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  • 1.
    Behi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Research group MOBI – Mobility, Logistics, and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium b Flanders Make, Heverlee 3001, Belgium.
    Karimi, Danial
    Research group MOBI – Mobility, Logistics, and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium b Flanders Make, Heverlee 3001, Belgium.
    Behi, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. The University of Sydney, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Jaguemont, Joris
    Research group MOBI – Mobility, Logistics, and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium b Flanders Make, Heverlee 3001, Belgium.
    Ghanbarpour, Morteza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Behnia, Masud
    Macquarie Business School, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Berecibar, Maitane
    Research group MOBI – Mobility, Logistics, and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium b Flanders Make, Heverlee 3001, Belgium.
    Van Mierlo, Joeri
    Research group MOBI – Mobility, Logistics, and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium b Flanders Make, Heverlee 3001, Belgium.
    Thermal management analysis using heat pipe in the high current discharging of lithium-ion battery in electric vehicles2020In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 32, article id 101893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal management system (TMS) for commonly used lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is an essential requirement in electric vehicle operation due to the excessive heat generation of these batteries during fast charging/discharging. In the current study, a thermal model of lithium-titanate (LTO) cell and three cooling strategies comprising natural air cooling, forced fluid cooling, and a flat heat pipe-assisted method is proposed experimentally. A new thermal analysis of the single battery cell is conducted to identify the most critical zone of the cell in terms of heat generation. This analysis allowed us to maximize heat dissipation with only one heat pipe mounted on the vital region. For further evaluation of the proposed strategies, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model is built in COMSOL Multiphysics® and validated with surface temperature profile along the heat pipe and cell. For real applications, a numerical optimization computation is also conducted in the module level to investigate the cooling capacity of the liquid cooling system and liquid cooling system embedded heat pipe (LCHP). The results show that the single heat pipe provided up to 29.1% of the required cooling load in the 8C discharging rate. Moreover, in the module level, the liquid cooling system and LCHP show better performance compared with natural air cooling while reducing the module temperature by 29.9% and 32.6%, respectively.

  • 2.
    Behzadi, Amirmohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Alirahmi, Seyed Mojtaba
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Chem & Biosci, Esbjerg, Denmark..
    Yu, Haoshui
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Chem & Biosci, Esbjerg, Denmark..
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business, Soc & Engn, Västerås, Sweden..
    An efficient renewable hybridization based on hydrogen storage for peak demand reduction: A rule-based energy control and optimization using machine learning techniques2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 57, article id 106168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study proposes and thoroughly examines a novel approach for the effective hybridization of solar and wind sources based on hydrogen storage to increase grid stability and lower peak load. The parabolic trough collector, vanadium chloride thermochemical cycle, hydrogen storage tank, alkaline fuel cells, thermal energy storage, and absorption chiller make up the suggested smart system. Additionally, the proposed system includes a wind turbine to power the electrolyzer unit and minimize the size of the solar system. A rule-based control technique establishes an intelligent two-way connection with energy networks to compensate for the energy expenses throughout the year. The transient system simulation (TRNSYS) tool and the engineering equation solver program are used to conduct a comprehensive techno-economic-environmental assessment of a Swedish residential building. A four-objective optimization utilizing MATLAB based on the grey wolf algorithm coupled with an artificial neural network is used to determine the best trade-off between the indicators. According to the results, the primary energy saving, carbon dioxide reduction rate, overall cost, and purchased energy are 80.6 %, 219 %, 14.8 $/h, and 24.9 MWh at optimal conditions. From the scatter distribution, it can be concluded that fuel cell voltage and collector length should be maintained at their lowest domain and the electrode area is an ineffective parameter. The suggested renewable-driven smart system can provide for the building's needs for 70 % of the year and sell excess production to the local energy network, making it a feasible alternative. Solar energy is far less effective in storing hydrogen over the winter than wind energy, demonstrating the benefits of combining renewable energy sources to fulfill demand. By lowering CO2 emissions by 61,758 kg, it is predicted that the recommended smart renewable system might save 7719 $ in environmental costs, equivalent to 6.9 ha of new reforestation.

  • 3.
    Bessman, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Soares, Rúdi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Svens, Pontus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Aging effects of AC harmonics on lithium-ion cells2019In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 21, p. 741-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the vehicle industry poised to take the step into the era of electric vehicles, concerns have been raised that AC harmonics arising from switching of power electronics and harmonics in electric machinery may damage the battery. In light of this, we have studied the effect of several different frequencies on the aging of 28 Ah commercial NMC/graphite prismatic lithium-ion battery cells. The tested frequencies are 1 Hz, 100 Hz, and 1 kHz, all with a peak amplitude of 21 A. Both the effect on cycled cells and calendar aged cells is tested. The cycled cells are cycled at a rate of 1C:1C, i.e., 28 A during both charging and discharging, with the exception of a period of constant voltage at the end of every charge. After running for one year, the cycled cells have completed approximately 2000 cycles. The cells are characterized periodically to follow how their capacities and power capabilities evolve. After completion of the test about 80% of the initial capacity remained and no increase in resistance was observed. No negative effect on either capacity fade or power fade is observed in this study, and no difference in aging mechanism is detected when using non-invasive electrochemical methods of post mortem investigation.

  • 4.
    Börjesson Axén, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry. Nilar AB, Bonavagen 55, S-80647 Gävle, Sweden..
    Ekström, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry. COMSOL AB, Tegnergatan 27, S-11140 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zetterstrom, Erika Widenkvist
    Nilar AB, Bonavagen 55, S-80647 Gävle, Sweden..
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Evaluation of hysteresis expressions in a lumped voltage prediction model of a NiMH battery system in stationary storage applications2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 48, p. 103985-, article id 103985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of battery system operation, battery models are often used to determine battery characteristics such as the state of charge (SOC) and the state of health (SOH). A phenomenon that has a large impact on battery model accuracy for NiMH batteries is open circuit voltage (OCV) hysteresis, which causes the OCV to differ not only with the SOC of the battery but also with the charge-discharge history. This characteristic is especially influential when running the system in applications with dynamic current patterns. A model including a way to emulate battery hysteresis behavior would improve the battery management system function. In this study a lumped battery model for cell voltage prediction was expanded to include an OCV hysteresis model. Different expressions to describe the hysteresis behavior were explored. The different models were then evaluated using both synthetic and real-life application experimental data. In all cases the error was reduced by adding a hysteresis component to the model. Using this type of model in the battery management system of stationary energy storage systems based on NiMH batteries could help make the state prediction more accurate. This, in turn, would allow for better optimization of the system operation, something that could help increase system efficiency and lifetime.

