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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Shargeel
    et al.
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Artificial Photosynthesis, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Jinxuan
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Artificial Photosynthesis, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Ji, Wei
    Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Artificial Photosynthesis, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry. Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Artificial Photosynthesis, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film-Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Enhanced Photocurrent2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 1868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-organic framework thin film-based dye sensitized solar cell is fabricated with highly oriented, crystalline, and porous Zn-perylene metal-organic framework (MOF) thin film (SURMOF) which is integrated with Bodipy embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate). It has been demonstrated that the photocurrent can be enhanced by a factor of 5 relative to Zn-perylene MOF thin film due to triplet-triplet annihilation up-conversion between the Bodipy/PMMA sensitizer and the Zn-perylene MOF thin film acceptor using Co(bpy)(3)(2+/3+) as redox mediator.

  • 2. Al-Sabahi, Jamal
    et al.
    Bora, Tanujjal
    Al-Abri, Mohammed
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Controlled defects of zinc oxide nanorods for efficient visible light photocatalytic degradation of phenol2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution from human and industrial activities has received much attention as it adversely affects human health and bio-diversity. In this work we report efficient visible light photocatalytic degradation of phenol using supported zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and explore the role of surface defects in ZnO on the visible light photocatalytic activity. ZnO nanorods were synthesized on glass substrates using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal process, while the surface defect states were controlled by annealing the nanorods at various temperatures and were characterized by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the evaluation of phenol photocatalytic degradation. ZnO nanorods with high surface defects exhibited maximum visible light photocatalytic activity, showing 50% degradation of 10 ppm phenol aqueous solution within 2.5 h, with a degradation rate almost four times higher than that of nanorods with lower surface defects. The mineralization process of phenol during degradation was also investigated, and it showed the evolution of different photocatalytic byproducts, such as benzoquinone, catechol, resorcinol and carboxylic acids, at different stages. The results from this study suggest that the presence of surface defects in ZnO nanorods is crucial for its efficient visible light photocatalytic activity, which is otherwise only active in the ultraviolet region.

  • 3.
    Borukhovich, Efim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Ruhr Univ Bochum.
    Du, Guanxing
    Stratmann, Matthias
    Boeff, Martin
    Shchyglo, Oleg
    Hartmaier, Alexander
    Steinbach, Ingo
    Microstructure Design of Tempered Martensite by Atomistically Informed Full-Field Simulation: From Quenching to Fracture2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martensitic steels form a material class with a versatile range of properties that can be selected by varying the processing chain. In order to study and design the desired processing with the minimal experimental effort, modeling tools are required. In this work, a full processing cycle from quenching over tempering to mechanical testing is simulated with a single modeling framework that combines the features of the phase-field method and a coupled chemo-mechanical approach. In order to perform the mechanical testing, the mechanical part is extended to the large deformations case and coupled to crystal plasticity and a linear damage model. The quenching process is governed by the austenite-martensite transformation. In the tempering step, carbon segregation to the grain boundaries and the resulting cementite formation occur. During mechanical testing, the obtained material sample undergoes a large deformation that leads to local failure. The initial formation of the damage zones is observed to happen next to the carbides, while the final damage morphology follows the martensite microstructure. This multi-scale approach can be applied to design optimal microstructures dependent on processing and materials composition.

  • 4.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    de la Fuente, D.
    Chico, B.
    Morcillo, M.
    Welter, J. -M
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Analysis of historic copper patinas. Influence of inclusions on patina uniformity2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphology and elemental composition of cross sections of eight historic copper materials have been explored. The materials were taken from copper roofs installed in different middle and northern European environments from the 16th to the 19th century. All copper substrates contain inclusions of varying size, number and composition, reflecting different copper ores and production methods. The largest inclusions have a size of up to 40 μm, with most inclusions in the size ranging between 2 and 10 μm. The most common element in the inclusions is O, followed by Pb, Sb and As. Minor elements include Ni, Sn and Fe. All historic patinas exhibit quite fragmentized bilayer structures, with a thin inner layer of cuprite (Cu2O) and a thicker outer one consisting mainly of brochantite (Cu4SO4(OH)6). The extent of patina fragmentation seems to depend on the size of the inclusions, rather than on their number and elemental composition. The larger inclusions are electrochemically nobler than the surrounding copper matrix. This creates micro-galvanic effects resulting both in a profound influence on the homogeneity and morphology of historic copper patinas and in a significantly increased ratio of the thicknesses of the brochantite and cuprite layers. The results suggest that copper patinas formed during different centuries exhibit variations in uniformity and corrosion protection ability.

