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  • 1.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Degryse, F.
    Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Catholic University of Leuven.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Smolders, E.
    Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Catholic University of Leuven.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Model studies of corrosion induced copper runoff fate in soil2006Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 683-691Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory experiments have been performed with 3-cm soil columns simulating the fate of corrosion-induced copper runoff in contact with soil. The investigation simulates approximately 30 years (assuming an infiltration surplus of 25 cm/year) of continuous percolation of copper containing runoff water of a concentration realistic at the immediate release situation (4.8 mg/L) into four soils representative of urban conditions. Two of the three investigated topsoils reached their breakthrough of copper within the simulated time, while the third topsoil did not show a breakthrough. The subsoil reached a breakthrough after approximately 10 years of simulated exposure. To simulate more realistic outdoor scenarios, the laboratory-obtained breakthrough curves were modeled with Hydrus-1D (R) using a Langmuir-Freundlich model to describe copper sorption, the parameters of which were estimated from soil properties (pH, organic carbon content). The model predicts longer breakthrough times with increasing pH and organic content of the soil and with decreasing concentrations of copper and dissolved organic carbon in the runoff water. The time span for copper in runoff water (at concentrations of 0.01-10 mg/L) to reach a soil depth of 50 cm varied between 170 and more than 8,000 years for the predicted field scenarios.

  • 2.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Berggren Kleja, Daniel
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Long-term corrosion-induced copper runoff from natural and artificial patina and its environmental impact2006Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 891-898Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this paper is to present an extensive set of data for corrosion-induced copper dispersion and its environmental interaction with solid surfaces in the near vicinity of buildings. Copper dispersion is discussed in terms of total copper flows, copper speciation and bioavailability at the immediate release situation, and its changes during transport from source to recipient. Presented results are based on extensive field exposures (eight years) at an urban site, laboratory investigations of the runoff process, published field data, generated predictive site-specific runoff rate models, and reactivity investigations toward various natural and manmade surfaces, such as those in soil, limestone, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of copper-containing runoff water with different soil systems through long-term laboratory column investigations. The fate of copper is discussed in terms of copper retention, copper chemical speciation, breakthrough capacities, and future mobilization based on changes in copper concentrations in the percolate water, computer modeling using the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model, and sequential extractions. The results illustrate that, for scenarios where copper comes in extensive contact with solid surfaces, such as soil and limestone, a large fraction of released copper is retained already in the immediate vicinity of the building. In all, both the total copper concentration in runoff water and its bioavailable part undergo a significant and rapid reduction.

  • 3. Larsson, Maja A.
    et al.
    Baken, Stijn
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hadialhejazi, Golshid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Smolders, Erik
    Vanadium bioavailability and toxicity to soil microorganisms and plants2013Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 2266-2273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium, V, is a redox-sensitive metal that in solution, under aerobic conditions, prevails as the oxyanion vanadate(V). There is little known regarding vanadium toxicity to soil biota, and the present study was set up to determine the toxicity of added vanadate to soil organisms and to investigate the relationship between toxicity and vanadium sorption in soils. Five soils with contrasting properties were spiked with 7 different doses (3.2-3200mgVkg(-1)) of dissolved vanadate, and toxicity was measured with 2 microbial and 3 plant assays. The median effective concentration (EC50) thresholds of the microbial assays ranged from 28mg added V kg(-1) to 690mg added V kg(-1), and the EC50s in the plant assays ranged from 18mg added V kg(-1) to 510mg added V kg(-1). The lower thresholds were in the concentration range of the background vanadium in the untreated control soils (15-58mgVkg(-1)). The vanadium toxicity to plants decreased with a stronger soil vanadium sorption strength. The EC50 values for plants expressed on a soil solution basis ranged from 0.8mgV L-1 to 15mgV L-1 and were less variable among soils than corresponding values based on total vanadium in soil. It is concluded that sorption decreases the toxicity of added vanadate and that soil solution vanadium is a more robust measure to determine critical vanadium concentrations across soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:2266-2273. (c) 2013 SETAC

  • 4. Van Sprang, P. A.
    et al.
    Nys, C.
    Blust, R. J. P.
    Chowdhury, J.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Janssen, C. J.
    De Schamphelaere, K. A. C.
    The derivation of effects threshold concentrations of lead for European freshwater ecosystems2016Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 1310-1320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present study was to derive ecologically relevant effect threshold concentrations of (dissolved) Pb for selected European Union (EU) freshwater rivers, using the 2008EU Voluntary Risk Assessment Report as a starting point and more advanced methodologies than those used in the Voluntary Risk Assessment Report. This included 1) implementing more robust quality criteria for selecting chronic toxicity data; 2) the conversion of total to dissolved Pb concentrations using a combination of an empirical equation relating inorganic Pb solubility and geochemical speciation modeling to account for effects of dissolved organic matter; 3) the use of bioavailability models for chronic toxicity for species belonging to 3 different trophic levels; and 4) the use of robust methods for large data set handling (such as species sensitivity distribution [SSD] analysis). The authors used published bioavailability models for an algal species (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and a daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and developed a new model for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The research has shown that these models are also useful for, and reasonably accurate in, predicting chronic toxicity to other species, including a snail, a rotifer, midge larvae, and an aquatic plant (read-across). A comprehensive chronic toxicity data set for Pb was compiled, comprising 159 individual high-quality toxicity data for 25 different species. By applying the total dissolved conversion and the bioavailability models, normalized toxicity values were obtained, which were then entered into a SSD analysis. Based on the parametric best-fitting SSDs, the authors calculated that ecological threshold concentrations of Pb protecting 95% of freshwater species for 7 selected European freshwater scenarios were between 6.3μg dissolved Pb/L and 31.1μg dissolved Pb/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1310-1320.

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