  • 5.
    Chowdhury, Nildari Roy
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, -412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden; Volvo Group Trucks Technology (GTT), SE-405 08, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smith, Alexander J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Frenander, Kristian
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden; Volvo Car Corporation, SE-405 31, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mikheenkova, Anastasiia
    Ångström Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 21, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Thiringer, Torbjörn
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96, Gothenburg, country=Sweden, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Influence of state of charge window on the degradation of Tesla lithium-ion battery cells2024In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 76, article id 110001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tesla Model 3 is currently one of the most popular electric vehicle (EV) and was the best selling EV in 2020. In this article, performance and degradation of 21700 cylindrical cells, taken from a new vehicle, were studied by cycling within 10% State of charge (SOC) windows. Cells tested in either very high and very low SOC windows show faster degradation than at moderate SOC. In particular, the shortest service life was for cells cycled below 25% SOC. The ageing mechanisms of the cells cycled in these most extreme windows have been monitored by non-destructive electrochemical methods including analyses of differential voltage, incremental capacity, and voltage hysteresis. The combination of loss of lithium inventory (LLI) accelerated in early cycling by SiOx utilization, paired with loss of active material (LAM) of SiOx are responsible for the most rapid ageing, which is observed in the cells cycled in the 5%–15% SOC window. Calendar ageing, however, is not accelerated by storage at low SOC. The results from this study offer an understanding of the distinct, SOC-dependent ageing patterns observed in the cells. This understanding of the ageing mechanisms in different cycling and storage conditions can be used to recommend improved customer usage patterns and substantially extend the lifetime of lithium-ion batteries in operation.

  • 6.
    Dai, Huageng
    et al.
    School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300401, China.
    Yuan, Jianjuan
    School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300401, China.
    Zhao, Caimeng
    School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300401, China.
    Kong, Xiangfei
    School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300401, China.
    Liu, Wei
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Yin, Rongxin
    Grid Integration Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, The United States.
    Comparative experimental study on photothermal conversion and shape memory properties of MF-based flexible composite phase change materials loaded with carbon nanotubes and polydopamine2024In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 90, article id 111901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient use of solar energy can effectively alleviate the problem of energy shortages. Currently, extensive researches have been carried out on photothermal conversion materials. However, factors such as photothermal conversion and thermal conductivity limit the practical implementation of photothermal materials. In this research, a novel flexible composite phase change material (CPCM) with melamine foam (MF) as the supporting skeleton, carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polydopamine (PDA) as the light-absorbing coating and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the energy storage material was successfully prepared. The results show that the MF-based CPCMs have good shape stability with a leakage of only 0.9 %, and high phase change enthalpies, the melting enthalpy was above 172.0 J/g. In addition, the thermal conductivity was improved due to the introduction of light-absorbing coatings into the CPCMs. Compared with MF/PEG, MWCNT/MF/PEG, and PDA/MF/PEG, MWCNT/PDA/MF/PEG were improved by 35.21 %, 8.6 % and 29.46 %, respectively. Finally, the average charging efficiency of MWCNT/PDA/MF/PEG is 96.26 %, which is 62.33 % and 20.1 % higher than that of MWCNT/MF/PEG and PDA/MF/PEG respectively, indicating that MWCNT and PDA nanofillers played a synergistic role in enhancing the performance of CPCMs. This study provides new and innovative ways for the design of photothermal materials.

  • 7.
    Elberry, Ahmed M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Thakur, Jagruti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Veysey, Jason
    Stockholm Environm Inst, 11 Curtis Ave, Somerville, MA 02144 USA..
    Seasonal hydrogen storage for sustainable renewable energy integration in the electricity sector: A case study of Finland2021In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 44, article id 103474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is rapidly growing in the Finnish grid, and Finland's electricity consumption is low in the summer compared to the winter. Hence, there is a need for storage that can absorb a large amount of energy during summer and discharge it during winter. This study examines one such storage technology, geological hydrogen storage, which has the potential to store energy on a GWh scale and also over longer periods of time. Finland's electricity generation system was modelled with and without hydrogen storage using the LEAP-NEMO modeling toolkit. The results showed about 69% decline in carbon dioxide emissions as well as a decline in the fossil fuel-based power accompanied with a higher capability to meet demand with less imports in both scenarios. Finally, a critical analysis of the Finnish electricity mix with and without hydrogen storage is presented.

  • 8.
    Habib, Mustapha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Bollin, Elmar
    Institute of Energy System Technology, Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, 77652 Offenburg, Germany.
    Wang, Qian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design. Uponor AB, Hackstavägen 1, 721 32 Västerås, Sweden .
    Edge-based solution for battery energy management system: Investigating the integration capability into the building automation system2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, photovoltaic (PV) with energy storage systems (ESS) have been widely adopted in buildings to overcome growing power demands and earn financial benefits. The overall energy cost can be optimized by combining a well-sized hybrid PV/ESS system with an efficient energy management system (EMS). Generally, EMS is implemented within the overall functions of the Building Automation System (BAS). However, due to its limited computing resources, BAS cannot handle complex algorithms that aim to optimize energy use in real-time under different operating conditions. Furthermore, islanding the building's local network to maximize the PV energy share represents a challenging task due to the potential technical risks. In this context, this article addresses an improved approach based on upgrading the BAS data analytics capability by means of an edge computing technology. The edge communicates with the BAS low-level controller using a serial communication protocol. Taking advantage of the high computing ability of the edge device, an optimization-based EMS of the PV/ESS hybrid system is implemented. Different testing scenarios have been carried out on a real prototype with different weather conditions, and the results show the implementation feasibility and technical performance of such advanced EMS for the management of building energy resources. It has also been proven to be feasible and advantageous to operate the local energy network in island mode while ensuring system safety. Additionally, an estimated energy saving improvement of 6.23 % has been achieved using optimization-based EMS compared to the classical rule-based EMS, with better ESS constraints fulfillment.