  • 5.
    Dilner, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Lu, Qi
    Mao, Huahai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics. Thermocalc Software AB, Sweden.
    Xu, Wei
    van der Zwaag, Sybrand
    Selleby, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Process-time Optimization of Vacuum Degassing Using a Genetic Alloy Design Approach2014In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 7997-8011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the use of a new model consisting of a genetic algorithm in combination with thermodynamic calculations and analytical process models to minimize the processing time during a vacuum degassing treatment of liquid steel. The model sets multiple simultaneous targets for final S, N, O, Si and Al levels and uses the total slag mass, the slag composition, the steel composition and the start temperature as optimization variables. The predicted optimal conditions agree well with industrial practice. For those conditions leading to the shortest process time the target compositions for S, N and O are reached almost simultaneously.

  • 6.
    Grytsan, Andrii
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). Insigneo Institute for in silico Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK.
    Eriksson, Thomas S. E.
    Watton, Paul N.
    Gasser, T. Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Growth Description for Vessel Wall Adaptation: A Thick-Walled Mixture Model of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Evolution2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Background: Vascular tissue seems to adapt towards stable homeostatic mechanical conditions, however, failure of reaching homeostasis may result in pathologies. Current vascular tissue adaptation models use many ad hoc assumptions, the implications of which are far from being fully understood; (2) Methods: The present study investigates the plausibility of different growth kinematics in modeling Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) evolution in time. A structurally motivated constitutive description for the vessel wall is coupled to multi-constituent tissue growth descriptions; Constituent deposition preserved either the constituent's density or its volume, and Isotropic Volume Growth (IVG), in-Plane Volume Growth (PVG), in-Thickness Volume Growth (TVG) and No Volume Growth (NVG) describe the kinematics of the growing vessel wall. The sensitivity of key modeling parameters is explored, and predictions are assessed for their plausibility; (3) Results: AAA development based on TVG and NVG kinematics provided not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively different results compared to IVG and PVG kinematics. Specifically, for IVG and PVG kinematics, increasing collagen mass production accelerated AAA expansion which seems counterintuitive. In addition, TVG and NVG kinematics showed less sensitivity to the initial constituent volume fractions, than predictions based on IVG and PVG; (4) Conclusions: The choice of tissue growth kinematics is of crucial importance when modeling AAA growth. Much more interdisciplinary experimental work is required to develop and validate vascular tissue adaption models, before such models can be of any practical use.

  • 7. Hosseinpour, Saman
    et al.
    Johnson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Vibrational Spectroscopy in Studies of Atmospheric Corrosion2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 413Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrational spectroscopy has been successfully used for decades in studies of the atmospheric corrosion processes, mainly to identify the nature of corrosion products but also to quantify their amounts. In this review article, a summary of the main achievements is presented with focus on how the techniques infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy can be used in the field. Several different studies have been discussed where these instruments have been used to assess both the nature of corrosion products as well as the properties of corrosion inhibitors. Some of these techniques offer the valuable possibility to perform in-situ measurements in real time on ongoing corrosion processes, which allows the kinetics of formation of corrosion products to be studied, and also minimizes the risk of changing the surface properties which may occur during ex-situ experiments. Since corrosion processes often occur heterogeneously over a surface, it is of great importance to obtain a deeper knowledge about atmospheric corrosion phenomena on the nano scale, and this review also discusses novel vibrational microscopy techniques allowing spectra to be acquired with a spatial resolution of 20 nm.

  • 8. Jadhav, Suraj Dinkar
    et al.
    Dadbakhsh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. PMA, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Belgium.
    Vleugels, Jozef
    Hofkens, Johan
    Puyvelde, Peter Van
    Yang, Shoufeng
    Kruth, Jean-Pierre
    Humbeeck, Jan Van
    Vanmeensel, Kim
    Influence of Carbon Nanoparticle Addition (and Impurities) on Selective Laser Melting of Pure Copper2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of 0.1 wt % carbon nanoparticles significantly improved the optical absorption and flowability of gas-atomized copper powder. This facilitated selective laser melting (SLM) by reducing the required laser energy density to obtain 98% dense parts. Moreover, the carbon addition led to an in situ de-oxidation of the copper parts during the SLM process. The properties of the as-built copper parts were limited to a tensile strength of 125 MPa, a ductility of 3%, and an electrical conductivity of 22.7 × 106 S/m, despite the advantageous effect of carbon on the powder characteristics and SLM behavior. The modest mechanical properties were associated with the segregation of carbon nanoparticles and other impurities, such as phosphorus and oxygen along grain boundaries of epitaxially grown grains. Whereas, the low electrical conductivity was mainly attributed to the phosphorus impurity in solid-solution with copper.

