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  • 1.
    Bettini, Eleonora
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Kivisäkk, Ulf
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Study of Corrosion Behavior of a 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel: Influence of Quenched-in and Isothermal Nitrides2014In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 61-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation of different types of chromium nitrides may occur during processing of super duplex stainless steels, affecting the properties of the material. In this study the influence of quenched-in (size range ca. 50-100 nm) and isothermal (size range ca. 80-250 nm) types of nitrides on the corrosion behavior of a 2507 super duplex stainless steel has been investigated at room temperature and at 90 degrees C (above the critical pitting temperature) in 1 M NaCl solution. The microstructure has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. The isothermal nitrides exhibit a higher Volta potential compared to the matrix, but such difference could not be observed for the quenched-in nitrides. In-situ electrochemical AFM measurements at room temperature show stable surfaces for a wide range of applied potentials despite the presence of either type of nitrides. In the transpassive region isothermal nitrides appear to be slightly more deleterious than quenched-in nitrides. At 90 degrees C isothermal nitrides largely reduce the corrosion resistance of the austenite phase, while the quenched-in nitrides reduce the corrosion resistance of the material to a much lesser extent. The size difference between isothermal and quenched-in chromium nitrides may be crucial, in particular above the critical pitting temperature.

  • 2.
    Bettini, Eleonora
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Nature of current increase for a CoCrMo alloy: "transpassive" dissolution vs. water oxidation2013In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 11791-11804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The “transpassive” behavior of a CoCrMo alloy has been investigated to clarify the nature of the current increase at high anodic potential (0.5-0.7 VAg/AgCl). The total amount of released metal ions was determined after the potentiostatic measurements. According to the calculation through Faradays’ law, the metal dissolution only contributes to part of the total current recorded. Electrochemical AFM mapping did not show pronounced topography changes at 0.65 VAg/AgCl, while light optical microscopy observation revealed fast evolution of oxygen bubbles. Evidently water oxidation is another important process largely contributing to the current increase at the high potential.

  • 3.
    Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Zhang, Guoquan
    Chen, Mingming
    Wang, Chengyang
    Di, Jing
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Proton and Oxygen Ionic Conductivity of Doped Ceria-Carbonate Composite by Modified Wagner Polarization2012In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 8420-8435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impressive ionic conductivity and tunable conduction behaviors have made the ceria-carbonate composite an attractive electrolyte for low temperature ceramic fuel cells. However, the conduction mechanism is not yet well studied. In the present study, both proton and oxygen ion conductivity as well as the transport properties of samaria-doped ceria/ sodium-lithium-carbonate (denoted as SDCLN) composite are investigated by the fuel cell study and the modified Hebb-Wagner polarization measurements. The multi-ionic polarization behaviors and the transfer processes in composite electrolyte under external electrical field are analyzed. A maximum power density of 780 mW cm(-2) and a calculated total ion (proton and oxygen ion) conductivity of 0.153 S cm(-1) are obtained under H-2/air condition at 550 degrees C. The Wagner DC polarization measurements show that the proton conduction dominates the total ionic conductivity. A synergistic effect exists between the charge carriers in the doped ceria-carbonate composite system. An ideal interfacial conduction model is also proposed based on the obtained results.

  • 4. Fathy, Marwa
    et al.
    El Nady, Jehan
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Ebrahim, Shaker
    Soliman, Moataz B.
    Kashyout, Abd El-Hady B.
    Quasi-solid-state Electrolyte for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Nanofiber PMA-PVDF and PMA-PVDF/PEG Membranes2016In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 6064-6077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel electrospun membranes quasi-solid electrolytes based on blends of polymethylacrylate (PMA) - polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and PMA-PVDF/PEG (polyethylene glycol) are prepared by electrospinning technique and applied as quasi-solid state electrolytes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The membranes are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The crystallinity obtained from the DSC data increased with the increase of PVDF wt% in PMA-PVDF blend and then decreased for the PMA-PVDF/PEG membranes. The fully interconnected porous structure of the host polymer membranes of PMA-PVDF (4: 6 wt%) exhibited a high electrolyte uptake reached to similar to 265% and an ionic conductivity of 2.1x10(-3) S cm(-1), which is increased to 406.3%, and 3.2 x 10(-3) S cm(-1), respectively for PMA-PVDF/PEG (4: 6: 4 wt%) membrane. DSSC is assembled by PMA-PVDF(4: 6 wt%) and attained an overall energy conversion efficiency of 6.6% at light intensity of 100 mW cm(-2). The presence of 4 w% PEG in the electrolyte membrane increased the energy conversion efficiency to 7 % giving a promise candidate for scaling up this type of DSSCs.