  • 9. He, J.
    et al.
    Bian, Xiaolei
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Wei, Z.
    Yan, F.
    Comparative study of curve determination methods for incremental capacity analysis and state of health estimation of lithium-ion battery2020In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 29, article id 101400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is a favorable candidate for state of health (SOH) estimation of lithium-ion battery (LIB). Although abundant works have been carried out on the ICA-based methods, a comprehensive comparison of them to clarify the application boundary is still lacking. Moreover, more efficient method for extracting more informative features of interest (FOIs) for SOH estimation is less explored. Motivated by this, this paper performs a comparative study over the filtering-based and the voltage-capacity (VC) model-based ICA methods with respect to the IC fitting accuracy, robustness to aging and the computing cost. In this framework, a set of novel FOIs different from traditional ones are captured along with the parameterization of VC models. Comparative results reveal the optimality of revised Lorentzian VC model with three peaks (RL-VC-3) for both LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) battery. The mean relative errors of capacity modeling are 0.34% and 0.15%, respectively. The newly captured FOIs have been further validated with high linearities with the reference capacity, offering deep insights into more straightforward SOH estimation for LIB. Illustrative case studies suggest that particular FOIs can offer accurate SOH estimation with absolute error of 0.079% and 0.661% respectively for the LFP and NCM battery.

  • 10.
    Herre, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems. DTU Denmark Tech Univ, Dept Elect Engn, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Nourozi, Behrouz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wang, Qian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Söder, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Provision of multiple services with controllable loads as multi-area thermal energy storage2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 63, p. 107062-, article id 107062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power systems are experiencing a decrease of synchronous generation along with increased penetration of inverter based renewable generation leading to reduced system inertia and a need for flexible resources. Non-generating resources such as thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) are flexible due to their thermal energy storage capacity. When aggregated, TCLs can arbitrage energy prices and provide reserves to the power system. We approach the operational flexibility of the TCLs by modeling a risk-averse aggregator that controls decentralized TCLs and aims to maximize its own profit. The high number and low power rating of residential TCLs makes it difficult to model and assess their flexibility potential on national level. Thus, we make use of a high-level thermal energy storage model for aggregations of TCLs to quantify their flexibility potential. We present a method to aggregate temperature, TCL parameters, and building stock data into a thermal battery equivalent. We propose a multi-period multi-market multi-zonal two-stage chance constrained rolling horizon optimization problem formulation for the risk-averse day-ahead self-scheduling problem of a price-taker TCL aggregator bidding in energy and reserve markets under uncertainty and recast the problem as a linear program. We perform several case studies in the Swedish power system based on a survey of single -and two-family dwellings with electric heating and assess the flexibility potential. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis provides insights regarding market design and policy implications.

  • 11.
    Jiao, Yang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Månsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Greenhouse gas emissions from hybrid energy storage systems in future 100% renewable power systems – A Swedish case based on consequential life cycle assessment2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 57, p. 106167-106187, article id 106167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To promote the development of renewables, this article evaluates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) in 100% renewable power systems. The consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) approach is applied to evaluate and forecast the environmental implications of HESSs. Based on the power system of Sweden, different HESS combinations, which include energy storage (ES) technologies: pumped hydro ES, hydrogen ES, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, lead-acid (PbA) batteries, vanadium redox (VR) batteries, supercapacitors (SCs), and flywheels, are discussed. The results show that for Sweden and similar large-scale utility applications, the cradle-to-gate GHG emissions from the HESS contribute to a major share of the life cycle GHG emissions due to the under-utilization of the cycle life. Among the HESSs compared in this study, the Pumped hydro+Li-ion+Flywheel combination exhibits the least life cycle GHG emissions. Moreover, the phasing out of nuclear power brings a severe challenge to the carbon reduction target. However, the introduced HESS manages to reduce GHG emissions from a 100% renewable power system.

  • 12.
    Jiao, Yang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Månsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Study of the oversized capacity and the increased energy loss of hybrid energy storage systems and design of an improved controller based on the low-pass filter2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, p. 104241-104241, article id 104241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of batteries and supercapacitors (SCs) is an effective approach to stability problems brought by renewable energy sources (RESs) in microgrids. This paper investigates the energy exchange between the two energy storage devices (ESDs) caused by the low-pass filter (LPF), which leads to the oversized capacity of HESSs. In addition, the energy exchange between the ESDs leads to more energy loss of HESSs. Based on the analysis of the power flows, this paper proposes an improved controller based on the LPF controller. A power direction control strategy eliminates the non-beneficial power flow to reduce the capacity of HESSs and improve the round-trip energy efficiency. In addition, a SOC control strategy regime balances the desired state of charge (SOC) of the ESDs instead of depending on the LPF. In this paper, the case study shows that the improved LPF controller reduces the capacity of the HESS to the minimized capacity and improves the round-trip energy efficiency. Furthermore, it has no adverse effect on battery aging and achieves the battery lifetime extension with a smaller capacity. A scaled-down HESS experimental setup validates the effectiveness of the improved LPF controller and the simulation results. Finally, the proposed improved controller is compared with various existing controllers to verify the performance.

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  • 13.
    Khan, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Zhao, Nan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Xu, Tianhao
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Assessment of PECM as an efficient numerical analysis tool for investigating convective heat transfer phenomena during PCM melting2019In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 24, p. 100743-, article id 100743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of this research work, the principle focus is to assess the applicability & reliability of the Phase change Effective Convectivity Model (PECM) as a numerical analysis tool to investigate natural convective heat transfer in single and two-fluid density PCM molten pools. The model is applied in ANSYS FLUENT as User Defined Function (UDF) to predict convective melt pool thermal hydraulics in a volumetrically heated PCM (Phase Change Material) melt pool. As a part of this work, PECM is tested first by a benchmark case against CFD to gain confidence in its applicability as an analysis tool. Two commercial PCMs: RT50 and C58, are introduced in a 3D semicircular vessel slice with their thermo-physical properties as input for modelling. The sidewalls made of quartz glass are used for direct visualization of convective heat transfer phenomena. It is ensured that the conditions of nearly constant density of power deposition over the entire volume of the PCM melt pool throughout the series of simulation cases. The values of characteristic numbers ranged within the following limits with different pool height corresponding modified Rayleigh number Ra=1012-1013 and for Prandtl number Pr=5-7. The selected modelling approach is validated against SIGMA experiment with respect to the angular distribution of heat flux that qualify our model to run in the proceeding calculation using PECM. Following benchmark test results of PECM compared with that of conventional enthalpy porosity method embedded in ANSYS FLUENT, PECM is applied in 1-layer and 2-layer PCM configuration to study in details of the influence of different boundary conditions, internal heat sources (QV) and heat transfer fluid (HTF) cooling condition to quantify the thermal loads. Finally, the comparison is made between two PCM configurations in terms of the quantification of the thermal load to justify PECM as an efficient numerical analysis tool for investigating convective heat transfer phenomena during PCM melting. 

