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  • 1.
    Ahlmer, Anna-Klara
    et al.
    KTH. Trivector Traff, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cavalli, Marco
    CNR, Res Inst Geohydrol Protect, Padua, Italy..
    Hansson, Klas
    Swedish Transport Adm Trafikverket, S-17290 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Koutsouris, Alexander J.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Crema, Stefano
    CNR, Res Inst Geohydrol Protect, Padua, Italy..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Soil moisture remote-sensing applications for identification of flood-prone areas along transport infrastructure2018In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 77, no 14, article id 533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected increase in precipitation and temperature in Scandinavia, and especially short-time heavy precipitation, will increase the frequency of flooding. Urban areas are the most vulnerable, and specifically, the road infrastructure. The accumulation of large volumes of water and sediments on road-stream intersections gets severe consequences for the road drainage structures. This study integrates the spatial and temporal soil moisture properties into the research about flood prediction methods by a case study of two areas in Sweden, Vastra Gotaland and Varmland, which was affected by severe flooding in August 2014. Soil moisture data are derived from remote-sensing techniques, with a focus on the soil moisture-specific satellites ASCAT and SMOS. Furthermore, several physical catchments descriptors (PCDs) are analyzed and the result shows that larger slopes and drainage density, in general, mean a higher risk of flooding. The precipitation is the same; however, it can be concluded that more precipitation in most cases gives higher soil moisture values. The lack, or the dimensioning, of road drainage structures seems to have a large impact on the flood risk as more sediment and water can be accumulated at the road-stream intersection. The results show that the method implementing soil moisture satellite data is promising for improving the reliability of flooding.

  • 2.
    Birkholzer, Jens T.
    et al.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bond, Alexander E.
    Quintessa Ltd, Warrington, Cheshire, England..
    Hudson, John A.
    Imperial Coll Emeritus, London, England..
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH.
    Tsang, Chin-Fu
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Shao, Hua
    BGR Fed Inst Geosci & Nat Resources, Hannover, Germany..
    Kolditz, Olaf
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Leipzig, Germany.;TUDD Tech Univ Dresden, Dresden, Germany..
    DECOVALEX-2015: an international collaboration for advancing the understanding and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geological systems2018In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 77, no 14, article id 539Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Bond, A. E.
    et al.
    Bruský, I.
    Chittenden, N.
    Feng, X. -T
    Kolditz, O.
    Lang, P.
    Lu, R.
    McDermott, C.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Pan, P. -Z
    Šembera, J.
    Shao, H.
    Yasuhara, H.
    Zheng, H.
    Development of approaches for modelling coupled thermal–hydraulic–mechanical–chemical processes in single granite fracture experiments2016In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 75, no 19, article id 1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geological formation immediately surrounding a nuclear waste disposal facility has the potential to undergo a complex set of physical and chemical processes starting from construction and continuing many years after closure. The DECOVALEX project (DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments) was established and maintained by a variety of waste management organizations, regulators and research organizations to help improve capabilities in experimental interpretation, numerical modelling and blind prediction of complex coupled systems. In the present round of DECOVALEX (D-2015), one component of Task C1 has considered the detailed experimental work of Yasuhara et al. (Appl Geochem 26:2074–2088, 2011), wherein three natural fractures in Mizunami granite are subject to variable fluid flows, mechanical confining pressure and different applied temperatures. This paper presents a synthesis of the completed work of six separate research teams, building on work considering a single synthetic fracture in novaculite. A range of approaches are presented including full geochemical reactive transport modelling and 2D and 3D high-resolution coupled thermo–hydro–mechanical–chemical (THMC) models. The work shows that reasonable fits can be obtained to the experimental data using a variety of approaches, but considerable uncertainty remains as to the relative importance of competing process sets. The work also illustrates that a good understanding of fracture topography, interaction with the granite matrix, a good understanding of the geochemistry and the associated multi-scale THMC process behaviours is a necessary pre-cursor to considering predictive models of such a system.

