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  • 1.
    Boysen, Hans E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Øresund and Fehmarnbelt high-capacity rail corridor standards updated2014In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 44-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Øresund and the planned Fehmarnbelt fixed links have recently adopted a set of standards that can significantly raise the operating efficiency and capacity of freight by rail. These standards are explained in the context of the German-Scandinavian railway corridor and in comparison to the European Technical Specifications for Interoperability. Using a quantitative model, the mass and volume load capacity per train are calculated. Compared to present constraining limitations in the German-Scandinavian corridor, the mass load capacity per train can be increased by 64%, and the volume load capacity by up to 220%.

  • 2.
    Francisco, F.
    et al.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, CERIS CESUR, Av Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049001 Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Dept Fis & Astron, Fac Ciencias, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Porto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Ctr Fis Porto, Fac Ciencias, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Porto, Portugal..
    Teixeira, P. F.
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, CERIS CESUR, Av Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049001 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Toubol, A.
    Univ Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne, Master Transports Int 2, 90 Rue Tolbiac, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Is large technological investment really a solution for a major shift to rail?: A discussion based on a Mediterranean freight corridor case-study2021In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 19, article id 100271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to assess how the introduction of technological innovations into a capacity constrained rail corridor may increase its ability to capture market share from road transport. The Montpellier-Perpignan section, a bottle-neck in the Mediterranean corridor, is used as a case study for the effects of implementing new rolling stock that allows for freight trains up to 1500 m, a new ballastless track replacing existing one, resilient switches and crossings, and monitoring systems that allow for a reduction in maintenance costs and closure times. The results of a cost-benefit analysis show positive net impacts, however, the increases in capacity are only enough to maintain current rail freight market shares. Evidence suggests that a heavy investment in technology in existing lines is not the most effective way to increase rail market share.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Lund Univ, Fac Engn, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Sipilä, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Microscopic and macroscopic simulation of early freight train departures2022In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 21, article id 100295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and other countries it is not an uncommon practice that freight trains depart more or less on-demand instead of strictly following a pre-planned timetable. However, the systematic effects of freight trains departing late or (in particular) early has long been a contested issue. Although some microscopic simulation tools currently have the capability to evaluate the effect of freight trains departing before schedule, it has yet not been established how macroscopic simulation tools, capable of fast simulation of nation-wide networks, can manage such tasks. This paper uses a case study on a line between two large freight yards in Sweden to investigate how the results of microscopic and macroscopic simulation, represented by two modern simulation tools, differ when it comes to this particular problem. The main findings are that both the microscopic and the macroscopic tools replicated the empirical punctuality fairly well. Furthermore, allowing early departures of freight trains increased overall freight train punctuality while the passenger train punctuality decreased slightly, as determined by both tools. The results are encouraging, but further studies are needed to determine if macroscopic simulation is on-par with microscopic simulation.

  • 4.
    Lo, Julia C.
    et al.
    ProRail, Dept Innovat & Dev, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sehic, Emdzad
    Meijer, Sebastiaan A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics. Delft Univ Technol, Fac Technol Policy & Management, Delft, Netherlands.
    Balancing organizational and academic research: Investigating train affic Controller's geographical workspace design and team situation areness using gaming simulations2019In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 10, p. 34-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In innovating and designing new concepts in the railway sector, the tch railway infrastructure manager ProRail uses different types of mulations to identify and tackle possible bottlenecks in future frastructure design. Computer simulation tools are used in earlier ages of the design process, followed by the application of gaming mulations where the design is fine tuned together with railway traffic erators before it is put into operation. This study focuses on oviding insights into the use of a human-in-the-loop simulator in ich an organizational research question investigates the impact of ltiple geographical workspace designs, while in parallel human factors search is conducted to investigate the concept of team situation areness from an academic research interest. Finding a balance between e practical and academic implications in one research design and its ndings does not rely on a trivial approach. The current article aims contribute on several levels: (1) to illustrate the balance between search for practice and research for academia through the applications gaming simulations; (2) to illustrate the use of gaming simulations r railway traffic operations and (3) to provide insights in team SA velopment in railway traffic operations using gaming simulations.