  • 14.
    Konig-Haagen, Andreas
    et al.
    Univ Bayreuth, Chair Engn Thermodynam & Transport Proc LTTT, Ctr Energy Technol ZET, Bayreuth, Germany.;Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Fac Engn Bilbao, Dept Energy Engn, ENEDI Res Grp, Bilbao, Spain..
    Hoehlein, Stephan
    Univ Bayreuth, Chair Engn Thermodynam & Transport Proc LTTT, Ctr Energy Technol ZET, Bayreuth, Germany..
    Lazaro, Ana
    Univ Zaragoza, Aragon Inst Engn Res I3A, Thermal Engn & Energy Syst Grp, Zaragoza, Spain..
    Delgado, Monica
    Univ Zaragoza, Aragon Inst Engn Res I3A, Thermal Engn & Energy Syst Grp, Zaragoza, Spain..
    Diarce, Gonzalo
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Fac Engn Bilbao, Dept Energy Engn, ENEDI Res Grp, Bilbao, Spain..
    Groulx, Dominic
    Dalhousie Univ, Lab Appl Multiphase Thermal Engn LAMTE, 5269 Morris St, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada..
    Herbinger, Florent
    Dalhousie Univ, Lab Appl Multiphase Thermal Engn LAMTE, 5269 Morris St, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada..
    Patil, Ajinkya
    Dalhousie Univ, Lab Appl Multiphase Thermal Engn LAMTE, 5269 Morris St, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada..
    Englmair, Gerald
    Tech Univ Denmark DTU, Dept Civil Engn, Bldg 118, DK-2800 Brovej, Denmark..
    Wang, Gang
    Tech Univ Denmark DTU, Dept Civil Engn, Bldg 118, DK-2800 Brovej, Denmark..
    Abdi, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Xu, Tianhao
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Rathgeber, Christoph
    Bavarian Ctr Appl Energy Res ZAE Bayern, Walther Meissner Str 6, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Poellinger, Simon
    Bavarian Ctr Appl Energy Res ZAE Bayern, Walther Meissner Str 6, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Gschwander, Stefan
    Fraunhofer Inst Solar Energy Syst ISE, Heidenhofstr 2, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany..
    Gamisch, Sebastian
    Fraunhofer Inst Solar Energy Syst ISE, Heidenhofstr 2, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany..
    Analysis of the discharging process of latent heat thermal energy storage units by means of normalized power parameters2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 72, article id 108428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many efforts are being made to mitigate the main disadvantage of most phase change materials - their low thermal conductivities - in order to deliver latent heat energy storage systems (LHESS) with adequate perfor-mance. However, the effect of applied methods is difficult to compare as they are mostly tested for different storage types and sizes and/or different boundary and initial conditions, which hinders rapid progress in the optimization of these approaches. In this work, a previously developed method for comparing the performance of LHESS is applied to experimental results of different storage systems under different conditions and subsequently analyzed and further refined. The main idea of the method is to normalize the power with the volume and a reference temperature difference and compare its mean value plotted over the normalized mean capacity flow of the heat transfer fluid (HTF). This enables the presentation of the results in a compact and easily comparative way. Attention has to be paid when it comes to the choice of the reference temperature difference, the reference volume and the method for calculating the mean value. Two variants of calculating the mean value (time-weighted and energy-weighted) and two variants of reference temperatures for determining the temperature difference to the inlet temperature of the HTF (initial temperature and melting temperature) are applied and discussed in detail. While the method significantly increases the comparability of results, none of the options listed above are without drawbacks. Approaches are shown to reduce or eliminate these drawbacks in the future. The recommendation for comparing different LHESS under different conditions is to use the method described here and clearly state the chosen reference temperature, reference volume and method for calculating the mean value.

  • 15.
    Lander, Sanna
    et al.
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Cellfion AB, Drottning Kristinas väg 53, SE-114 28 Stockholm, Sweden, Drottning Kristinas väg 53.
    Pang, Jiu
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    Cellfion AB, Drottning Kristinas väg 53, SE-114 28 Stockholm, Sweden, Drottning Kristinas väg 53; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Initiative Materials Science for Sustainability, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping 60174, Sweden.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Korhonen, Leena
    BillerudKorsnäs AB, Frövi SE-718 80, Sweden.
    Yang, Hongli
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ding, Penghui
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Mehandzhiyski, Aleksandar Y.
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping,.
    Crispin, Reverant
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Initiative Materials Science for Sustainability, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping 60174, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Initiative Materials Science for Sustainability, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping 60174, Sweden.
    Controlling the rate of posolyte degradation in all-quinone aqueous organic redox flow batteries by sulfonated nanocellulose based membranes: The role of crossover and Michael addition2024In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 83, article id 110338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous organic redox flow battery (AORFB) is a technological route towards the large-scale sustainable energy storage. However, several factors need to be controlled to maintain the AORFB performance. Prevention of posolyte and negolyte cross-contamination in asymmetric AORFBs, one of the main causes of capacity decay, relies on their membranes' ability to prevent migration of the redox-active species between the two electrolytes. The barrier properties are often traded for a reduction in ionic conductivity which is crucial to enable the device operation. Another factor greatly affecting quinone-based AORFBs is the Michael addition reaction (MAR) on the charged posolyte, quinone, which has been identified as a major reason for all-quinone AORFBs performance deterioration. Herein, we investigate deterioration scenarios of an all-quinone AORFB using both experimental and computational methods. The study includes a series of membranes based on sulfonated cellulose nanofibrils and different membrane modifications. The layer-by-layer (LbL) surface modifications, i.e. the incorporation of inorganic materials and the reduction of the pore size of the sulfonated cellulose membranes, were all viable routes to reduce the passive diffusion permeability of membranes which correlated to an increased cycling stability of the battery. The kinetics of MAR on quinone was detected using NMR and its impact on the performance fading was modeled computationally. The localization of MAR close to the membrane, which can be assigned to the surface reactivity, affects the diffusion of MAR reagent and the deterioration dynamics of the present all-quinone AORFB.

