technique allowing to map surface morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra in illumination and illumination-collection modes, as well as PL dynamics, all in one scan, has been developed along with a method to use it for evaluation of carrier diffusion. The method allows to measure diffusion lengths as small as ~100 nm, their anisotropy and spatial distribution, parameters remaining inaccessible to conventional far-field techniques. The procedure has been applied to study ambipolar carrier diffusion in a nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well. The diffusion was found to be highly anisotropic with diffusion coefficients along and perpendicular to the wurtzite c axis equal to 0.4 and 1.9 cm2/s, respectively. The large diffusion anisotropy confirms band structure calculations that suggest that the top-most valence band in m-plane InGaN quantum well is highly anisotropic

  • 8.
    Pevere, Federico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Sangghaleh, Fatemeh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Bruhn, Benjamin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Rapid Trapping as the Origin of Nonradiative Recombination in Semiconductor Nanocrystals2018In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 2990-2996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that nonradiative recombination in semiconductor nanocrystals can be described by a rapid luminescence intermittency, based on carrier tunneling to resonant traps. Such process, we call it "rapid trapping (blinking)", leads to delayed luminescence and promotes Auger recombination, thus lowering the quantum efficiency. To prove our model, we probed oxide- (containing static traps) and ligand- (trap-free) passivated silicon nanocrystals emitting at similar energies and featuring monoexponential blinking statistics. This allowed us to find analytical formulas and to extract characteristic trapping/detrapping rates, and quantum efficiency as a function of temperature and excitation power. Experimental single-dot temperature-dependent decays, supporting the presence of one or few resonant static traps, and ensemble saturation curves were found to be very well described by this effect. The model can be generalized to other semiconductor nanocrystals, although the exact interplay of trapping/detrapping, radiative, and Auger processes may be different, considering the typical times of the processes involved.

  • 9. Shi, Kezhang
    et al.
    Bao, Fanglin
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Enhanced Near-Field Thermal Radiation Based on Multilayer Graphene-hBN Heterostructures2017In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 971-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene-covered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) can exceed blackbody thermal radiation in near-field due to the coupling of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPPs). As previous research found that the thickness of hBN in a graphene-hBN cell can be very thin while still presenting strong radiation enhancement, multilayer graphene-hBN heterostructures are proposed in this paper to further enhance the near-field thermal radiation. We found that a heterostructure consisting of five or more graphene-hBN cells performs better than all existing graphene-hBN configurations, and the infinite cell limit exhibits 1.87- and 2.94-fold larger heat flux at 10 nm separation than sandwich and monocell structures do, respectively, due to the continuously and perfectly coupled modes. The heat flux is found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than that of the blackbody. The effective tunability of the thermal radiation of the multicell structure is also observed by adjusting the chemical potentials of graphene with an optimized thickness of 20 nm on each hBN, which is instructive for both experimental design and fabrication of thermal radiation devices.

  • 10.
    Sigurdsson, Helgi
    et al.
    Univ Iceland, Sci Inst, Dunhagi 3, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Kyriienko, Oleksandr
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dini, Kevin
    ITMO Univ, Kronverkskiy Prospekt 49, St Petersburg 197101, Russia.;Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Phys & Math Sci, Div Phys & Appl Phys, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371, Singapore..
    Liew, Timothy C. H.
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Phys & Math Sci, Div Phys & Appl Phys, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371, Singapore..
    All-to-All Intramodal Condensate Coupling by Multifrequency Excitation of Polaritons2019In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 123-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze theoretically a network of all-to-all coupled polariton modes, realized by a trapped polariton condensate excited by a multifrequency laser source. In the low-density regime the system dynamically finds a state with maximal gain defined by the average intensities (weights) of the different source frequency components, analogous to active mode locking in lasers, and thus solves a maximum eigenvalue problem set by the matrix of weights. The method opens the possibility to tailor condensed polariton populations in different trapped modes by appropriate choice of the excitation source.

