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  • 1.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Arias, Jaime
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Problem areas related to energy efficiency implementation in Swedish multifaily buildings2015In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates problem areas related to energy efficiency implementation in Swedish multifamily buildings. The paper first presents a generic list of (theoretical) problem areas identified through a literature survey. Using a qualitative approach, the paper also investigates if the problem areas identified in the literature also have an impact on the Swedish building sector. Results from the interview study reveal a strong coherence between problem areas in the literature and those expressed by the interviewees. However, this paper identifies seven novel challenges that cannot be derived from the list of barriers in the literature. Moreover, results reveal that as many as 12 problem areas have their origin in national factors such as agreement structures, incentive schemes, and cost calculation methods.

  • 2.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). Swedish Defence Research Agency,Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lundqvist, Per G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Energy at your service: highlighting energy usage systems in the context of energy efficiency analysis2011In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 355-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing energy efficiency has for a long time been identified as an important means of mitigating climate change. However, the full potential for technical energy efficiency has seldom been fully exploited. The traditional approach in energy systems analysis and policy is still largely supply-orientated, i.e. focusing on the management of energy conversion, production and distribution, and final use of energy in the form of energy carriers. This paper contributes to previous discussions on how to highlight and explore the user side in the analysis of energy systems in an efficiency context. The energy usage systems approach, including end-use technologies and the production of service demanded by a human activity system, is used to promote a dynamic bottom-up perspective on energy. In determining the possible potential for change by increasing energy efficiency, the demand for energy should not be considered synonymous with the demand for neither energy carriers, nor the measurable service volumes (such as kilometres travelled, square metre conditioned space, etc.), without considering the sociocultural context in which the service is being used or called upon. In summary, the predominant paradigm dealing with the energy system as a technical system managing resources and providing energy carriers should thus be complemented with the view of a socio-technical system facilitating and/or managing the services.

  • 3.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Capturing energy efficiency in European iron and steel production: comparing specific energy consumption and Malmquist productivity index2014In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 955-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European iron and steel producers are working towards increased energy efficiency to meet requirements set by European policies such as the Energy Efficiency Directive. In this study, we show that the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC), representing the iron and steel sector in the Odyssee Energy Efficiency Index (ODEX) - the tool for policy evaluation recommended by the European Commission, is insufficient for capturing energy efficiency trends of European iron and steel production. European producers focus on niche markets, diversifying and specialising their set of products well beyond crude steel, which is the benchmark product for deriving the SEC. We compare the SEC with the more comprehensive Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) methodology, which is calculated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) techniques. An evaluation of energy efficiency trends during 2000 – 2010 showed that the SEC overestimated energy efficiency improvements for European steel industries, while underestimating the improvements achieved by Swedish steel industries. A comparison between the SEC, the MPI/DEA approach and energy intensity based on value added in the Swedish case provides further insight to the methodological differences between the approaches. We conclude that the approaches highlight different aspects of energy efficiency analyses, and that the SEC is not sufficient for capturing energy efficiency of steel industries.

  • 4.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Hirsch, Tomas
    SSAB EMEA AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Susanne
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Stockholm.
    Nordqvist, Alena
    Jernkontoret, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan
    SSAB EMEA AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Höganäs AB, Höganäs, Sweden.
    Economic and operational factors in energy and climate indicators for the steel industry2015In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European steel producers need to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions to meet requirements set by European policies. Robust indicators are needed to follow up these efforts. This bottom-up analysis of traditional energy and climate indicators is based on plant level data from three Swedish steel producers with different product portfolios and production processes. It concludes that indicators based on both physical and economic production are interlinked with aspects both within and outside the company gates. Results estimated with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) confirm that steel production has complex relationships with markets, societal context and operational character of the industry. The study concludes that: (i) physical indicators (based on crude steel production) may be useful at the process level, but not at the industry-wide level, (ii) the value added is not a reliable alternative since it cannot be properly estimated for companies belonging to larger international groups, and (iii) structural shifts may influence the results significantly, and veil improvements made at the process level. Finally, harmonized system boundary definitions are vital for making indicators comparable between companies. The use of traditional indicators, as defined today, may lead to uninformed decisions at the company as well as policy levels.