  • 16.
    Lorenzi, Guido
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. IN+, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    da Silva Vieira, Ricardo
    MARETEC/LARSYS, Environment and Energy, Scientific Area, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santos Silva, Carlos Augusto
    IN+, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Techno-economic analysis of utility-scale energy storage in island settingsIn: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The decarbonization of the electricity supply in isolated and remote energy systems is an open challenge in the transition to a sustainable energy system. In this paper, the possibility to increase the penetration of renewable energy sources for electricity generationon the island of Terceira (Azores) is investigated through the installation of a utility-scale energy storage facility. The electric power dispatch on the island is simulated through a unit commitment model of the fossil and renewable power plants that has the objective of minimizing the cost of electricity generation. Battery energy storage is employed to partially decouple production and supply, and to provide spinning reserve in case of sudden generator outage. Two technological options, namely lithium-ion and vanadium flow batteries, are compared in terms of net present value and return on investment, with the aim of supporting the decision-making process of the local utility. The economic evaluation takes also into account the degradation of the battery performance along the years. The results, obtained in a future-price scenario, show that both the technologies entail a positive investment performance. However, vanadium flow batteries have the best results, given that they produce a net present value of up to 242% of the initial capital invested after 20 years, with a return on investment higher than 20%. In this scenario, the renewable share can reachup to 46%, compared to the current 26%.

  • 17.
    Lorenzi, Guido
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Vieira, Ricardo da Silva
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, Environm & Energy Sci Area, MARETEC LARSYS, Ave Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049001 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Santos Silva, Carlos Augusto
    Univ Lisbon, Inst Super Tecn, IN, Ave Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049001 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Techno-economic analysis of utility-scale energy storage in island settings2019In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 21, p. 691-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decarbonization of the electricity supply in isolated and remote energy systems is an open challenge in the transition to a sustainable energy system. In this paper, the possibility to increase the penetration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation on the island of Terceira (Azores) is investigated through the installation of a utility-scale energy storage facility. The electric power dispatch on the island is simulated through a unit commitment model of the fossil and renewable power plants that has the objective of minimizing the cost of electricity generation. Battery energy storage is employed to partially decouple production and supply, and to provide spinning reserve in case of sudden generator outage. Two technological options, namely lithium-ion and vanadium flow batteries, are compared in terms of net present value and return on investment, with the aim of supporting the decision-making process of the local utility. The economic evaluation takes also into account the degradation of the battery performance along the years. The results, obtained in a future-price scenario, show that both the technologies entail a positive investment performance. However, vanadium flow batteries have the best results, given that they can produce a net present value that exceeds 430% of the initial capital invested after 20 years, with a return on investment higher than 35%. In this scenario, the renewable share can reach up to 46%, compared to the current 26%.

  • 18.
    Mussa, Abdilbari
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Klett, Matilda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry. Scania CV AB, SE-151 87 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Svens, P.
    Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Inhomogeneous active layer contact loss in a cycled prismatic lithium-ion cell caused by the jelly-roll curvature2018In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 20, p. 213-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal resistance is a key parameter that affects the power, energy, efficiency, lifetime, and safety of a lithium-ion battery. It grows due to chemical and mechanical battery wear during ageing. In this work, the effect of the jelly-roll winding curvature on impedance rise is investigated. NMC electrode samples, harvested from the curved as well as the flat regions of the jelly-roll from cycle-aged and calendar-aged prismatic cells (25 Ah, hard casing) are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. After cycling, larger impedance rise is observed at the outer radius (concave) of the curved region compared to the inner radius (convex) or the flat region of the jelly-roll, and the difference increases with a decrease in the jelly-roll radius of curvature, from the cell skin towards the core. To identify the causes behind the observed difference in the impedance rise, investigations at different external compression (0 and 2.5 MPa) and temperature (5 and 25 °C) are performed. The results show that contact loss between the current collector and the active layer is the main source of the difference in impedance rise. Mechanical mechanisms that may cause the contact loss are discussed and design recommendations to mitigate the rise in impedance are given. 

  • 19.
    Nanwani, Alisha
    et al.
    RTM Nagpur Univ, Dept Phys, Energy Mat & Devices Lab, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.;Indian Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India..
    Deshmukh, Kavita A.
    Visvesvaraya Natl Inst Technol, Dept Met & Mat Engn, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Deshmukh, Abhay D.
    RTM Nagpur Univ, Dept Phys, Energy Mat & Devices Lab, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Augmenting the nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide performance: Virtue of doping2020In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 31, article id 101604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doping is the most effective strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. Herein, we report the doping effect of Magnesium on structural instability of Ni-Co LDHs as the supercapacitor electrode material. The morphology of different compositions of magnesium are studied. The derived material with the Ni:Mg ratio of 1:1 displayed an excellent specific capacity of 624 Cg(-1) at current density of 10 Ag-1. Moreover, the specific capacity remained at 80% after 3000 cycles which suggest excellent cycle stability. An asymmetrc device was fabricated with N/M-2 as positive electrode and activated carbon cloth as negative electrode, which displayed a specific capacitance of 200 Fg(-1) at 0.25 Ag-1 with the energy density of 28 Whkg(-1). The device showed the capacitance retention of about 99% after 1000 cycles at 1 Ag-1. Therefore, improved structural

  • 20.
    Pham, Cong-Toan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Månsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Assessment of energy storage systems for power system applications via suitability index approach (Part IV)2019In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 24, article id 100777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storage systems provide several benefits and services in optimizing the power grid's reliability, efficiencyand safety. However, the feasibility of energy storage systems varies dependent on the requirements of theapplications. Technical limitations in design and type of the storage technology prevents a single storage type toperform equally well in all situations. Hence, it is essential to compare and measure the energy storages’ usefulnessand determine their optimal use. To address this issue this study introduces an indexing approach toevaluate the suitability of energy storages for power system applications. Four different energy storages (doublelayercapacitor, flywheel, lead–acid battery, lithium-ion battery) are tested for four typical energy storage applications(frequency regulation, voltage support, capacity firming and energy time-shift). The suitability indexallows a simple and intuitive way to compare and rank the suitability of energy storages.

