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  • 1. Albabtain, Reham
    et al.
    Azeem, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wondimu, Zenebech
    Lindberg, Tulay
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Investigations of a Possible Chemical Effect of Salvadora persica Chewing Sticks2017In: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, E-ISSN 1741-4288, article id 2576548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salvadora persica is commonly used chewing sticks in many parts of the world as an oral hygiene tool. This study measured the amount of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) released into the mouth and assessed its retention time in saliva. The study also tested if the released amount of BITC could potentially be antibacterial or cytotoxic. Twelve subjects brushed their teeth with fresh Miswak once, twice, and four times. The amount of BITC in the saliva and in the used brushes was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial effect of BITC and Miswak essential oil (MEO) was tested against Haemophilus influenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cytotoxic effect on gingival fibroblasts and keratinocytes was tested using MTT. The highest amount of the active compounds was detected in saliva after using the Miswak tip for once and immediately. It significantly decreased when the Miswak tip was used more than once and thus after 10 min. The growth of the tested bacteria was inhibited by MEO and BITC in a dose dependent manner, P. gingivalis being the most sensitive. MTT assay showed that BITC and MEO were cytotoxic towards gingival fibroblasts while oral keratinocytes showed resistance. This study suggests that the Miswak tip should be cut before each use to ensure the maximum effect.

  • 2. Ocheng, Francis
    et al.
    Bwanga, Freddie
    Boström, Elisabeth Almer
    Joloba, Moses
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay
    Obua, Celestino
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1 beta-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts2016In: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, E-ISSN 1741-4288, article id 5357689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum) on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators' secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin-(IL-) 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1 beta (300 pg/mL) were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 mu g/mL to 50 mu g/mL. Baseline and IL-1 beta-induced secretion of PGE(2) was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1 beta on PGE(2) seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE(2), while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE(2) secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis.

  • 3. Ocheng, Francis
    et al.
    Bwanga, Freddie
    Joloba, Moses
    Softrata, Abier
    Azeem, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Puetsep, Katrin
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Obua, Celestino
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens2015In: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, E-ISSN 1741-4288, article id 230832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

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