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  • 1.
    Grumert, Ellen F.
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Characteristics of variable speed limit systems2018In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control algorithm used for deciding on the speed limit in variable speed limit systems is crucial for the performance of the systems. The algorithm is designed to fulfil the purpose of the variable speed limit system, which can be one or several of the following aspects: increasing safety, increasing efficiency and decreasing environmental impacts. Today, many of the control algorithms used in practice are based on fixed thresholds in speed and/or flow. Therefore, they are not necessarily reflecting the current traffic conditions. Control algorithms with a greater level of complexity can be found in the literature. In this paper, four existing control algorithms are investigated to conclude on important characteristics affecting the performance of the variable speed limit system. The purpose of the variable speed limit system and, consequently, the design of the control algorithm differ. Requirements of the investigated control algorithms are that they should be easy to interpret and the execution time should be short. The algorithms are evaluated through microscopic traffic simulation. Performance indicators related to traffic safety, traffic efficiency and environmental impacts are presented. The results show that the characteristics of the variable speed limit system and the design of the control algorithm will have effect on the resulting traffic performance, given that the drivers comply with the variable speed limits. Moreover, the time needed to trigger the system, the duration and the size of speed limit reductions, and the location of the congestion are factors of importance for the performance of variable speed limit systems.

  • 2. Islam, Dewan Md Zahurul
    et al.
    Ricci, Stefano
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    How to make modal shift from road to rail possible in the European transport market, as aspired to in the EU Transport White Paper 20112016In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The total demand for freight transport in Europe has increased significantly in recent decades, but most of it has been handled by road transport. To fulfil the modal shift targets set in the EU White Paper 2011, it will be necessary to double rail's market share from today's 18 %, by 2050. Translating this into reality means rail will have to handle 3 to 4 times the cargo volume it does today. With this in mind, the paper develops a vision of an efficient rail freight system in 2050. Methodology To achieve the above objective, the research applies literature survey and group discussion methodology and applying a system approach. Keeping on board the EU Transport White Paper 2011 modal shift targets, as well as future freight demand and customer requirements, the current research attempts to answer the following three critical questions: How can rail offer the quality of service that will attract customers and fulfil the targets? How can rail offer its customers a price that is competitive with road? How can rail offer the capacity to meet the increased demand from modal shift? Results The authors find that the service quality can be improved by better planning, application of appropriate ICT-systems and adoption of an integrated supply chain approach. A more customer-orientated service can also be achieved by further deregulation of rail. There is also an urgent need for a faster implementation of Rail Freight Corridors (RFC). As well as liner trains, future rail freight services should be offering end-point trains, with semi/ fully automated loading/unloading equipment in hub-terminals, as well as terminals at sidings to improve the availability of intermodal operation. Conclusion To offer a competitive price and reliable service, a reduction in operating costs will be vital by implementing a number of measures, including operation of heavier and longer trains, wider loading gauge, higher average speed, and better utilisation of wagon space and all assets. This will bring increased capacity, as well as better timetable planning, signalling systems and infrastructure improvements.

  • 3.
    Krüger, Niclas A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden .
    Haglund, A.
    Consumer value of fuel choice flexibility: a case study of the flex-fuel car in Sweden2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper examines the value of fuel choice flexibility derived from a flex-fuel engine. Method: Based on the stochastic properties of fuel prices, we use Monte-Carlo simulation in order to value the option to switch fuel. Results: Our findings indicate a considerable value of fuel choice flexibility, ranging between 7,500 and 37,800 SEK, depending on the underlying stochastic process we assume that fuel prices follow. This can be compared to the state subsidy of 10,000 SEK provided until recently for buying a flex-fuel car. Conclusion: Compared to an environmentally friendly pure ethanol strategy, the switching strategy is considerably less costly, about 2,000-19,000 SEK depending on the assumed underlying stochastic process, a fact that is important to take into consideration with environmental policy.

  • 4. Souche-Le Corvec, Stephanie
    et al.
    Raux, C.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, K.
    Kiiskila, K.
    Tervonen, J.
    Predicting the results of a referendum on urban road pricing in France: "the cry of Cassandra"?2016In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Abundant literature now exists on the acceptability of the new pricing measure represented by urban tolls. However, this literature contains few examples providing a "political" analysis of their introduction. Here, our aim is to study how the political behavior of individuals, identified on the basis of general attitudes regarding the principles of regulation and pricing, influences, or does not influence, attitudes with respect to urban tolls. Method We study the ex-ante determinants of a vote on urban tolls. We use the results of a survey performed in France in the framework of the European Project ExpAcc (Explanatory Factors of Road User Charging Acceptability). We process the data using a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) then perform ordered logit estimation. Result Regarding the specific question to the referendum, we show that it would be rejected by electors. We also show that there is a significant link between general attitudes to regulation by legislation, tax or pricing policies in transport on the one hand, and the vote in the referendum on tolls on the other. We confirm that individual self-interest matters a lot in political behaviour but that other types of motives also matter strongly Conclusion As a consequence, a real-life political analysis cannot be limited to classical "economic" variables, even if they matter too obviously. Lastly, our results should be placed in relation with those concerning the more global issue of the acceptability of a new pricing measure through, for example, that of the compensation to be implemented.

  • 5.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Examining the relationships between individual's time use and activity participations with their health indicators2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Using a three-week household activity-travel survey, this paper explores the relationship between individuals’ self-reported physical, mental and social health conditions and their time allocation for different types of in-home and out-of-home time activities. Methods: A path model is developed to investigate the roles of activity-travel time use on the self-reported health conditions, while the socio-demographics and residential environment characteristics are also considered. Results: The model results reveal heterogeneous impacts of different types of activities and intensities on individual’s self-reported health conditions. This study, however, did not find evidence of positive relationship between cycling and walking and self-reported physical health condition, which has been found in many developed countries. Presumably this is because in developing countries like Indonesia the individuals who walk and cycle are likely to be a part of economically disadvantaged groups who have less awareness to their own health conditions. Conclusion: Beside activity and travel time use factors, age and working status were found significantly affecting the self-reported health conditions, regardless of respondents’ gender and income. Neighbourhood characteristics, such as population density, are also found positively correlated to self-reported respondents’ physical, social and mental health conditions.

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