  • 5.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    Division of Transport and Roads, Department of Technology and Society, Lund University.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Statistical Analysis of Departure Deviations from Shunting Yards: Case study from Swedish Railways2021In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departure deviations from shunting yards impact the reliability of rail freight services and the punctuality of a railway network. Therefore, the statistical analysis of these deviations are necessary for improving the operation of trains in mixed-traffic networks. In our paper, we conduct a detailed statistical analysis of departure deviations considering individual shunting yards characteristics. We use a large freight train delay dataset comprising 250,000 departures over seven years for the two largest shunting yards in Sweden, comparable to other medium-sized shunting yards in Europe. To find the probability distribution of departure deviations, we compare four distribution functions including the exponential, the log-normal, the gamma, and the Weibull according to the maximum likelihood estimates and results of the Anderson-Darling goodness of fit test. In our experiments, we show that the log-normal distribution fits best for delayed departures across both shunting yards, and for early departures at one of them, whereas the gamma distribution fits best for early departures at the other yard. For the temporal delay distribution, we find that fluctuations in the network usage impact the percentage of delayed departures across hours and weekdays, but not across months or years. In addition, we find that freight trains are mostly delayed in the winter.  In the case of hourly delayed departures, we demonstrate that a shunting yard involved with domestic traffic showed a negative correlation between delayed departures and the network usage, whereas an international shunting yard did not, which indicates individuality in shunting yard operations impact shunting yard-network interactions. Our findings mainly contribute to better understanding of departure deviations from shunting yards, thus enhancing the operations and capacity utilization of shunting yards. Moreover, delay distributions can be beneficial in handling delays in traffic management models as well as enhancing the outputs of freight train simulation models

  • 6.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Sipilä, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Machine learning-assisted macro simulation for yard arrival prediction2023In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 25, article id 100368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the modal share of the single wagonload transport in Europe requires improving the reliability and predictability of freight trains running between the yards. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-assisted macro simulation framework to increase the predictability of yard departures and arrivals. Machine learning is applied through a random forest algorithm to implement a yard departure prediction model. Our yard departure prediction approach is less complex compared to previous yard simulation approaches, and provides an accuracy level of 92% in predictions. Then, departure predictions assist a macro simulation network model (PROTON) to predict arrivals to the succeeding yards. We tested this framework using data from a stretch between two main yards in Sweden; our experiments show that the current framework performs better than the timetable and a basic machine learning arrival prediction model by R2 of 0.48 and a mean absolute error of 35 minutes. Our current results indicate that combination of approaches, including yard and network interactions, can yield competitive results for complex yard arrival time prediction tasks which can assist yard operators and infrastructure managers in yard re-planning processes and yard-network coordination respectively.

  • 7.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Dept Transport Econ, Box 55685, SE-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boysen, Hans E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Railway line capacity utilisation and its impact on maintenance costs2019In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 9, p. 22-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse how railway maintenance costs are affected by different levels of railway line capacity utilisation. Previous studies have focused on the wear and tear of the infrastructure, while this paper shows that it is important to also acknowledge the heterogeneity of the maintenance production environment. Specifically, we estimate marginal maintenance costs for traffic using econometric methods on a panel dataset from Sweden and show that these costs increase with line capacity utilisation. The results are significant considering that current EU regulation (2015/909) states that track access charges can be based on marginal costs, with the aim of achieving an efficient use of available infrastructure capacity.

  • 8. Peterson, A.
    et al.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Box 325, SE-631 05 Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Joborn, M.
    Guest editorial for the best papers of RailNorrköping 20192020In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 15, article id 100204Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ranjbar, Vahid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Olsson, Nils O.E.
    Sipilä, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Impact of signalling system on capacity – Comparing legacy ATC, ETCS Level 2 and ETCS Hybrid Level 3 systems2022In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 23, article id 100322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most railways use fixed block technology, which could be replaced with moving block technology with associated high cost. It is therefore interesting to gradually upgrade the signalling system exploiting hybrid technologies. This paper aims to investigate the impact on capacity of various signalling systems (including fixed block technology and hybrid technology) using a microscopic simulation tool under scheduled (static) conditions without considering probability functions. To perform comparative analysis between European Train Control System (ETCS) Hybrid Level 3, ETCS Level 2, and the Swedish ATC2 legacy system, three signalling system scenarios are designed and capacity consumption is considered as a performance indicator. The study was performed on the central section of Stockholm’s commuter train network with peak hour conditions from the 2020 timetable. The results show that ETCS L2 delivers lower capacity consumption in total compared to the ATC2 legacy system. ETCS Hybrid Level 3 with existing trackside train detection and partially shortened block sections delivers lower capacity consumption compared to ETCS L2 and ATC2. The implementation of hybrid solutions such as ETCS Hybrid Level 3 in addition to allowing for gradual upgrading of signalling systems to the next generation (moving block system) can improve capacity of high-density commuter lines.