  • 21.
    Pham, Cong-Toan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Månsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Experimental validation of a general energy storage modelling approach(Part III)2018In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 20, p. 542-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current challenges in the electric grid progression demand energy storages to cope with any imbalances betweensupply and demand side. Application possibilities of energy storages are numerous, but the requirements varyfrom case to case. However, not every storage technology operates equally to be useful in any situation. In fact,the feasibility of energy storages depend on their technical characteristics, i.e., for example efficiency, responsetimes, power rating and capacity for a selected application. Comparing and assessing different storage options isimperative for decision-making, which requires an in-depth understanding of the technology and its dynamics.Hence, a general model approach of energy storages as equivalent circuit models has been proposed to unify andanalyze storages of different physical backgrounds. This allows a more direct and intuitive evaluation of energystorages tested in a specific application. This paper focuses on the experimental validation of energy storages(ultra-capacitor, li-ion battery, lead-acid battery and flywheel) to be uniformly described in one general model. Asimple and budget friendly experimental setup to test the storages is designed.

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  • 22.
    Pham, Cong-Toan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Månsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Optimal energy storage sizing using equivalent circuit modelling for prosumer applications (Part II)2018In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Journal of Energy Storage, Vol. 18, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal system design indirectly implies efficient use of available resources, i.e., minimum investment to achieve the desired outcome. An increased demand of energy storages highlights the importance of efficient useand optimal storage sizing. However, the variety of available and newly developed storage technologies complicates decision-making in choosing the appropriate technology to the compatible application. The characterizationof storage types extends to the inherent dynamic behavior and technical limitations, which is imperativefor storage system design. This paper proposes a brute-force method of optimal storage system sizing based onthe equivalent circuit modeling while considering storage's operation constraints. The sizing routine is applied to a set of different energy storage technologies (lead-acid, Li-ion, vanadium-redox flow battery, double-layercapacitor, flywheel) to balance the energy demand of a single-family building supported by a 3.36 kWpeak photovoltaic system. This case focuses on the energy management application of energy storages. Additionally, asuitability index is introduced to determine the applicability of the investigated storages in reference to an ideal case.

  • 23.
    Reboli, Tommaso
    et al.
    Università degli Studi di Genova, DIME, 16145, Genoa, Italy.
    Ferrando, Marco
    Università degli Studi di Genova, DIME, 16145, Genoa, Italy.
    Traverso, Alberto
    Università degli Studi di Genova, DIME, 16145, Genoa, Italy.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Thermal energy storage based on cold phase change materials: Discharge phase assessment2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 73, p. 108939-, article id 108939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an energy scenario characterized by strong requirements in terms of flexibility and readiness, the integration of thermal energy storage in energy systems could play an important role in demand-supply management and allows novel operational schemes. Thermal Energy Storages based on latent heat are characterized by their compactness and small temperature swing. However, there is still a lack of performance analysis on large-scale setups. This work aims to fill this gap. In this paper, a shell & tube latent heat-based cold thermal energy storage was characterized in the discharge configuration, considering different temperatures and mass flow of the heat transfer fluid, representing an opportunity to understand the behavior of a full-scale system in different operative conditions. Sensitivity analyses on heat transfer fluid flow rate, flow direction, and inlet temperature were performed. The results show that peak power increases by approximately 25 % with doubled mass flow rate, and it doubles with increased inlet temperature by 6 °C. Since the impact of the buoyancy effect occurs when the liquid phase is predominant over the solid one, there is no strong impact on the direction of the Heat Transfer Fluid, from top to bottom or viceversa. Despite no metastability phase being detected, many discontinuities in the thermal power and temperature profiles were identified and analyzed, providing new insights into full scale latent heat storage. Finally, in this work, the thermal round-trip efficiency was estimated to reach above 90 %.

  • 24.
    Rong, Zhenzhou
    et al.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China.;Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Intelligent Syst Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China..
    Ding, Jing
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Jianfeng
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Weilong
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, Västerås, Sweden..
    Experimental and theoretical investigation of an innovative composite nanofluid for solar energy photothermal conversion and storage2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 52, p. 104800-, article id 104800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molten salts play a key role in the heat transfer and thermal energy storage processes of concentrated solar power plants. A novel composite material was prepared in this work by adding micron-sized magnesium particles into Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 molten salt, the heat transfer and thermal energy storage properties of the composites were studied experimentally. A stable composite nanofluid can be obtained, and a thermal conductivity of 0.728 W/(m.K) at 973 K with an enhancement of 31% is achieved for the Mg/molten carbonate nanofluid. And the strengthening mechanism of thermal conductivity was revealed by using ab-initio molecular dynamics method. It is found that the main bonding interactions exist between Mg and O atoms at the surface of Mg particles. A compressed ion layer with a more compact and ordered ionic structure is formed around Mg particles, and the Brownian motions of Mg particles lead to the micro-convections of carbonate ions around them. These factors are helpful to the enhancement of thermal conduction with the improved probability and frequency of ion collisions. This work can provide a guidance for further studies and applications on metal/molten salt composites with enhanced heat transfer and thermal energy storage capacity.