  • 5.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Norell, Mats
    Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Linhardt, Paul
    Institute for Chemical Technologies and Analytics (CTA), Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, A-1060 Vienna, Austria.
    Bergqvist, Hans
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Influence of Surface Oxide Characteristics and Speciation on Corrosion, Electrochemical Properties and Metal Release of Atomized 316L Stainless Steel Powders2012In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 11655-11677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface oxide characteristics of powder particles are important to consider for any toxicological risk assessment based on in-vitro or in-vivo tests. This study focuses on a multi-analytical approach (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, and different electrochemical techniques) for in-depth characterization of surface oxides of inert-gas-atomized (GA) AISI 316L stainless steel powder, compared with massive sheet and a water-atomized (WA) 316L powder. Implications of differences in surface oxide phases and their surface distribution on corrosion, electrochemical properties and metal release are systematically discussed. Cr was enriched in an inner surface layer for both GA powders, with Mn and S enriched in the outermost surface oxide. The surface oxide was 2-5 nm thick for both GA powder size fractions, amorphous for the GA powder sized <4 μm and partially crystalline for the powder sized <45 μm. A strong ennoblement, i.e. positive shift in open circuit potential, of up to 800 mV, depending on solution, was observed for the GA powders. This ennoblement was induced by catalytic oxygen reduction properties of tri- or tetravalent Mn-oxides, not present on the massive sheet or WA powder. In contrast to the predominant presence of a trivalent Cr-oxide in the surface oxide of the GA powder particles, the WA<45μm powder revealed oxidized Cr, most probably present in its hexavalent state (not chromate), within a silicate-rich surface oxide. This study clearly shows that the surface oxide composition and speciation of differently sized GA and WA powders are unique (strongly connected to the atomization process) and of large importance for their pitting corrosion and metal release properties. For the GA<45μm powder, Mn-rich oxide nanoparticles were proposed to account for its higher pitting corrosion susceptibility, a more stable surface ennoblement, and a shift of the MnO2 oxidation/reduction peaks in the cyclic voltammogram, compared with the GA particles sized <4μm. The thermodynamically unstable ferritic structure of the small sized particle fraction (GA <4μm), despite an austenitic composition, revealed a higher pitting corrosion susceptibility and higher nickel release compared with the austenitic particle fraction of the GA <45 μm powder.

  • 6.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Virtanen, Sannakaisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering 4, Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Micro-Capillary Electrochemical and Microscopic Investigations of Massive and Individual Micrometer-Sized Powder Particles of Stainless Steel 316L2012In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 11678-11695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material properties, corrosion, and metal release from stainless steel powders are important factors to assess any occupational health hazards. This paper elucidates the corrosion behavior of stainless steel particles (inert-gas-atomized AISI 316L powders sized < 45μm, polished and non-polished) compared with corresponding massive low-sulfur bulk sheet material. Electrochemical measurements using a microcapillary technique are compared with ex-situ optical and scanning electron microscopy imaging and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis on the same area of individual particles. Non-polished 316L particles were significantly more passive compared to polished massive sheet and polished particles that in general showed a similar corrosion behavior. Corrosion was not induced by bulk compositional differences but could be attributed to surface inhomogeneities. The results are in agreement with the high passivity of non-polished particles in macroscopic studies, an effect caused by an unique surface oxide, characterized in part I of this paper series.

  • 7. Hu, Jinghua
    et al.
    Liu, Peihan
    Chen, Mengwei
    Li, Sa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Yang, Yingping
    Synthesis and First-principle Calculation of TiO2 Rutile Nanowire Electrodes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells2017In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 9725-9735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a TiO2 nanowire film synthesized via a hydrothermal method was prepared as a photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized TiO2 nanowires were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The TiO2 nanowire film greatly improved the efficiency of the DSSC owing to the rapid interfacial electron transport in the one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires. The light absorption and interfacial electron transport, which play important roles in the efficiency of DSSCs, were investigated by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The energy band structure and electron density of states of the rutile nanowire were calculated using a first-principles method and compared to bulk anatase and rutile TiO2 phases. The band gap of the rutile TiO2 nanowire was found to be less than that of anatase TiO2 by 0.6 eV. Further calculations using GGA+U yielded a similar band gap reduction. In addition to the redshift of the absorption edge originating from the smaller band gap, the larger surface area of the TiO2 nanowire compared to the bulk material is expected to facilitate the migration of photogenerated electrons and holes from inside to the surface of the material. This would result in a considerable improvement of the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2.