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  • 10.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    et al.
    VTI.
    Cavalcanti, Thiago
    VTI.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    VTI.
    Prytz, Erik
    LiU.
    Moertl, Peter
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH.
    Driveability analysis of the european rail transport management system (ERTMS): A systematic literature review2021In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 18, article id 100240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Train drivers in Sweden had the opportunity to test the new European Rail Transport Management System (ERTMS) during the early implementation of this signaling system in 2011 and 2012. Unfortunately, they have reported many implementation problems. These ERTMS lines have been evaluated as more challenging to drive compared to the previous signaling system. A systematic literature review was conducted to understand what network planning designers typically focus on when analyzing railway driveability and how driveability can be assessed. In the overall picture the impact on driveability originates from both technological, organizational, and train driver aspects. One technological issue found during the investigation is related to the speed profile design. Frequent speed changes were identified as the primary source of negative experiences during driveability evaluations, especially on retrofitted lines. Results also indicate the need for a methodology that includes the driver earlier in the network planning test process, to avoid the costly and time-consuming analysis done after project implementation. The results highlight the importance of the speed profile design to provide good driveability. Cognitive Task Analysis, simulations, and statistical calculations to predict driver and train performance were identified as applicable methods to involve train drivers earlier in the driveability analysis process.

  • 11.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    et al.
    VTI.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    VTI.
    Simulated and real train driving in a lineside automatic train protection (ATP) system environment2020In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 16, article id 100205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the differences between the train traffic simulation tool RailSys and real train traffic with focus on Electrical Multiple Units (EMU) and the Swedish automatic train protection (ATP) system ATC, on a single-track line. Braking, acceleration, different types of resistance and running times have been investigated. From this study it can be concluded that the margins to unconditional ATC braking is high with this specific ATC implementation and parameters, and that the braking differs depending on the signal target. Compared to RailSys with parameters settings according to Swedish Transport Administration recommendations, the measurements show significantly lower acceleration and deceleration, which results in differences between measured and simulated running time.

  • 12.
    Vautard, Félix
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Liu, Chengxi
    VTI, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Improving interregional rail timetabling through welfare assessment of departure time shifts2021In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 17, no 100223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve current rail timetabling processes, the suitability of train departure times for passengers should be included in timetable assessment. To achieve this, one possibility is to calculate the change in consumer and producer surplus (i.e., the economic welfare) resulting from departure time shifts in rail timetables. However, existing methods for this calculation are quite limited. To fill this gap, we propose a new method in the current paper. This method enables comparing most scenarios involved in interregional rail timetabling in terms of economic welfare. To this end, our method takes advantage of schedule-based models that allow assessing the impact of departure time shifts on the demand and valuation of each possible route using the timetable. As a proof of concept, we illustrate this method on a case study on the busiest Swedish interregional line. This case study shows the potential of the method to deliver detailed calculations with analysis of equity effects. To conclude, the method presented in this paper improves on the current literature, and it can be used to improve timetable optimisation algorithms or to better resolve conflicts between train path requests.

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  • 13.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    The use of railway simulation as an input to economic assessment of timetables2016In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of capacity for highly-used railways is an important and challenging task. This paper describes a method for evaluation of timetables based on capacity and economic assessment. Common methods from both fields are combined. For developing and analysing purposes, the model is first tested with historical delay data for express trains on a double-track line with dense, mixed traffic in Sweden. An assessment aiming to compare the departures is made by combining common weights for different variables. Differences in the results based on the model structure are discussed. In the second step, microscopic simulation is used to reveal delay characteristics of timetable alternatives that are then compared and discussed in a similar way to step 1.

    The presented method using simulation makes it possible to reveal and evaluate characteristics that are important for both timetable planning and economic analysis, for example evaluation of strategies. Timetable and delay times are important input variables that affect the travellers' choice. Using simulation and other methods from capacity planning gives the opportunity to find characteristics for analysing alternatives and improve economic evaluation, at the same time as the use of economic parameters provides more possibilities to make a relevant capacity analysis.

  • 14.
    Weik, Norman
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Science, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Str. 1, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Johansson, Ingrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Nießen, Nils
    Institute of Transport Science, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Str. 1, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
    Extending UIC 406-based capacity analysis – New approaches for railway nodes and network effects2020In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 15, p. 100199-, article id 100199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway capacity planning aims to determine the amount of traffic that can be operated on a given infrastructure. The timetable compression method described in UIC Code 406 has become one of the standard tools in this area. Motivated by the Swedish Transportation Administration's timetable independent adaptation of the methodology and its need for extension we explore how the compression method can be applied to evaluate the capacity of the underlying infrastructure for strategic planning rather than the occupation ratio of a specific timetable. By performing ensemble averaging of scheduled train sequences we abstract from a single timetable concept and perform a distributional analysis of timetable utilization. To mitigate decomposition-induced underestimation of network effects the compression area is extended and approaches to include interdependencies between stations and lines are investigated. The methodology is applied for capacity assessment of railway stations and line segments in a case study based on the Swedish Southern Main Line rail corridor.

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