  • 5.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Ines
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Semida, Silveira
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Swedish manufacturing industries2013In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 117-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the trends in energy consumption and CO2 emissions as a result of energy efficiency improvements in Swedish manufacturing industries between 1993 and 2008. Using data at the two-digit level, the performance of this sector is studied in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency measured as energy intensity, value of production, fuel sources, energy prices and energy taxes. It was found that energy consumption, energy intensity and CO2 emission intensity, measured as production values, have decreased significantly in the Swedish manufacturing industries during the period studied. The results of the decomposition analysis show that output growth has not required higher energy consumption, leading to a reduction in both energy and CO2 emission intensities. The role of structural changes has been minor, and the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions have been similar during the sample period. A stochastic frontier model was used to determine possible factors that may have influenced these trends. The results demonstrate that high energy prices, energy taxes, investments and electricity consumption have influenced the reduction of energy and CO2 emission intensities, indicating that Sweden has applied an adequate and effective energy policy. The study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development whilst also reducing the pressure on resources and energy consumption and promoting the shift towards a low-carbon economy.

  • 6. Rogan, Fionn
    et al.
    Cahill, Caiman J.
    Daly, Hannah E.
    Dineen, Denis
    Deane, J. P.
    Heaps, Charlie
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    Gallachoir, Brian P. O.
    LEAPs and Bounds-an Energy Demand and Constraint Optimised Model of the Irish Energy System2014In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 441-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds a model of energy demand and supply for Ireland with a focus on evaluating, and providing insights for, energy efficiency policies. The demand-side comprises sectoral sub-models, with a detailed bottom-up approach used for the transport and residential sectors and a top-down approach used for the industry and services sectors. The supply side uses the linear programming optimisation features of the Open Source Energy Modelling System applied to electricity generation to calculate the least-cost solution. This paper presents the first national level model developed within the Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning software to combine detailed end-use analysis on the demand side with a cost-minimising optimisation approach for modelling the electricity generation sector. Through three scenarios over the period 2009-2020, the model examines the aggregate impact on energy demand of a selection of current and proposed energy efficiency policies. In 2020, energy demand in the energy efficiency scenario is 8.6 % lower than the reference scenario and 11.1 % lower in the energy efficiency + scenario.

  • 7.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Duerinck, Jan
    VITO Flemish Inst Technol Res, Mol, Belgium..
    Meinke-Hubeny, Frank
    VITO Flemish Inst Technol Res, Mol, Belgium..
    Weighing regional scrap availability in global pathways for steel production processes2018In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1135-1159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the impact of the rising availability of steel scrap on the future steel production up to the year 2100 and implications for steel production capacity planning. Steel production processes are energy, resource, and emission intensive, but there are significant variations due to different production routes, product mixes, and processes. This analysis is based on the development of steel demand, using the Steel Optimization Model, which provides a region-detailed representation of technologies, energy and material flows, and trade activities. It is linked to the Scrap Availability Assessment Model which estimates the theoretical steel scrap availability. Aggregated crude steel production is estimated to evolve into an almost balanced split by 2050 between the primary production route using iron ore in the blast oven furnace and the secondary route using mostly steel scrap in the electric arc furnace. By 2060, the share of secondary steel production will exceed the share of primary steel production globally. The results also estimate a global increase in scrap use from 611 Mtonnes in 2015 to 1500 Mtonnes in 2050, with the highest growth being for post-consumer scrap. In 2050, almost 50% of post-consumer scrap is expected to be traded, with the main exporter being China and major importing regions being Africa, India, and other developing Asian countries. The results provide valuable insights on scrap availability and capacity development at the regional level for producers contemplating new investments. Regional availability, quality, and trade patterns of scrap will influence production route choices, possibly in favor of secondary routes. Also, policy instruments such as carbon taxation may affect investment choices and favor more energy-efficient and less carbon-intensive emerging technologies.

  • 8.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Implications of an energy efficiency obligation scheme for the Swedish energy-intensive industries: an evaluation of costs and benefits2016In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) aims at improving energy efficiency by implementing actions in all sectors of the economy in the EU. Article 7 of the EED sets the target of 1.5 % cumulative annual energy end-use savings. An energy efficiency obligation scheme (EEO) is one of the policy mechanisms proposed to reach this target. This paper assesses the impact of implementing a Swedish EEO and the implications that such a scheme may have for Swedish energy-intensive industries. The assessment was based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA) methodology. The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) ranges from 1.56 to 2.17 and the break-even cost ranges from 83.3 to 86.9 €/MWh with sensitivity analyses performed for the emission allowance prices and eventual costs of the EEO. The annual energy savings potential is estimated to be 1.25 TWh/year. A Swedish EEO could motivate investments in energy efficiency measures and thus help Sweden reach the energy efficiency targets set in the EED.

1 - 8 of 8
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