  • 8. Jukka-Pekka, Spets
    et al.
    Petri, Kanninen
    Tanja, Kallio
    Jorma, Selkainaho
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Kari, Saari
    Martti, Larmi
    Towards an Efficient Direct Glucose Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell System with Several Electro-Oxidation Units2017In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 3697-3708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work covers the direct glucose anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) with near-neutralstate electrolyte of 0.1 M [PO4] (tot) having two high-performing anode electrocatalysts (Pt and PtNi) at 37 degrees C and at a glucose concentration of 0.1 M. The cathode catalyst in each test was a Pt supported on carbon (60 wt.%). The PtNi/C had a total metal content of 40 wt.% and the Pt/C 60 wt.%. The operation of the AEMFC was controlled by means of an in-house made electronic load with PI-controller (i.e. a feedback controller, which has proportional and integral action on control error signal). There were two primary objectives with this study. At first, to find out how the electrode modifications of the anode (i.e. by increasing the thicknesses of these electrodes by adding extra carbon) affect the Coulombic efficiency (CE, based on the exchange of two electrons) and the specific energy (SPE, Wh kg(-1)) values of the direct glucose AEMFC. Secondly, investigate how a two-stage fuel cell system with two fuel cells concatenated and used one after the other for the electrochemical oxidation of glucose, influence the CE and SPE values. The results show that the modified PtNi anode shows superior results for the AEMFC compared to our earlier results. As for the two-stage fuel cell system, it increased the average electric power (mWh) and SPE when compared to single fuel cell systems except when the higher selective anode catalyst (Pt) was used in the first fuel cell prior to the fuel cell in the second fuel cell containing the lower selective anode catalyst (PtNi).

  • 9. Jukka-Pekka, Spets
    et al.
    Petri, Kanninen
    Tanja, Kallio
    Jorma, Selkainaho
    Yohannes, Kiros
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Kari, Saari
    Martti, Larmi
    Test of Different Anode Electrocatalysts for Direct Glucose Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell2016In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 4219-4230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct glucose anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) with near-neutral-state electrolyte of 0.1 M [PO4] (tot) was studied with five different anode electrocatalysts (Pt, PtRu, PtNi, Au, PdAu) at a temperature of 37 degrees C and at a glucose concentration of 0.1 M. The cathode catalyst in each test was Pt supported on carbon (60 wt.%). Four anode electrocatalysts (supported on carbon) had a total metal content of 40 wt.% while the fifth anode material of PtRu had a higher content of 60 wt.%. Moreover, in order to show the influence of the metallic content on the fuel cell performance, anode catalysts with 60 wt.% (Pt) and 10wt.% (PtNi) were tested. The operation of the AEMFC was controlled by means of an in-house-made electronic load with PI-controller (i.e. a feedback controller that has proportional and integral action on control error signal) either at constant current (CC) or at constant voltage (CV). The primary objective was to characterize the Coulombic efficiency (CE) based on the exchange of two electrons and compare the specific energy (Wh kg(-1)) for the direct glucose AEMFC related to the different electrode combinations and electrocatalysts. As a result of these screening tests, two most efficient anode electrodes with Pt and PtNi were selected to be used for further AEMFC studies.

  • 10.
    Lowe, Troy A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lundin, Maria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chemical Speciation Measurements of Silver Ions in Alkaline Carbonate Electrolytes Using Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry on Glassy Carbon Compared With Ion Selective Electrode Measurements2013In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 3851-3865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the increasing incorporation of silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial additive in washing machines and textiles, sensitive methods for accurate determination of Ag+ ions in laundry relevant electrolytes (alkaline carbonate) are required. The most widely reported method, the silver ion selective electrode (ISE), lacked sensitivity and accuracy and was affected by the concentration of Na2CO3 in solution. Differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) was therefore investigated as an alternative technique. Surface preparation of the GCE surface was essential and a suitable procedure was developed. A linear response was observed from 0 to 180 mg L-1 with a lower detection limit of 500 ng L-1 (5 nM). DPSV was shown to be significantly more sensitive and accurate in determining the Ag+ activity than the silver ISE technique, particularly below 200 nM.