  • 9. La Rosa, A. D.
    et al.
    Blanco, I.
    Banatao, D. R.
    Pastine, S. J.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Cicala, G.
    Innovative chemical process for recycling thermosets cured with recyclamines® by converting bio-epoxy composites in reusable thermoplastic-an LCA study2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative recycling process for thermoset polymer composites developed by Connora Technologies (Hayward, CA, USA) was studied. The process efficacy has already been tested, and it is currently working at the plant level. The main aspect investigated in the present paper was the environmental impact by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. Because of the need to recycle and recover materials at their end of life, the Connora process creates a great innovation in the market of epoxy composites, as they are notoriously not recyclable. Connora Technologies developed a relatively gentle chemical recycling process that induces the conversion of thermosets into thermoplastics. The LCA demonstrated that low environmental burdens are associated with the process itself and, furthermore, impacts are avoided due to the recovery of the epoxy-composite constituents (fibres and matrix). A carbon fibre (CF) epoxy-composite panel was produced through Vacuum Resin Transfer Moulding (VRTM) and afterwards treated using the Connora recycling process. The LCA results of both the production and the recycling phases are reported.

  • 10.
    Lopez Cabezas, Ana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Influence of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermal Stability of Water-Dispersible Nanofibrillar Polyaniline/Nanotube Composite2012In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 327--335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant influence on the thermal stability of polyaniline (PANI) in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is reported. By means of in-situ rapid mixing approach, water-dispersible nanofibrillar PANI and composites, consisting of MWCNTs uniformly coated with PANI in the state of emeraldine salt, with a well-defined core-shell heterogeneous structure, were prepared. The de-protonation process in PANI occurs at a lower temperature under the presence of MWCNTs on the polyaniline composite upon thermal treatment. However, it is found that the presence of MWCNTs significantly enhances the thermal stability of PANI's backbone upon exposure to laser irradiation, which can be ascribed to the core-shell heterogeneous structure of the composite of MWCNTs and PANI, and the high thermal conductivity of MWCNTs.

  • 11.
    Lu, Huiran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Alvarado, Fernando
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. Swerea SICOMP AB, Sweden.
    Li, Jiebing
    Tomani, Per
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAhg(-1) for the positive electrode and 305 mAhg(-1) for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAhg(-1) and the negative electrode with 160 mAhg(-1) at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

  • 12.
    Ma, Taoran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Borrajo-Pelaez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Blomqvist, Andreas
    Borgh, Ida
    Norgren, Susanne
    Odqvist, Joakim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Liquid Phase Sintering of (Ti,Zr)C with WC-Co2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 57-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti,Zr)C powder was sintered with WC-Co following an industrial process, including an isotherm at 1410 °C. A series of interrupted sintering trials was performed with the aim of studying the sintering behavior and the microstructural evolution during both solid-state and liquid-state sintering. Reference samples, using the same elemental compositions but with the starting components TiC and ZrC instead of (Ti,Zr)C, were also sintered. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is found that the (Ti,Zr)C phase decomposes into Ti-rich and Zr-rich nano-scale lamellae before the liquid-state of the sintering initiates. The final microstructure consists of the binder and WC as well as two different γ phases, rich in either Ti (γ1) or Zr (γ2). The γ2 phase grains have a core-shell structure with a (Ti,Zr)C core following the full sintering cycle. The major differences observed in (Ti,Zr)C with respect to the reference samples after the full sintering cycle were the referred core-shell structure and the carbide grain sizes; additionally, the microstructural evolution during sintering differs. The grain size of carbides (WC, γ1, and γ2) is about 10% smaller in WC-(Ti,Zr)C-Co than WC-TiC-ZrC-Co. The shrinkage behavior and hardness of both composites are reported and discussed.

  • 13.
    Mansour, Rami
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Chen, W.
    Olsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Stochastic constitutive model of isotropic thin fiber networks based on stochastic volume elements2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin fiber networks are widely represented in nature and can be found in man-made materials such as paper and packaging. The strength of such materials is an intricate subject due to inherited randomness and size-dependencies. Direct fiber-level numerical simulations can provide insights into the role of the constitutive components of such networks, their morphology, and arrangements on the strength of the products made of them. However, direct mechanical simulation of randomly generated large and thin fiber networks is characterized by overwhelming computational costs. Herein, a stochastic constitutive model for predicting the random mechanical response of isotropic thin fiber networks of arbitrary size is presented. The model is based on stochastic volume elements (SVEs) with SVE size-specific deterministic and stochastic constitutive law parameters. The randomness in the network is described by the spatial fields of the uniaxial strain and strength to failure, formulated using multivariate kernel functions and approximate univariate probability density functions. The proposed stochastic continuum approach shows good agreement when compared to direct numerical simulation with respect to mechanical response. Furthermore, strain localization patterns matched the one observed in direct simulations, which suggests an accurate prediction of the failure location. This work demonstrates that the proposed stochastic constitutive model can be used to predict the response of random isotropic fiber networks of arbitrary size.

