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  • 1. Bengtsson, Erik
    et al.
    Nerjovaj, Pashtrik
    Wangefjord, Sakarias
    Nodin, Björn
    Eberhard, Jakob
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Borgquist, Signe
    Jirström, Karin
    HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary colorectal cancer correlates with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and an improved clinical outcome2014In: Diagnostic Pathology, ISSN 1746-1596, E-ISSN 1746-1596, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 78-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An association between tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and good prognosis has previously been demonstrated in breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, the expression, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic value of HMGCR expression in colorectal cancer was examined. Findings: Immunohistochemical expression of HMGCR was assessed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours from 557 incident cases of colorectal cancer in the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study. Pearson's Chi Square test was applied to explore the associations between HMGCR expression and clinicopathological factors and other investigative biomarkers. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the relationship between HMGCR expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) according to negative vs positive HMGCR expression. A total number of 535 (96.0%) tumours were suitable for analysis, of which 61 (11.4%) were HMGCR negative. Positive cytoplasmic HMGCR expression was associated with distant metastasis-free disease at diagnosis (p = 0.002), lack of vascular invasion (p = 0.043), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.033), expression of cyclin D1 (p = <0.001) and p21 (p = <0.001). Positive HMGCR expression was significantly associated with a prolonged CSS in unadjusted Cox regression analysis in the entire cohort (HR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.20-2.66) and in Stage III-IV disease (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.09-2.68), but not after adjustment for established clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions: Findings from this prospective cohort study demonstrate that HMGCR is differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and that positive expression is associated with favourable tumour characteristics and a prolonged survival in unadjusted analysis. The utility of HMGCR as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant or adjuvant statin treatment in colorectal cancer merits further study. Virtual slides: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2115647072103464.

  • 2. Jonsson, Liv
    et al.
    Gaber, Alexander
    Ulmert, David
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics (closed 20130101). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bjartell, Anders
    Jirström, Karin
    High RBM3 expression in prostate cancer independently predicts a reduced risk of biochemical recurrence and disease progression2011In: Diagnostic Pathology, ISSN 1746-1596, E-ISSN 1746-1596, Vol. 6, p. 91-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High expression of the RNA-binding protein RBM3 has previously been found to be associated with good prognosis in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, malignant melanoma and colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic impact of immunohistochemical RBM3 expression in prostate cancer. Findings: Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was examined in a tissue microarray with malignant and benign prostatic specimens from 88 patients treated with radical prostatectomy for localized disease. While rarely expressed in benign prostate gland epithelium, RBM3 was found to be up-regulated in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and present in various fractions and intensities in invasive prostate cancer. High nuclear RBM3 expression was significantly associated with a prolonged time to biochemical recurrence (BCR) (HR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93, p = 0.024) and clinical progression (HR 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01-0.71, p = 0.021). These associations remained significant in multivariate analysis, adjusted for preoperative PSA level in blood, pathological Gleason score and presence or absence of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion and positive surgical margin (HR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.89, p = 0.024 for BCR and HR 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.50, p = 0.009 for clinical progression). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that high nuclear expression of RBM3 in prostate cancer is associated with a prolonged time to disease progression and, thus, a potential biomarker of favourable prognosis. The value of RBM3 for prognostication, treatment stratification and follow-up of prostate cancer patients should be further validated in larger studies.

  • 3. Larsson, Anna H.
    et al.
    Nodin, Björn
    Syk, Ingvar
    Palmquist, Ingrid
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Eberhard, Jakob
    Jirström, Karin
    Podocalyxin-like protein expression in primary colorectal cancer and synchronous lymph node metastases2013In: Diagnostic Pathology, ISSN 1746-1596, E-ISSN 1746-1596, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 109-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Previous studies have shown that membranous expression of podocalyxin-like protein (PODXL) is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we compared PODXL expression in primary CRC and synchronous lymph node metastases. We further analyzed whether its expression changed in rectal tumours after neoadjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and results: The studied cohort consists of 73 consecutive patients from the South-Swedish Colorectal Cancer Biobank. Immunohistochemical PODXL expression was examined on full-face sections from all primary tumours and all 140 available lymph node metastases from 31 cases. Membranous PODXL expression was denoted in 18/73 (24,7%) primary tumours, with a high concordance between primary and metastatic lesions. While all negative primary tumours had negative metastases, some PODXL positive primaries had a varying proportion of positive and negative metastatic lymph nodes. PODXL expression was also found to be mainly unaltered in pre- and post-irradiation surgically resected tumour specimens in rectal cancer patients (n=16). Conclusions: The findings in this study suggest that analysis of PODXL expression in the primary tumour is sufficient for its use as a prognostic and treatment predictive biomarker in CRC, also in patients with metastatic disease.

