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  • 1.
    Hulme-Smith, Christopher
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Hari, Vignesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Mellin, Pelle
    Swerim AB.
    Spreadability Testing of Powder for Additive Manufacturing2020In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 166, no 1, p. 9-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spreading of powders into thin layers is a critical step in powder bed additive manufacturing, but there is no accepted technique to test it. There is not even a metric that can be used to describe spreading behaviour. A robust, image-based measurement procedure has been developed and can be implemented at modest cost and with minimal training. The analysis is automated to derive quantitative information about the characteristics of the spread layer. The technique has been demonstrated for three powders to quantify their spreading behaviour as a function of layer thickness and spreading speed.

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  • 2.
    Hägg Mameng, Sukanya
    et al.
    Avesta Research Center, Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Jernkontoret, The Swedish Steel Producers’ Association Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wegrelius, Lena
    Avesta Research Center, Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta, Sweden.
    Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel: Results of a Field Exposure Program in the Middle-East2016In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 161, no 1, p. 33-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steels have been widely used as architectural and construction materials because of their high degree of corrosion resistance, unique aesthetic quality, and stability in an unpolluted atmosphere. Although stainless steel is highly corrosion resistant, localized corrosion can occur in certain environments, especially in marine atmospheric conditions if the appropriate grade is not used. Exposure of stainless steel to an environment more aggressive than the limiting conditions may be harmful to its aesthetic appearance and ultimately even to its load-bearing capacity. Selecting a suitable stainless steel grade requires knowledge of the actual location of the application and the atmospheric conditions. In terms of materials selection, the austenitic stainless steel grade 316/316L has proved a very popular choice for architectural applications in many locations, but it is not always suitable at demanding sites such as marine environments in the Middle-East. In such cases the use of a higher-performance grade, often in combination with a good surface finish and established cleaning routines, is required to maintain pristine surfaces.

    The main objective of this paper is to present information about the atmospheric corrosion resistance of a number of stainless steels in the Middle-East at a marine site. The results obtained are analysed and discussed in terms of factors affecting atmospheric corrosion of stainless steel such as the, alloying element level, surface roughness, surface treatment, and microclimate.

  • 3.
    Lindwall, Greta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Frisk, Karin
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Andersson, Jörgen
    Uddeholms AB.
    Medvedeva, Anna
    Uddeholms AB.
    Sandberg, Odd
    Uddeholms AB.
    Siller, Ingo
    Böhler Edelstahl GmbH & Co KG.
    Coarsening investigations of precipitates in PM tool steel grades - an effect of nitrogen2012In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 157, no 11, p. 406-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present experimental and theoretical comparisons of the coarsening rate for the MX(X=C, N or C+N) precipitate in five different tool steel grades produced by PowderMetallurgy (PM). The alloys contain different amounts of nitrogen and carbon; ranging fromhigh carbon/low nitrogen to high nitrogen/low carbon. Common for the grades is a highamount of precipitate forming alloying elements resulting in a high fraction of hard phase.Experimentally we have found out that the nitrogen rich precipitates coarsen slower, both forhigher and lower carbon content, than the carbon rich precipitates. Coarsening simulations areperformed utilizing the DICTRA software and an agreement between calculations andmeasurements can be concluded.

  • 4. Lundberg, S.-E.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Conny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Ultra high speed rolling of stainless steel wire rod by means of interstand tensions2005In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 150, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By introduction of an interstand tension in the order of 10% of the actual yield stress of the rolled material in the intermediate stage of wire rod rolling, it is possible to increase the intermediate reductions without excessive increase of energy supply for rolling. Thus, an eight passes finishing block can be replaced by two intermediate stands and a four stand finishing block of a module type. This configuration gives two improvements on the productivity in a wire rod mill for stainless steel. First, the finish rolling speed can be increased from typically 60 m/s up to 80 m/s, meaning 33% higher rolling rate. Second, the modern twin module block system gives the possibility to introduce a single family rolling system, which gives a reduction of the downtime for roll and groove changing in the order of 20% of the production time, depending on the product mix in the mill.

  • 5.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    Swerim AB.
    Rashidi, Masoud
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fischer, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nyborg, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Marchetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Hulme-Smith, Christopher
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Uhlirsch, Markus
    Swerim AB.
    Strondl, Annika
    Swerim AB.
    Moisture in Metal Powder and Its Implication for Processability in L-PBF and Elsewhere2020In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 166, no 1, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of moisture on flowability and spread- ability is discussed. More notably we also present research on the impact of moisture on built nickel-base material. One lot of a newly opened Hastelloy X (HX) L-PBF powder was split into two equal batches. One batch was moisturized using a programmable climate chamber, the other was un- treated. We built bars with both batches for mechanical testing, in an EOS M100, with a cold build plate. The mois- ture content of the two powder batches, before and after the build-jobs, were determined using Karl Fischer titration (KF). Regarding the periodical monitoring of moisture con- tent, it is not needed according to the findings of this paper. More moisture contributes to a slightly higher O-content in the built material, and in turn, a very slight reduction in im- pact toughness. If a newly purchased powder exhibits poor flowability or high oxygen content, the analysis using oven- desorption followed by KF is recommended. If the moisture content is high, a drying of the powder is recommended

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