  • 11.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Fucikova, Anna
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Pevere, Federico
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Yang, Zhenyu
    Veinot, Jonathan G. C.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Ultranarrow Luminescence Linewidth of Silicon Nanocrystals and Influence of Matrix2014In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 1, no 10, p. 998-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The luminescence linewidth of individual silicon nanocrystals was characterized by single-dot spectroscopy, and an ultranarrow linewidth of similar to 200 mu eV at 10 K was found. This value is, in fact, limited by system resolution and represents only the upper limit of the homogeneous linewidth. In addition, the effect of the matrix was investigated for nanocrystals coated with organic ligands, embedded in silicon dioxide, as well as for nanocrystals with only a thin passivating layer. It was found that, depending on the matrix, the room-temperature bandwidth may vary by an order of magnitude, where values as small as similar to 12 meV (similar to 5 nm) at 300 K were detected for nanocrystals with a thin passivation. The observed values for silicon nanocrystals are similar and even surpass some of those for direct-band-gap quantum dots. The narrow linewidth at room temperature enables the use of silicon nanocrystals for nontoxic narrow-band labeling of biomolecules and for application as phosphors in white-light-emitting devices.

  • 12. Tippmann, S.
    et al.
    Anfelt, Josefin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    David, F.
    Rand, J. M.
    Siewers, V.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nielsen, J.
    Hudson, E. Paul
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Affibody Scaffolds Improve Sesquiterpene Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae2017In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzyme fusions have been widely used as a tool in metabolic engineering to increase pathway efficiency by reducing substrate loss and accumulation of toxic intermediates. Alternatively, enzymes can be colocalized through attachment to a synthetic scaffold via noncovalent interactions. Here we describe the use of affibodies for enzyme tagging and scaffolding. The scaffolding is based on the recognition of affibodies to their anti-idiotypic partners in vivo, and was first employed for colocalization of farnesyl diphosphate synthase and farnesene synthase in S. cerevisiae. Different parameters were modulated to improve the system, and the enzyme:scaffold ratio was most critical for its functionality. Ultimately, the yield of farnesene on glucose YSFar could be improved by 135% in fed-batch cultivations using a 2-site affibody scaffold. The scaffolding strategy was then extended to a three-enzyme polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) pathway, heterologously expressed in E. coli. Within a narrow range of enzyme and scaffold induction, the affibody tagging and scaffolding increased PHB production 7-fold. This work demonstrates how the versatile affibody can be used for metabolic engineering purposes.

  • 13. Yang, Zhenyu
    et al.
    De los Reyes, Glenda B.
    Titova, Lyubov V.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Dasog, Mita
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Hegmann, Frank A.
    Veinot, Jonathan G. C.
    Evolution of the Ultrafast Photoluminescence of Colloidal Silicon Nanocrystals with Changing Surface Chemistry2015In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 595-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of surface species in the optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) is the subject of intense debate. Changes in photoluminescence (PL) energy following hydrosilylation of SiNCs with alkyl-terminated surfaces are most often ascribed to enhanced quantum confinement in the smaller cores of oxidized NCs or to oxygen-induced defect emission. We have investigated the PL properties of alkyl-functionalized SiNCs prepared using two related methods: thermal and photochemical hydrosilylation. Photochemically functionalized SiNCs exhibit higher emission energies than the thermally functionalized equivalent. While microsecond lifetime emission attributed to carrier recombination within the NC core was observed from all samples, much faster, size-independent nanosecond lifetime components were only observed in samples prepared using photochemical hydrosilylation that possessed substantial surface oxidation. In addition, photochemically modified SiNCs exhibit higher absolute photoluminescent quantum yields (AQY), consistent with radiative recombination processes occurring at the oxygen-based defects. Correlating spectrally- and time-resolved PL measurements and XPS-derived relative surface oxidation for NCs prepared using different photoassisted hydrosilylation reaction times provides evidence the PL blue-shift as well as the short-lived PL emission observed for photochemically functionalized SiNCs are related to the relative concentration of oxygen surface defects.

  • 14.
    Yao, Lun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Cengic, Ivana
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Anfelt, Josefine
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hudson, Elton P.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Multiple Gene Repression in Cyanobacteria Using CRISPRi2016In: ACS Photonics, E-ISSN 2330-4022, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) for gene repression in the model cyanobacterium Synechcocystis sp. PCC 6803. The nuclease-deficient Cas9 from the type-II. CRISPR/Cas of Streptrococcus pyogenes was used to repress green fluorescent protein (GFP) to negligible levels. CRISPRi was also used to repress formation of carbon storage compounds polyhydroxybutryate (PHB) and glycogen during nitrogen starvation. As an example of the potential of CRISPRi for basic and applied cyanobacteria research, we simultaneously knocked down 4 putative aldehyde reductases and dehydrogenases at 50-95% repression. This work also demonstrates that tightly repressed promoters allow for inducible and reversible CRISPRi in cyanobacteria.

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