  • 4. Nodin, Björn
    et al.
    Fridberg, Marie
    Jonsson, Liv
    Bergman, Julia
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics (closed 20130101). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jirström, Karin
    High MCM3 expression is an independent biomarker of poor prognosis and correlates with reduced RBM3 expression in a prospective cohort of malignant melanoma2012In: Diagnostic Pathology, ISSN 1746-1596, E-ISSN 1746-1596, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 82-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer with a variable clinical course even in patients with thin melanomas and localized disease. Despite increasing insights into melanoma biology, no prognostic biomarkers have yet been incorporated into clinical protocols. Reduced expression of the RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has been shown to correlate with tumour progression and poor prognosis in melanoma and several other cancer forms. In ovarian cancer, an inverse association was found between expression of RBM3 and the minichromosome maintenance 3 (MCM3) gene and protein. In melanoma, gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical validation has uncovered MCM3 as a putative prognostic biomarker. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of MCM3 expression with clinical outcome and RBM3 expression in a prospective, population-based cohort of melanoma. Methods: Immunohistochemical MCM3 expression was examined in 224 incident cases of primary melanoma from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study, previously analysed for RBM3 expression. Spearman's Rho and Chi-Square tests were used to explore correlations between MCM3 expression, clinicopathological factors, and expression of RBM3 and Ki67. Kaplan Meier analysis, the log rank test, and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to assess the impact of MCM3 expression on disease-free survival (DFS) and melanoma-specific survival (MSS). Results: High MCM3 expression was significantly associated with unfavourable clinicopathological features and high Ki67 expression. A significant inverse correlation was seen between expression of MCM3 and RBM3 (p = 0.025). High MCM3 expression was associated with a reduced DFS (HR = 5.62) and MSS (HR = 6.03), and these associations remained significant in multivariable analysis, adjusted for all other factors (HR = 5.01 for DFS and HR = 4.96 for MSS). RBM3 expression remained an independent prognostic factor for MSS but not DFS in the multivariable model. Conclusions: These findings provide validation of the utility of MCM3 expression as an independent biomarker for prognostication of patients with primary melanoma. Moreover, the inverse association and prognostic impact of MCM3 and RBM3 expression indicate a possible interaction of these proteins in melanoma progression, the functional basis for which merits further study.

  • 5. Nodin, Björn
    et al.
    Johannesson, Henrik
    Wangefjord, Sakarias
    O'Connor, Darran P.
    Lindquist, Kajsa Ericson
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics (closed 20130101). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jirström, Karin
    Eberhard, Jakob
    Molecular correlates and prognostic significance of SATB1 expression in colorectal cancer2012In: Diagnostic Pathology, ISSN 1746-1596, E-ISSN 1746-1596, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 115-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a global gene regulator that has been reported to confer malignant behavior and associate with poor prognosis in several cancer forms. SATB1 expression has been demonstrated to correlate with unfavourable tumour characteristics in rectal cancer, but its association with clinical outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we examined the prognostic impact of SATB1 expression in CRC, and its association with important molecular characteristics; i.e. beta-catenin overexpression, microsatellite instability (MSI) screening status, and SATB2 expression. Methods: Immunohistochemical expression of SATB1 and beta-catenin was assessed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 529 incident CRC cases in the prospective population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer Study, previously analysed for SATB2 expression and MSI screening status. Spearman's Rho and Chi-Square tests were used to explore correlations between SATB1 expression, clinicopathological and investigative parameters. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to explore the impact of SATB1 expression on cancer specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Results: SATB1 was expressed in 222 (42%) CRC cases and negative, or sparsely expressed, in adjacent colorectal mucosa (n = 16). SATB1 expression was significantly associated with microsatellite stable tumours (p < 0.001), beta-catenin overexpression (p < 0.001) and SATB2 expression (p < 0.001). While not prognostic in the full cohort, SATB1 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in SATB2 negative tumours (HR = 2.63; 95% CI 1.46-4.71; p(interaction) = 0.011 for CSS and HR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.32-4.04; p(interaction) = 0.015 for OS), remaining significant in multivariable analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that SATB1 expression in CRC is significantly associated with beta-catenin overexpression, microsatellite stability and SATB2 expression. Furthermore, SATB1 expression is a factor of poor prognosis in SATB2 negative tumours. Altogether, these data indicate an important role for SATB1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and suggest prognostically antagonistic effects of SATB1 and SATB2. The mechanistic basis for these observations warrants further study.

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