  • 25.
    Shao, Xue-Feng
    et al.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Chengdu 610031, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Sheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Inst Thermal Sci & Power Syst, Sch Energy Engn, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Jiacheng
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Teng, Haoran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fan, Li-Wu
    Zhejiang Univ, Inst Thermal Sci & Power Syst, Sch Energy Engn, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China.;Zhejiang Univ, State Key Lab Clean Energy Utilizat, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China..
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Yuan, Yan-Ping
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Chengdu 610031, Peoples R China..
    Martin, Viktoria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-enabled significant suppression of supercooling of erythritol for medium-temperature thermal energy storage2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 46, p. 103915-, article id 103915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supercooling effect is deemed to be a crucial issue for thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCMs). The exploration of promising additives plays a decisive role in effective suppression efforts for suppressing the supercooling effect of a PCM. The present work proposed a potential additive, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), to reduce the supercooling of erythritol, which is the most promising polyol PCM candidate for medium temperature range. PVP with various loadings was dispersed in erythritol to make composites for the proof-of-concept tests. It was shown that the degree of supercooling of erythritol can be reduced significantly from over 64 ? to about 21 ? in the presence of only 1.0 wt.% PVP. Along with the mitigated supercooling effect, the addition of PVP also leads to an increase of the retrievable latent heat during crystallization, from ~187 J/g to ~224 J/g at the same minute PVP loading of 1.0 wt.%, by increasing the crystallinity of erythritol. The PVP-loaded erythritol composites exhibit little sacrifice in latent heat of fusion, i.e., only ~15% loss when the PVP loading reaches 6.0 wt.%. In addition, multiple tests confirmed that PVP can be dissolved in erythritol, thus desirable compatibility was obtained and the composites would have long-term reliability. This proposed additive enables an efficient and cost-effective way for improving the crystallization behaviors of erythritol (and other polyol PCMs) towards real-world applications.

  • 26.
    Sridhar, Araavind
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems. LUT Univ, Sch Energy Syst, Lappeenranta, Finland.;Polytech Univ Milan, Dept Elect Informat & Bioengn, Milan, Italy..
    Baskar, Ashish Guhan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Thakur, Jagruti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems.
    Energy storage integration with run of river power plants to mitigate operational environmental constraints: Case study of Sweden2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 56, article id 105899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing environmental restrictions, create stringent regulations for the use and management of rivers and water bodies, thereby jeopardizing the operational flexibility of hydropower plants. The national plan for new environmental regulations in Sweden is expected to be implemented in 2025. Hence, it is imperative for the hydropower producers to consider alternatives which can overcome the environmental restrictions for providing flexibility. In this paper, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) based algorithm for the short-term regulation of hydropower plants with energy storage is proposed. There are two stages of the algorithm: Future electricity market prices model using machine learning techniques, and the combined hydropower plant and battery system (CHBS)'s operation model using MILP. The designed algorithm is used to analyze the techno-economic feasibility of the operation of three hydropower plants Skattungbyn, Unnan and Hansjo, located in lower Orealven river in Sweden. Three different electricity market scenarios were developed based on Swedish nuclear energy targets for 2040. The forecasted market prices act as inputs for the designed optimization algorithm. The algorithm optimizes the operation of hydropower plants with an objective to maximize revenue through harnessing flexibility enabled by storage. It is observed from the results that with the current battery costs (approximate to 0.36 million euro/MWh), the CHBS for short-term regulation is not profitable with NPV ranging from -1 to -4 million euro and the cost of battery needs to be less than 50 000 euro/MWh to make it economically feasible.

  • 27.
    Streb, Moritz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ohrelius, Mathilda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Klett, Matilda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry. Scan CV AB, Granparksvagen 10, S-15148 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Improving Li-ion battery parameter estimation by global optimal experiment design2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 56, article id 105948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Li-ion batteries are a key enabling technology for electric vehicles and determining their properties precisely is an essential step in improving utilization and performance. Batteries are highly complex electrochemical sys-tems, with processes occurring in parallel on many time-and length-scales. Models describing these mechanisms require extensive parametrization efforts, conventionally using a combination of ex-situ characterization and systems identification. We present a methodology that algorithmically designs current input signals to optimize parameter identifiability from voltage measurements. Our approach uses global sensitivity analysis based on the generalized polynomial chaos expansion to map the entire parameter uncertainty space, relying on minimal prior knowledge of the system. Parameter specific optimal experiments are designed to maximize sensitivity and simultaneously minimize interactions and unwanted contributions by other parameters. Experiments are defined using only three design variables making our approach computationally efficient. The methodology is demon-strated using the Doyle-Fuller-Newman battery model for eight parameters of a 2.6 Ah 18,650 cell. Validation confirms that the proposed approach significantly improves model performance and parameter accuracy, while lowering experimental burden.

  • 28.
    Trevisan, Silvia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Design optimization of an innovative layered radial-flow high-temperature packed bed thermal energy storage2024In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 83, article id 110767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work introduces an innovative layered radial flow packed-bed thermal energy storage able to provide enhanced thermal and hydrostatic performance, limiting their inherent trade-off. The performance of the proposed packed-bed thermal energy storage concept is modelled, in both thermal and hydrodynamic aspects, via a 1D-two phases numerical approach. Representative storage sizes for industrial applications and laboratory prototype are considered to highlight the potential for scaling and the representativeness of prototyping. Configurations with two and three coaxial layers are also analyzed. The investigation includes a multi-objective optimization of the thermal energy storage design considering a set of main design variables and a set of sensitivity analyses aimed at highlighting the influence of major operational parameters. The results show that the proposed storage geometry can provide simultaneous optimization of both thermal and hydrodynamic performance. The proposed storage unit could attain pressure drop reductions higher than 70 % with respect to uniform radial flow packed bed storage (and higher than 85 % with respect to axial flow units) at the expense of a useful duration reduction lower than 5 %. Industrial scale storage would benefit from low aspect ratios and arrangement with modular units, ensuring enhanced system flexibility and reduced parasitic consumptions thanks to lower pressure losses meanwhile guaranteeing extensive useful durations in both charge and discharge operation. Downscaled prototypes can provide a good representation of the thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of the proposed thermal energy storage solution and a relevant base for validation. This work paves the way for future prototyping and validation of the proposed layered radial flow packed-bed thermal energy storage concept.

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  • 29.
    Trevisan, Silvia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Wang, Wujun
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Laumert, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Experimental evaluation of a high-temperature radial-flow packed bed thermal energy storage under dynamic mass flow rate2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 54, p. 105236-, article id 105236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-temperature thermal energy storage is recognized to be a key technology to ensure future sustainable energy generation. Packed bed thermal energy storage is a cost-competitive large-scale energy storage solution. The present work introduces the experimental investigation of an innovative 49.7 kWh(th) radial-flow type high-temperature packed bed thermal energy storage under dynamic mass flow rates. Various dynamic air flow rate profiles, representative of different potential applications, have been tested during the charging process to investigate their influence on the thermodynamic performance of the storage. The outlet thermal power during the discharge has been controlled by managing the air flow rate. Short operational cycles have also been performed. The results show that dynamic mass flow rates can lead to a thermal efficiency reduction between 0.5 % and 5 % with respect to static conditions. Controlling the air mass flow rate could be an efficient strategy to stabilize the thermal power output during the discharge while minimizing peaks in the pressure drop. This work testifies that specific dynamic boundary conditions should be included during the thermal storage design process since they could largely affect the unit thermodynamic performance and potential scale-up. If no specific dynamic profiles are available during the packed bed storage design stage, it is suggested to consider typical dynamic profiles of the air mass flow rate to guarantee limited efficiency reduction during operation.

