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  • 1.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Roberts, Peder
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Assessing Arctic Futures: Voices, Resources, and Governance2013In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 431-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in the future of the Arctic is running high, motivated in large part by belief that climate change will open new possibilities (and unleash new threats). Wealth from shipping and natural resource extraction features prominently in narratives about the Arctic in the media, and governance of the region has become a major concern as new actors demand influence. We use three components of current discourse about the Arctic to help reveal connections between how the region is constructed and how the right to decide its future is articulated. Voices are the actors who participate in the discursive construction of Arctic futures, with varying degrees of influence. Resources are objects upon which actors inscribe values, thus locating them in the discourse. Governance refers to the structural features through which action is regulated within spaces, restricting also the range of legitimate actors. We demonstrate the usefulness of these concepts through brief case studies of coal on Spitsbergen, hydrocarbons in the Barents Sea and whaling in the North Atlantic. We conclude by emphasizing the value of a historical perspective to understanding contemporary debates about the future of the Arctic.

  • 2. Cole, S. G.
    et al.
    Kinell, G.
    Söderqvist, T.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hasselström, L.
    Izmalkov, S.
    Mikkelsen, E.
    Noring, M.
    KTH.
    Sandberg, A.
    Sjöberg, E.
    Soutukorva, Å.
    Franzén, F.
    Khaleeva, Y.
    Arctic games: An analytical framework for identifying options for sustainable natural resource governance2016In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the Arctic are fuelled by a variety of drivers, including global warming, economic growth, improved access to natural resources, technological advances and globalisation processes. Further, the region is characterised by a diverse set of international agreements, national legislations and common pool resources. This presents challenges for actors to suggest, evaluate and agree on sustainable development alternatives. We propose an analytical framework to better understand (1) the types of trade-offs associated with Arctic futures and (2) actors’ incentives for strategic behaviour. In the framework, game theory illuminates incentives and strategies among actors, cost-benefit analysis and economic valuation of ecosystem services help identify socially desirable outcomes and institutional analysis provides insight on how governance structures can support or interfere with policy intervention. We apply the proposed framework by analysing possible oil development futures for Lofoten in Northern Norway. For example, institutional analysis and estimates of costs and benefits of reducing oil spill risk and their distribution among actors are used for discussing incentive structures, including the use of side payments as a mechanism to mitigate conflicting interests. 

  • 3.
    Eklund, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Refracting (geo)political choices in the Arctic2017In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geopolitics as a field was originally intended as a theoretical modelling of the relationship between fixed geographical circumstances and political choice. Now, the field is largely dominated by critical studies. It is almost considered axiomatic to include geopolitics as a theme in descriptive and analytical studies of the Arctic in global, regional, national and local contexts. This essay aims to review the core tenets of geopolitical thought and trace the categories and distinctions between the classical and critical approaches as applied in Arctic scholarship. It draws on highlights from the Arctic policy texts of three states demonstrating how assumptions and political options in terms of Arctic geographies can be expressed in different geopolitical frameworks. It is argued that revisiting and reviewing the core categories of geopolitics and their application in Arctic affairs can contribute to a better-informed understanding of how developments in the Arctic may unfold, as well as provide insights into the different functionalities of geopolitics.

  • 4.
    Hasselström, Linus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Anthesis Enveco AB, Sverige.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Noring, Maria
    Kemikalieinspektionen.
    Soutukorva, Åsa
    Enveco.
    Khaleevac, Julia
    Costs and benefits associated with marine oil spill prevention in northern Norway2017In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 165-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse conflicts regarding natural resources and ecosystem services involving different stakeholder groups using cost–benefit analysis (CBA). The paper is formed around a specific case study in Lofoten–Vesterålen in northern Norway, investigating costs and benefits of decreasing the probability of a major oil spill from shipping in the area. Benefits of decreasing the probability of a spill are far greater than costs, which means that measures to improve maritime safety would be economically profitable for society. Figures showing the effects of the impacts on fisheries and tourism sectors indicate that, compared to the total value for society, the market values of decreasing the probability of a spill are very small. On the other hand, non-market values associated with the protection of ecosystem services are of a much greater magnitude. These results suggest that the neglecting of non-market ecosystem service values in economic assessments for the Arctic may cause a biased picture of costs and benefits associated with measures to prevent environmental degradation. When feeding into decisions, such assessments may lead to too little preventive action from an economic perspective.

  • 5.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marie
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    The emerging politics of Antarctica2013In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 474-476Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    van der Watt, Lize-Marié
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Return to Gondwanaland: South Africa, Antarctica, minerals and apartheid2013In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 72-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1980s, the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) faced intense international scrutiny. A new power bloc of developing countries, utilising the language of colonialism and using the United Nations as one of their main platforms, called into question the legitimacy of the ATS. The developing countries’ lobby also challenged apartheid South Africa’s membership of the Antarctic Treaty. One of the main driving forces behind these tensions was widely acknowledged to be resources, living and mineral and the rights of access to them. The debate on mineral exploration and extraction culminated in the Convention on the Regulation of the Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA). Preparations started in the mid-1970s, CRAMRA was adopted in 1988 but it never went into force. This article investigates some of the historical complexities and contingencies involved in the CRAMRA process, using South Africa as a case study. It looks at how Gondwanaland–broadly conceived–surfaced in the debates in terms of geology as well as geopolitics. “Gondwanaland” highlighted the proximity of South Africa to Antarctica, and the shared geological formations between parts of southern Africa and Antarctica implied shared mineral potential. In South Africa, debates about Antarctic mineral resources and the Antarctic Treaty were invested with concerns about the apartheid state’s status as pariah state on the one hand, and its “first world”, anti-communist status on the other. Diplomats were anxious for South Africa to maintain its membership of the Treaty, one of the few multilateral bodies that still welcomed the country. In public, fears about a “third world grab” in the Antarctic resonated with the “total onslaught” rhetoric of the South African police state.

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