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  • 1. Breitholtz, M.
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Bengtsson, B. E.
    Ten challenges for improved ecotoxicological testing in environmental risk assessment2006Ingår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 324-335Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New regulations, in particular the new European chemicals legislation (REACH), will increase the demands on environmental risk assessment (ERA). The requirements on efficient ecotoxicological testing systems are summarized, and 10 major issues for the improvement of ERA practices are discussed, namely: (1) the choice of representative test species, (2) the development of test systems that are relevant for ecosystems in different parts of the world, (3) the inclusion of sensitive life stages in test systems, (4) the inclusion of endpoints on genetic variation in populations, (5) using mechanistic understanding of toxic effects to develop more informative and efficient test systems, (6) studying disruption in invertebrate endocrine mechanisms, that may differ radically from those we know from vertebrates, (7) developing standardized methodologies for testing of poorly water-soluble substances, (8) taking ethical considerations into account, in particular by reducing the use of vertebrates in ecotoxico logical tests, (9) using a systematic (statistical) approach in combination with mechanistic knowledge to combine tests efficiently into testing systems, and (10) developing ERA so that it provides the information needed for precautionary decision-making.

  • 2.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Evaluation of current copper bioavailability tools for soft freshwaters in Sweden2015Ingår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 114, s. 143-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Europe calls for an improved aquatic ecological status. Biotic ligand models (BLM) have been suggested as a possible tool assisting in the regulatory process. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the applicability of BLM under the WFD to set environmental quality standards (EQS), in particular regarding copper in Swedish freshwaters of which many are softer than those used for model calibration. Three different BLMs, one acute and two chronic, were applied to water chemistry data from 926 lakes and 51 rivers (1530 data entries) and evaluated with respect to their calibration range for input parameters. In addition, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for copper was calculated. From the 1530 data entries, 750 ended up outside of the BLM calibration range, when looking at the chemical parameters Ca2+, alkalinity, pH and DOC, primarily due to low carbonate alkalinity. Furthermore, the calculated Cu PNECs were higher than the suggested Swedish limit for Cu (4 µg L−1) in surface waters for 98% and 99% of the cases concerning lakes and rivers, respectively. To conclude, our findings show that water chemical characteristics outside of the calibration ranges are quite common in Sweden and that the investigated models differ in how they calculate toxicity concerning Cu under these conditions. As a consequence, additional work is required to validate the BLMs by use of bioassays with representative species of soft waters. Such results will show if these models can be used outside of their calibration ranges and also which of the models that gives the most reliable results.

  • 3.
    Ingre-Khans, E
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Appl Environm Sci ITM.
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Appl Environm Sci ITM.
    Breitholtz, M
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Appl Environm Sci ITM.
    Chemical risks and consumer products: The toxicity of shoe soles2010Ingår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, nr 7, s. 1633-1640Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European chemicals legislation, REACH, aims to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment. However, chemicals included in consumer products are covered only to a very limited extent even though they constitute the main source of chemical emissions. Shoes are large volume products and the overall aim of the present study was to study the ecotoxicological effects of three types of shoe soles and relate these effects to chemical emissions to the aquatic environment. The shoe soles were abraded and leached in water for 29 days and the alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes were exposed to different concentrations of the leachate. Chemical analyses were performed to determine the chemical contents of the leachate. The main conclusions are that the shoe soles contain substances that are toxic to both test organisms, and that the toxicity is mainly explained by the presence of zinc. The estimated concentration of zinc from shoe soles in storm water runoff is low, but it still contributes to the overall load of chemicals and metals in the environment. The outlined test procedures may, in our view, provide a useful screening tool for assessing the risk that chemicals in consumer articles pose to the environment.

  • 4. Lundström, E.
    et al.
    Adolfsson-Erici, M.
    Alsberg, T.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Eklund, B.
    Lavén, M.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Characterization of additional sewage treatment technologies: Ecotoxicological effects and levels of selected pharmaceuticals, hormones and endocrine disruptors2010Ingår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, nr 7, s. 1612-1619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, two conventional (with and without sand filter) and four additional (moving bed biofilm reactor, ozone, moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone and a membrane bio reactor) treatment technologies were operated in small-scale at Hammarby Sjostad sewage treatment plant, Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were tested with five short-term ( <= 7 days exposure) ecotoxicological tests, and analyzed for a number of target analytes, comprising pharmaceuticals, natural hormones and industrial chemicals. Overall, the tested effluents generated few adverse effects at lower concentrations ( < 50% sewage effluent), and no major differences were observed between any of the treatments. The effluent treated with the moving bed biofilm reactor resulted in the lowest effects in the ecotoxicological tests. The most efficient treatment technology with regard to the pharmaceutical residues was the ozone treatment, which however caused negative effects in some of the ecotoxicological tests.

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