  • 30.
    Trevisan, Silvia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Yousra, Jemmal
    Moroccan Agency for Sustainable Energy (MASEN).
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Laumert, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Packed bed thermal energy storage: A novel design methodology including quasi-dynamic boundary conditions and techno-economic optimization2021In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, article id 102441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature thermal energy storages are becoming more and more important as a key component in concentrating solar power plants. Packed bed storages represent an economically viable large scale energy storage solution. The present work deals with the analysis and optimization of a packed bed thermal energy storage. The influence of quasi-dynamic boundary conditions on the storage thermodynamic performance is evaluated. The Levelized Cost of Storage is innovatively applied to thermal energy storage design. A complete methodology to design packed bed thermal energy storage is proposed. In doing so, a comprehensive multi-objective optimization of an industrial scale packed bed is performed. The results show that quasi-dynamic boundary conditions lead to a reduction of around 5% of the storage thermal efficiency. Contrarily, the effect of the investigated design variables over the TES LCoS optimization is only slightly influenced by quasi-dynamic boundary conditions. Aspect ratio between 0.75 and 0.9 would maximize the storage thermal efficiency, while low preliminary efficiency around 0.47 would minimize the Levelized Cost of Storage. This work testifies that quasi-dynamic boundary conditions should be taken into considerations when optimizing thermal energy storage. The Levelized Cost of Storage could be also considered as a more reliable performance indicator for packed bed thermal energy storage, as it is less dependent on variable boundary conditions.

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  • 31.
    Varini, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, Box 883, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    A semi-empirical, electrochemistry-based model for Li-ion battery performance prediction over lifetime2019In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 25, article id UNSP 100819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the performance of Li-ion batteries over lifetime is necessary for design and optimal operation of integrated energy systems, as electric vehicles and energy grids. For prediction purposes, several models have been suggested in the literature, with different levels of complexity and predictability. In particular, electrochemical models suffer of high computational costs, while empirical models are deprived of physical meaning. In the present work, a semi-empirical model is suggested, holding the computational efficiency of empirical approaches (low number of fitting parameters, low-order algebraic equations), while providing insights on the processes occurring in the battery during operation. The proposed model is successfully validated on experimental battery cycles: specifically, in conditions of capacity fade > 20%, and dynamic cycling at different temperatures. A comparable performance to up-to-date empirical models is achieved both in terms of computational time, and correlation coefficient R-2. In addition, analyzing the evolution of fitting parameters as a function of cycle number allows to identify the limiting processes in the overall battery degradation for all the protocols considered. The model suggested is thus suitable for implementation in system modelling, and it can be employed as an informative tool for improved design and operational strategies.

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  • 32.
    Varini, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ko, Jing Ying
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Svens, Pontus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Mattinen, Ulriika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Klett, Matilda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    On resistance and capacity of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 under high voltage operation2020In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 31, article id 101616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operating commercial LiNixCoyMn1–x –yO2(NMCs)/ graphite cells at a higher voltage cut-off would deliver a higher energy density. This protocol has been broadly investigated in the literature, and connected with the occurrence of a rapid and severe degradation. In particular, these studies point to a de-coupling between capacity fade (mostly located on graphite) and impedance rise (mostly located on NMC). However, in the present work we unveil a non-negligible contribution of NMC111 to the total capacity fade, not reported in other studies. This unexpected feature is addressed by means of an experimental and modelling approach apt to unveil the causes behind it, and to quantify the relative impact of different, concurrent ageing mechanisms. For this purpose, a physics-based model including different ageing modes is proposed, and cross-validated on Direct and Alternate Current measurements. The fitting reveals that the capacity loss on NMC111 is in fact coupled to its characteristic impedance rise, and the parameters thus extracted are further validated by means of surface and bulk analytical techniques. In this way, the physical validity of these parameters is confirmed, and they can thus be used for lifetime prediction of NMC/graphite cells operated at high voltage. In addition, we investigate how the occurrence of a non-negligible capacity loss on NMC111 impacts the uneven stoichiometric drift occurring in the jelly roll of commercial cells, while demonstrating how lab-scale cells can still be used for representing the behaviour of commercial devices. It is revealed how high temperatures and localized Li plating can potentially push NMC111 above the chosen upper voltage cut-off, with a consequent increase in the degradation rate at cell-level.

  • 33.
    Zou, Zhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai, China.
    Li, Chunguang
    School of Resource and Environment and Safety Engineering, University of South China, 421001, Hengyang, China.
    Meng, Shuo
    School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, 421001, Hengyang, China.
    Bian, Xiaolei
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, 421001, Hengyang, China.
    Comparative study on the performance of a two-cell system of Flow Electrode Capacitive Mixing (F-CapMix) for continuous energy production2023In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 73, p. 109031-, article id 109031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Capacitive Mixing (CapMix) has garnered growing interest as a novel method for harnessing energy from the salinity gradient between seawater and freshwater. However, the challenge of extracting energy in a continuous way remains to be solved in traditional CapMix system. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of achieving continuous energy extraction through the use of a two-cell flow electrode Capacitive Mixing (F-CapMix) system. The performance of the F-CapMix system is evaluated under various experimental conditions including the activated carbon loading, carbon black additives, velocity of the flow electrode and feed water and external resistance in the circuit. The results suggest that the power density of the system can be significantly increased by approximately 800 % or 400 % with an increase in the carbon loading or the addition of carbon black additives, respectively. Meanwhile, reducing the flow rate of the flow electrode and feedwater from 20 mL/s to 5 mL/s was found to improve the system's performance. In addition, it is crucial that the external resistance is matched to the internal resistance of the cell for achieving a maximum power density. These results highlight the potential of F-CapMix and provide guidance for its further optimization.

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