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  • 1. Ehsani, A. H.
    et al.
    Quiel, Friedrich
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Miljö- och resursinformation.
    Efficiency of Landsat ETM plus Thermal Band for Land Cover Classification of the Biosphere Reserve "Eastern Carpathians" (Central Europe) Using SMAP and ML Algorithms2010Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research, ISSN 1735-6865, E-ISSN 2008-2304, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 741-750Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different methods of Bayesian segmentation algorithm were used with different band combinations. Sequential Maximum a Posteriori (SMAP) is a Bayesian image segmentation algorithm which unlike the traditional Maximum likelihood (ML) classification attempts to improve accuracy by taking contextual information into account, rather than classifying pixels separately. Landsat 7 ETM+ data with Path/Row 18626, dated 30 September 2000 for a mountainous terrain at the Polish - Ukrainian border is acquired. In order to study the role of thermal band with these methods, two data sets with and without the thermal band were used. Nine band combinations including ETM+ and Principal Component (PC) data were selected based on the highest value of Optimum Index Factor (OIF). Using visual and digital analysis, field observation data and auxiliary map data like CORINE land cover, 14 land cover classes are identified. Spectral signatures were derived for every land cover. Spectral signatures as well as feature space analysis were used for detailed analysis of efficiency of the reflective and thermal bands. The result shows that SMAP as the superior method can improve Kappa values compared with ML algorithm for all band combinations with on average 17%. Using all 7 bands both SMAP and ML classifications algorithm achieved the highest Kappa accuracy of 80.37% and 64.36% respectively. Eliminating the thermal band decreased the Kappa values by about 8% for both algorithms. The band combination including PC1, 2, 3, and 4 (PCA calculated for all 7 bands) produced the same Kappa as bands 3, 4, 5 and 6. The Kappa value for band combination 3, 4, 5 and 6 was also about 4% higher than using 6 bands without the thermal band for both algorithms. Contextual classification algorithm like SMAP can significantly improve classification results. The thermal band bears complementary information to other spectral bands and despite the lower spatial resolution improves classification accuracy.

  • 2.
    Ossman, M.E.
    et al.
    Pharos University in Alexandria.
    Abdelfatah, M
    Pharos University in Alexandria.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Preparation, Characterization and Adsorption Evaluation of old Newspaper Fibres using Basket Reactor (Nickel Removal by Adsorption)2016Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research, ISSN 1735-6865, E-ISSN 2008-2304, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 119-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, old newspaper fibers (ONF) bleached with H2O2, treated with KOH and treatedwith NaOCl were investigated as potential adsorbents. The characterization of the produced fibers using FTIR,SEM and particle size distribution have been carried out and tested for the removal of Ni (II) from aqueoussolutions. The results indicated that the fibers treated with KOH give the highest %removal of Ni (II) with 88%. Two different reactor designs (batch and basket reactor) with different variables were studied. The results indicated that the equilibrium time was 30 min. and the removal of Ni (II) increased significantly as the pH increased from 2.0 to 6.0 and decreased at pH range of 6.5–8.0. The adsorption of Ni (II) onto ONF treatedwith KOH using batch and basket reactors follows the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo second order kineticmodel provided good correlation for the adsorption of Ni (II) onto ONF treated with KOH for both batch and basket reactors.

  • 3.
    Rodríguez-Gómez, Raúl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk apparatteknik.
    Liu, Longcheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk apparatteknik.
    A model to predict the behavior of UASB reactors2013Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research, ISSN 1735-6865, E-ISSN 2008-2304, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 705-714Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A model describing the main processes occurring in the UASB reactor was developed; in order to maintain simplicity and applicability of the model, only the fundamental aspects were considered. In the model, the reactor is divided in several well-stirred reactors coupled in series and it comprises substrate degradation, biomass growth and the reactions that take place within the granules. The important contribution of the paper is the development of a model taking into account the mass transfer through the film around the granules, the intra-particle diffusion, and the degradation reaction. The model enables the determination of the removal efficiency of the substrate and the increase of both the height of the sludge bed and the granule size with time. The simulated results of an experimental UASB reactor treating sugar-cane mill wastewater were found to be in good agreement with the performance of the reactor. The sensitivity analysis shows that the performance of the reactor is determined by several parameters. The most important parameters are: the bioconversion rate, the mass transfer coefficient in the film, the intra-particle diffusivity, the volumetric fraction of biomass in the reactor, and the number of CSTR considered. These parameters should therefore be carefully determined. The model could be a useful tool in the optimization and development of UASB reactors.

  • 4. Sadatipour, S. M. T.
    et al.
    Kiamehr, R.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Sharifi, A. R.
    The Evaluation of Sea Surface Topography Models based on the Combination of the Satellite altimetry and the Global Geoid Models in the Persian Gulf2012Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research, ISSN 1735-6865, E-ISSN 2008-2304, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 645-652Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the difficulties in using absolute altitudes is the separation between the mean open sea level and geoid. Theoretically, geoid is the base level in absolute altitudes, but practically, the mean open sea level is used as a base level for absolute altitudes. The difference between these two levels is called as the sea surface topography. In this research, it is dealt the mean sea level modeling by using the observations of three altimeter satellites (i.e. Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and GFO) in Persian Gulf and then it is dealt with the evaluation of existing models of the sea surface topography based on the altimeter satellites data and the global geopotential geoid models (i.e. European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques, Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer, Earth Gravitational Model 2008. The results of this research indicate that the sea surface topographical model resulting from the EIGEN06C geoid is the most precise model with changes range between -2.482 m and -1.511 m and mean -0.23 m.

  • 5. Shams-Hagani, Z.
    et al.
    Soltanalli, S.
    Binner, M. L.
    KTH.
    Economic evaluation of soil remediation using supercritical fluid2007Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research, ISSN 1735-6865, E-ISSN 2008-2304, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 302-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) is a soil remediation technology. At present, only a few companies are using from this method, all of which are technical based on conventional methods of extraction such as soilex solvent extraction. Because of the bard enforcement of environmental conservation law, using green technology seems imperative. This paper endeavors to carry out the feasibility studies of supercritical fluid extraction units for such as purpose. It also analyzes the cost and benefit of these processes in industrial scale and presents an economical approach for this purpose. If compared to other remediation processes, the supercritical CO2 extraction (whit CO2 recycling) shows relevant economical advantages.

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