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  • 1. Andõn, F. T.
    et al.
    Kapralov, A. A.
    Yanamala, N.
    Feng, W.
    Baygan, Arjang
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Chambers, B. J.
    Hultenby, K.
    Ye, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Brandner, B. D.
    Fornara, Andrea
    Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Klein-Seetharaman, J.
    Kotchey, G. P.
    Star, A.
    Shvedova, Anna A.
    West Virginia University, USA.
    Fadeel, B.
    Kagan, V. E.
    Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Eosinophil Peroxidase2013In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 16, p. 2721-2729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O 2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site) and the other on the distal side of EPO. The oxidized groups on SWCNTs in both cases are stabilized by electrostatic interactions with positively charged residues. Biodegradation of SWCNTs can also be executed in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. Biodegradation is proven by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman imaging. Thus, human EPO (in vitro) and ex vivo activated eosinophils mediate biodegradation of SWCNTs: an observation that is relevant to pulmonary responses to these materials. Human eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is able to degrade SWCNTs in vitro in the presence of H2O2. EPO is one of the major oxidant-generating enzymes present in human lungs during inflammatory states. The biodegradation of SWCNTs is evidenced also in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. These results are relevant to potential respiratory exposure to carbon nanotubes.

  • 2. Ao, Xianyu
    et al.
    Wang, Xuyue
    Yin, Guanbo
    Dang, Kangkang
    Xue, Yali
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Zhejiang University, China.
    Broadband Metallic Absorber on a Non-Planar Substrate2015In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 11, no 13, p. 1526-1530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorbers for visible and near-infrared light are realized by depositing a thin iron layer on arrays of cones which are replicated from a porous template. The replicated conic structure itself is of several micrometers and ineffective at antireflection, but the subsequent deposition of iron on top generates nanometer-size columnar structures, and thus broadband absorption enhancement is achieved.

  • 3. Bansal, Akshaya
    et al.
    Liu, Haichun
    Jayakumar, Muthu Kumara Gnanasammandhan
    Andersson-Engels, Stefan
    Zhang, Yong
    Quasi-Continuous Wave Near-Infrared Excitation of Upconversion Nanoparticles for Optogenetic Manipulation of C. elegans2016In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 12, no 13, p. 1732-1743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optogenetics is an emerging powerful tool to investigate workings of the nervous system. However, the use of low tissue penetrating visible light limits its therapeutic potential. Employing deep penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light for optogenetics would be beneficial but it cannot be used directly. This issue can be tackled with upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) acting as nanotransducers emitting at shorter wavelengths extending to the UV range upon NIR light excitation. Although attractive, implementation of such NIR-optogenetics is hindered by the low UCN emission intensity that necessitates high NIR excitation intensities, resulting in overheating issues. A novel quasi-continuous wave (quasi-CW) excitation approach is developed that significantly enhances multiphoton emissions from UCNs, and for the first time NIR light-triggered optogenetic manipulations are implemented in vitro and in C. elegans. The approach developed here enables the activation of channelrhodopsin-2 with a significantly lower excitation power and UCN concentration along with negligible phototoxicity as seen with CW excitation, paving the way for therapeutic optogenetics.

  • 4. Cronholm, Pontus
    et al.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lowe, Troy A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Winnberg, Lina
    Elihn, Karine
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Möller, Lennart
    Intracellular Uptake and Toxicity of Ag and CuO Nanoparticles: A Comparison Between Nanoparticles and their Corresponding Metal Ions2013In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 970-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased understanding of nanoparticle toxicity and its impact on human health is essential to enable a safe use of nanoparticles in our society. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of a Trojan horse type mechanism for the toxicity of Ag-nano and CuO-nano particles and their corresponding metal ionic species (using CuCl2 and AgNO3), i.e., the importance of the solid particle to mediate cellular uptake and subsequent release of toxic species inside the cell. The human lung cell lines A549 and BEAS-2B are used and cell death/membrane integrity and DNA damage are investigated by means of trypan blue staining and the comet assay, respectively. Chemical analysis of the cellular dose of copper and silver is performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy are employed to study cellular uptake and particle-cell interactions. The results confirm a high uptake of CuO-nano and Ag-nano compared to no, or low, uptake of the soluble salts. CuO-nano induces both cell death and DNA damage whereas CuCl2 induces no toxicity. The opposite is observed for silver, where Ag-nano does not cause any toxicity, whereas AgNO3 induces a high level of cell death. In conclusion: CuO-nano toxicity is predominantly mediated by intracellular uptake and subsequent release of copper ions, whereas no toxicity is observed for Ag-nano due to low release of silver ions within short time periods.