  • 14.
    Wu, Duo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Samanta, A.
    Srivastava, R. K.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Nano-graphene oxide functionalized bioactive poly(lactic acid) and poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A versatile and convenient way to produce bioactive poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds is described. PLA and PCL are extensively used as biocompatible scaffold materials for tissue engineering. Here, biobased nano graphene oxide dots (nGO) are incorporated in PLA or PCL electrospun scaffolds during the electrospinning process aiming to enhance the mechanical properties and endorse osteo-bioactivity. nGO was found to tightly attach to the fibers through secondary interactions. It also improved the electrospinnability and fiber quality. The prepared nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited enhanced mechanical properties, increased hydrophilicity, good cytocompatibility and osteo-bioactivity. Therefore, immense potential for bone tissue engineering applications is anticipated.

  • 15.
    Xia, Chen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Qiao, Z.
    Feng, C.
    Kim, J. -S
    Wang, B.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Study on zinc oxide-based electrolytes in low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconducting-ionic conductors have been recently described as excellent electrolyte membranes for low-temperature operation solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). In the present work, two new functional materials based on zinc oxide (ZnO)-a legacy material in semiconductors but exceptionally novel to solid state ionics-are developed as membranes in SOFCs for the first time. The proposed ZnO and ZnO-LCP (La/Pr doped CeO2) electrolytes are respectively sandwiched between two Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05Li-oxide (NCAL) electrodes to construct fuel cell devices. The assembled ZnO fuel cell demonstrates encouraging power outputs of 158-482 mW cm-2 and high open circuit voltages (OCVs) of 1-1.06 V at 450-550 °C, while the ZnO-LCP cell delivers significantly enhanced performance with maximum power density of 864 mW cm-2 and OCV of 1.07 V at 550 °C. The conductive properties of the materials are investigated. As a consequence, the ZnO electrolyte and ZnO-LCP composite exhibit extraordinary ionic conductivities of 0.09 and 0.156 S cm-1 at 550 °C, respectively, and the proton conductive behavior of ZnO is verified. Furthermore, performance enhancement of the ZnO-LCP cell is studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which is found to be as a result of the significantly reduced grain boundary and electrode polarization resistances. These findings indicate that ZnO is a highly promising alternative semiconducting-ionic membrane to replace the electrolyte materials for advanced LT-SOFCs, which in turn provides a new strategic pathway for the future development of electrolytes.

  • 16.
    Yang, Xi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Xu, Huan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Odelius, Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Poly(lactide)-g-poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) with High Crystallization Capacity and Migration Resistance2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasticized polylactide (PLA) with increased crystallization ability and prolonged life-span in practical applications due to the minimal plasticizer migration was prepared. Branched plasticized PLA was successfully obtained by coupling poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) to crotonic acid (CA) functionalized PLA. The plasticization behavior of PBSA coupled PLA (PLA-CA-PBSA) and its counterpart PBSA blended PLA (PLA/PBSA) were fully elucidated. For both PLA-CA-PBSA and PLA/PBSA, a decrease of Tg to around room temperature and an increase in the elongation at break of PLA from 14% to 165% and 460%, respectively, were determined. The crystallinity was increased from 2.1% to 8.4% for PLA/PBSA and even more, to 10.6%, for PLA-CA-PBSA. Due to the inherent poor miscibility between the PBSA and PLA, phase separation occurred in the blend, while PLA-CA-PBSA showed no phase separation which, together with the higher crystallinity, led to better oxygen barrier properties compared to neat PLA and PLA/PBSA. A higher resistance to migration during hydrolytic degradation for the PLA-CA-PBSA compared to the PLA/PBSA indicated that the plasticization effect of PBSA in the coupled material would be retained for a longer time period.

  • 17. Yang, Zhenzhou
    et al.
    Zhang, Yingyi
    Liu, Lili
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Wang, Xidong
    Zhang, Zuotai
    Integrated Utilization of Sewage Sludge and Coal Gangue for Cement Clinker Products: Promoting Tricalcium Silicate Formation and Trace Elements Immobilization2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study firstly proposed a method of integrated utilization of sewage sludge (SS) and coal gangue (CG), two waste products, for cement clinker products with the aim of heat recovery and environment protection. The results demonstrated that the incremental amounts of SS and CG addition was favorable for the formation of tricalcium silicate (C3S) during the calcinations, but excess amount of SS addition could cause the impediment effect on C3S formation. Furthermore, it was also observed that the C3S polymorphs showed the transition from rhombohedral to monoclinic structure as SS addition was increased to 15 wt %. During the calcinations, most of trace elements could be immobilized especially Zn and cannot be easily leached out. Given the encouraging results in the present study, the co-process of sewage sludge and coal gangue in the cement kiln can be expected with a higher quality of cement products and minimum pollution to the environment.

  • 18.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Peng, R. L.
    Schönning, M.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    SCC of 2304 duplex stainless steel-microstructure, residual stress and surface grinding effects2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

  • 19.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Swerea KIMAB, Sweden.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steel2015In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 751-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

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