  • 11. Spets, J. -P
    et al.
    Lampinen, M. J.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Rantanen, J.
    Anttila, T.
    Direct glucose fuel cell with the anion exchange membrane in the near-neutral-state electrolyte2012In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 11696-11705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the direct glucose fuel cell with an electrolyte at near-neutral-state pH value at room temperature by incorporating an anion exchange membrane (AEM) that was directly attached to a cathode. The wetted surface of the cathode was exposed to the AEM without implementing hot-pressing. The current-voltage curves were measured and the specific energy values for glucose were calculated for every test. Different concentrations of glucose were used and the results show that the lower the concentration of glucose, the higher is the specific energy, apparently showing higher utilization of the fuel with high Coulombic efficiency.

  • 12. Spets, J. -P
    et al.
    Lampinen, M. J.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Rantanen, J.
    Anttila, T.
    Effect of temperature on a direct glucose anion exchange membrane fuel cell in a near-neutral-state electrolyte2013In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1226-1236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct glucose anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) with a near-neutral-state electrolyte was studied at varying temperatures of 20, 30 and 37 ° C at two different concentrations of glucose of 0.1 and 0.3 M and with three concentrations of electrolyte of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 M [PO4]tot. The prime objective was to show how specific energy (W kg-1 glucose) of the direct glucose AEMFC is related to the operation temperature and concentrations of the species. Current and voltage values were measured together with the pHs and conductivities of the electrolytes. No component analysis of the final products after the fuel cell operation were done as the oxidation products of glucose is believed to be mainly gluconic acid and unreacted glucose as shown in the low Coulombic efficiency based on the exchange of 24 e-. Temperature, electrolyte and glucose concentrations have shown to have pronounced effect for the achievement of the highest energy capacity of 5.15 Wh kg-1 glucose.

  • 13. Teesetsopon, Pichanan
    et al.
    Kumar, S
    Dutta, Joydeep
    Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand; Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.
    Photoelectrode Optimization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell by Thermal Treatment2012In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 4988-4999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacial properties at the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) play a vital role in determining its efficiency. This research examined the role of annealing temperature on the photoelectrode interfaces properties, and to find the annealing temperature that provides the highest overall solar cell efficiency. The electrical characteristics of the DSSC using ZnO nanoparticles photoelectrode annealed at different temperatures were studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the corresponding I-V characteristics were determined. The highest efficiency of the solar cells was obtained when the photoelectrode was annealed at 400°C. This is mainly due to the enhancement in charge collection by better ZnO crystallinity and reduction of interfacial charge transfer resistance at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte interface. Moreover, the electron recombination between transparent conducting oxide substrate and electrolyte was also revealed for the first time by EIS.

  • 14.
    Zhu, Bin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mat, Mahmut D.
    Studies on Dual Phase Ceria-based Composites in Electrochemistry2006In: International Journal of Electrochemical Science, ISSN 1452-3981, E-ISSN 1452-3981, Vol. 1, no 8, p. 383-402Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ceria-based dual-phase composites have been recently developed as functional electrolytes successful for intermediate and low temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications. These composite materials showed many unique advantages over the conventional single-phase electrolytes, such as superionic conduction in two-phase interfaces, dual proton and oxygen ion conduction resulting in extremely high ion conductivity and high current outputs in fuel cell and other applications, e. g. electrolysis. Interfacial superionic conduction is a characteristic for high conducting dual-phase composites. The composite approach can combine or integrate multi-ion functions, typically, dual H(+) and O(2-)conduction together to enhance the material conductivity and device performance. Dual or hybrid H+ and O(2-)conduction is based on a consideration that both proton (H+) and oxygen ion (O(2-)) are the fuel cell source ions. Proton conduction is important for LTSOFCs since it can be activated easier than oxygen ions in the low temperature (LT, 300-600 degrees C) region. The superionic conduction, dual phase proton and oxygen ion transport make significant conduction and electrical contributions for electrochemical devices. This paper makes a review on these recent studies.

1 - 14 of 14
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