  • 5. Gan, Z.
    et al.
    Pan, P.
    Chen, Z.
    Meng, M.
    Xu, Hao
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Yu, Z.
    Chang, C.
    Tao, Y.
    Ultraviolet Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanospheres and its Surface Plasmon-Induced Enhancement2018In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 14, no 16, article id 1704239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet (UV) light can be used in versatile applications ranging from photoelectronic devices to biomedical imaging. In the development of new UV light sources, in this study, stable UV emission at ≈350 nm is unprecedentedly obtained from carbon nanospheres (CNSs). The origin of the UV fluorescence is comprehensively investigated via various characterization methods, including Raman and Fourier transform infrared analyses, with comparison to the visible emission of carbon nanodots. Based on the density functional calculations, the UV fluorescence is assigned to the carbon nanostructures bonded to bridging O atoms and dangling –OH groups. Moreover, a twofold enhancement in the UV emission is acquired for Au-carbon core-shell nanospheres (Au-CNSs). This remarkable modification of the UV emission is primarily ascribed to charge transfer between the CNSs and the Au surface.

  • 6.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Inganäs, Olle
    Electronic polymers and DNA self-assembled in nanowire transistors2013In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 363-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous self-assembly of DNA and molecular electronic materials can lead to the creation of innumerable copies of identical devices, and inherently programmed complex nanocircuits. Here self-assembly of a water soluble and highly conducting polymer PEDOT-S with DNA in aqueous conditions is shown. Orientation and assembly of the conducting DNA/PEDOT-S complex into electrochemical DNA nanowire transistors is demonstrated.

  • 7. Hou, Jungang
    et al.
    Wu, Yunzhen
    Cao, Shuyan
    Sun, Yiqing
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Active Sites Intercalated Ultrathin Carbon Sheath on Nanowire Arrays as Integrated Core-Shell Architecture: Highly Efficient and Durable Electrocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting2017In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 13, no 46, article id UNSP 1702018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of active bifunctional electrocatalysts with low cost and earth-abundance toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) remains a great challenge for overall water splitting. Herein, metallic Ni4Mo nanoalloys are firstly implanted on the surface of NiMoOx nanowires array (NiMo/NiMoOx) as metal/metal oxides hybrid. Inspired by the superiority of carbon conductivity, an ultrathin nitrogen-doped carbon sheath intercalated NiMo/NiMoOx (NC/NiMo/NiMoOx) nanowires as integrated core-shell architecture are constructed. The integrated NC/NiMo/NiMoOx array exhibits an overpotential of 29 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) and a low Tafel slope of 46 mV dec(-1) for HER due to the abundant active sites, fast electron transport, low charge-transfer resistance, unique architectural structure and synergistic effect of carbon sheath, nanoalloys, and oxides. Moreover, as OER catalysts, the NC/NiMo/NiMoOx hybrids require an overpotential of 284 mV at 10 mA cm(-2). More importantly, the NC/NiMo/NiMoOx array as a highly active and stable electrocatalyst approaches approximate to 10 mA cm(-2) at a voltage of 1.57 V, opening an avenue to the rational design and fabrication of the promising electrode materials with architecture structures toward the electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

  • 8.
    Monti, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Carravetta, Vincenzo
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Theoretical Study of the Adsorption Mechanism of Cystine on Au(110) in Aqueous Solution2016In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 12, no 44, p. 6134-6143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption and dynamics of cystine, which is the oxidized dimer of cysteine where the monomers are connected through a disulfide bond, on the Au(110) surface, in water solution, is characterized by means of classical molecular dynamics simulations based on a recently developed reactive force field (ReaxFF). The adopted computational procedure and the force field description are able to give a complete and reliable picture, in line with experiments, of the molecule behavior in solution and in close contact with the metal support. Many different aspects, which have never been explored computationally at this level of theory, are disclosed, namely, physisorption, chemisorption, disulfide bridge breaking/creation, and formation of staples. It is demonstrated that all these events are connected with the specific orientation and location of cystine on the substrate. Simulations in pure water reveal that the disulfide bridge is stable, whereas dissociation is observed on gold. This is favored at low coverage, whereas at high coverage both intact and dissociated forms can be observed depending on local arrangements. The computed photoemission spectra at different K-edges for the predicted adsorbate structures satisfactorily agree with the experimental measurements extracted from literature.

