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  • 1.
    Cai, Zhichang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Ecological urban design through Material and Energy Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment: From an architect's perspective2010In: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 142, p. 3-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of ecological urban design was studied through the perspective of Material/Energy Flow Analysis from an architect's viewpoint. The study examined how to control and adjust the production, transportation, distribution and consumption of material and energy flows in built environment systems, and how to analyse the relevant ecological design methods. Two environmental methods were used, Material/Energy Flow Analysis as the main method and Life Cycle Assessment as a parallel method, to analyse the 'integrated efficiency' of material and energy utilisation in the built environment and its significance for sustainable design. The analysis was applied to two cases: Material Flow Analysis of household wastewater treatment and Energy Flow Analysis of energy for heating and cooling buildings.

  • 2.
    Elmi Mohamed, Abdullahi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Managing shared river basins in the Horn of Africa: Ethiopian planned water projects on the Juba and Shabelle Rivers and effects on downstream uses in Somalia2013In: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 172, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Juba and Shabelle Rivers in the Horn of Africa are shared by Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. Most of the rivers' runoff originates from the Ethiopian Highlands. Before entering into the Indian Ocean, the rivers pass through a semidesert area and cross area of border dispute. The rivers are in a war-scarce, warravaged and contentious region. The paper examines the physical and developmental aspects of the two rivers, and analyses resulting trans-boundary river management issues. Methodology used is document and literature reviews, interviews with key persons and other relevant organizations. River master plans and other relevant documents describing policies as well as existing and planned uses were reviewed. The two rivers supply support important economic areas in southern Somalia. As an outcome from their master plans of the river basins, Ethiopia is now planning to build several large dams for hydropower generation and large scale irrigation schemes. No notifications were given to downstream Somalia, which will be the most affected downstream riparian of the projects. These unilateral major water development projects will have substantial adverse impacts on Somalia, as there are no agreements between the nations on sharing river waters. The sum of the existing uses in Somalia and planned ones in Ethiopia will exceed available water resources in the rivers. Potential disputes over the shared rivers are therefore likely to rise. Turning this risk of conflict into a sustainable peace and development in the region, the paper presents existing and potential opportunities for cooperation over the shared water resources for mutually sharing benefits.

  • 3.
    Levihn, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Biomass and waste incineration CHP: co-benefits of primary energy savings, reduced emissions and costs2014In: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 190, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy utility companies face trade-offs in navigating through today’s environmental challenges. On the one hand they face intense political, social and environmental pressures to move towards adopting energy systems that incorporate the use of renewable energy resources. By making this transition they would contribute to carbon reduction and mitigate climate change. On the other hand, they need to coordinate their resources and become efficient when investing in new plants or upgrading existing production systems. This paper seeks to address the gains that utility companies can make when replacing older fossil fuel base- plants with efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants. We discuss the system effects from the changes in production of other units when new plants are constructed. Using one of the largest energy utility companies in Sweden, Fortum, as empirical point of departure, we analyzed the company’s transition from using coal and hydrocarbons to an increased use of renewables and waste incineration CHP. Our analysis was based on comprehensive production data on CO2, SOx and NOx emissions. Our findings suggest that primary energy consumption drops when older, less efficient fossil plants are substituted for new efficient CHP plants; this drop includes the effect on remaining production. The benefits in terms of primary energy savings might even be greater than what is achieved in meeting the goal of climate change abatement through reduced CO2 emissions; NOx and SOx emissions are decreased with new biomass CHPs. Waste incineration CHP increase NOx and SOx emissions, when there is less fossil fuel to replace after the use of biomass is extended. In both cases, economic efficiency increase as costs are reduced.

  • 4.
    Wedin, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Lundgren, M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Mushi, Catherine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Suleiman, Lina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water Management.
    Food versus fuel: The case of the makeni community in Sierra Leone2013In: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 170, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security can be defined in terms of availability, access, and use of food. The study assesses whether the measures taken by Addax Bioenergy in the Makeni community in Sierra Leone are effective and sufficient to ensure food security locally as well as regionally. Land and water availability, agricultural intensification and infrastructure, self-sufficiency/market dependency and alternative income options have been identified as the main factors affecting food security in the project area. The main measures employed by Addax involve the use of an 'environmental, social and health impact assessment' (ESHIA) to identify and propose measures to mitigate any impacts that would adversely affect the food security of the region. The results show that the proposed measures for mitigating negative impacts on food security are in some instances inappropriate and inadequate, leaving the affected communities exposed to risks and shocks of food insecurity. It is also found that the insufficiency of mitigation measures is a result of weak governance and lack of oversight that may leave the community at the mercy of Addax Bioenergy.

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