  • 9.
    Nevskyi, Oleksii
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys Chem, Landoltweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Sysoiev, Dmytro
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Chem, Univ Str 10, D-78464 Constance, Germany..
    Dreier, Jes
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Stein, Simon Christoph
    Georg August Univ, Inst Phys Biophys 3, Friedrich Hund Pl 1, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Oppermann, Alex
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys Chem, Landoltweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Lemken, Florian
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys Chem, Landoltweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Janke, Tobias
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys Chem, Landoltweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Enderlein, Joerg
    Georg August Univ, Inst Phys Biophys 3, Friedrich Hund Pl 1, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Testa, Ilaria
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Huhn, Thomas
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Chem, Univ Str 10, D-78464 Constance, Germany..
    Woell, Dominik
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys Chem, Landoltweg 2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Fluorescent Diarylethene Photoswitches-A Universal Tool for Super-Resolution Microscopy in Nanostructured Materials2018In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 1703333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allows for unprecedented in situ visualization of biological structures, but its application to materials science has so far been comparatively limited. One of the main reasons is the lack of powerful dyes that allow for labeling and photoswitching in materials science systems. In this study it is shown that appropriate substitution of diarylethenes bearing a fluorescent closed and dark open form paves the way for imaging nanostructured materials with three of the most popular super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods that are based on different concepts to achieve imaging beyond the diffraction limit of light. The key to obtain optimal resolution lies in a proper control over the photochemistry of the photoswitches and its adaption to the system to be imaged. It is hoped that the present work will provide researchers with a guide to choose the best photoswitch derivative for super-resolution microscopy in materials science, just like the correct choice of a Swiss Army Knife's tool is essential to fulfill a given task.

  • 10.
    Wu, Yu-Tang
    et al.
    Univ Paris 11, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Integrat Biol Cell, NanoBioPhoton Nanofret Com,CNRS,CEA, Orsay, France..
    Qiu, Xue
    Univ Paris 11, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Integrat Biol Cell, NanoBioPhoton Nanofret Com,CNRS,CEA, Orsay, France..
    Lindbo, Sarah
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Technology.
    Susumu, Kimihiro
    US Naval Res Lab, Opt Sci Div, Code 5600, Washington, DC USA.;KeyW Corp, Hanover, MD 21076 USA..
    Medintz, Igor L.
    US Naval Res Lab, Ctr Bio Mol Sci & Engn, Code 6900, Washington, DC USA..
    Hober, Sophia
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Centre for Bioprocess Technology, CBioPT. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Hildebrandt, Niko
    Univ Paris 11, Univ Paris Saclay, Inst Integrat Biol Cell, NanoBioPhoton Nanofret Com,CNRS,CEA, Orsay, France..
    Quantum Dot-Based FRET Immunoassay for HER2 Using Ultrasmall Affinity Proteins2018In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 14, no 35, article id 1802266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered scaffold affinity proteins are used in many biological applications with the aim of replacing natural antibodies. Although their very small sizes are beneficial for multivalent nanoparticle conjugation and efficient Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET), the application of engineered affinity proteins in such nanobiosensing formats has been largely neglected. Here, it is shown that very small (approximate to 6.5 kDa) histidine-tagged albumin-binding domain-derived affinity proteins (ADAPTs) can efficiently self-assemble to zwitterionic ligand-coated quantum dots (QDs). These ADAPT-QD conjugates are significantly smaller than QD-conjugates based on IgG, Fab', or single-domain antibodies. Immediate applicability by the quantification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in serum-containing samples using time-gated Tb-to-QD FRET detection on the clinical benchtop immunoassay analyzer KRYPTOR is demonstrated here. Limits of detection down to 40 x 10(-12)m (approximate to 8 ng mL(-1)) are in a relevant clinical concentration range and outperform previously tested assays with antibodies, antibody fragments, and nanobodies.

  • 11. Xu, Xing-Dong
    et al.
    Li, Xin
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Chen, Hongzhong
    Qu, Qiuyu
    Zhao, Lingzhi
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Zhao, Yanli
    Host-Guest Interaction-Mediated Construction of Hydrogels and Nanovesicles for Drug Delivery2015In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 11, no 44, p. 5901-5906Article in journal (Refereed)
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