  • 4. Bond, Alexander E.
    et al.
    Brusky, Ivan
    Cao, Tianqing
    Chittenden, Neil
    Fedors, Randall
    Feng, Xia-Ting
    Gwo, Jin-Ping
    Kolditz, Olaf
    Lang, Philipp
    McDermott, Christopher
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Pan, Peng-Zhi
    Sembera, Jan
    Shao, Hua
    Watanabe, Nori
    Yasuhara, Hide
    Zheng, Hong
    A synthesis of approaches for modelling coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical processes in a single novaculite fracture experiment2017In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geological formation immediately surrounding a nuclear waste disposal facility has the potential to undergo a complex set of physical and chemical processes starting from construction and continuing many years after closure. The DECOVALEX project (DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments) was established and maintained by a variety of waste management organisations, regulators and research organisations to help improve capabilities in experimental interpretation, numerical modelling and blind prediction of complex coupled systems. In the present round of DECOVALEX (D-2015), one component of Task C1 has considered the detailed experimental work of Yasuhara et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 244: 186-200, 2006), wherein a single artificial fracture in novaculite (micro-or crypto-crystalline quartz) is subject to variable fluid flows, mechanical confining pressure and different applied temperatures. This paper presents a synthesis of the completed work of six separate research teams. A range of approaches are presented including 2D and 3D high-resolution coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical models. The results of the work show that while good, physically plausible representations of the experiment can be obtained using a range of approaches, there is considerable uncertainty in the relative importance of the various processes, and that the parameterisation of these processes can be closely linked to the interpretation of the fracture surface topography at different spatial scales.

  • 5.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Department of Hydrogeology, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States .
    Liu, Hui-Hai
    Modeling bacterial attenuation in on-site wastewater treatment systems using the active region model and column-scale data2015In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 4827-4837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial attenuation in porous media is often higher in columns than in the field. This study investigates whether this inconsistency could be attributed to finger flow, as assessed by the active region model (ARM). It develops a numerical model of flow and transport of the fecal indicator Escherichia coli  in a wastewater infiltration basin from the literature. Modeling was based on the traditional, uniform flow approach (Richard’s equation) as well as the ARM, representing finger flow. The uniform flow model resulted in flow rates that decreased rapidly with filter depth and an underestimation of the observed average relative effluent concentration by three orders of magnitude. With the ARM, the flow rates remained high throughout the filter, more consistently with observations, and the relative effluent concentration (0.018) was relatively accurate in reproducing the field result (0.025). Considering a range of removal rates derived from laboratory studies, the ARM consistently enabled more accurate and conservative assessments of the filter efficiency; thus, results indicated that the ARM provides a more relevant approach to bacterial transport in wastewater infiltration basins with sandy, unstructured soils.

  • 6.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Nystrand, M.
    Abo Akad Univ, Dept Geol, SF-20500 Turku, Finland..
    Speciation of trace elements in groundwater, surface water and sediments: a short review2019In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 78, no 12, article id 349Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to understand the interaction between groundwater, surface water and sediments, there is a need for speciation analysis of trace elements in the mentioned matrices. This could be done experimentally or by calculation with e.g. thermodynamic codes. This article will give a short overview of methods with some examples and results. Speciation in water could be determined by thermodynamic calculations with e.g. PHREEQC or Visual MINTEQ. Experimental speciation in water could be done by ultrafiltration or dialysis in situ. If applicable, in situ dialysis in the field is simple with little need of equipment. Speciation of trace elements in drinking water is of special interest to assess possible health effects. Speciation of trace elements in sediments and soils can be done by any one of the numerous selective extractions. Which speciation approach depends on which trace elements are of interest. A common need is to get information about plant uptake of specific elements.

  • 7. Kumanova, Xhume
    et al.
    Leka, Gjovalin
    Nilsson, Bertil
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Assessing the mobility of metals in an aquatic environment: River Fani and River Mati, Albania2015In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 6293-6301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport of metals was investigated at 15 sites in the River Fani and the River Mati in N. Albania. There are numerous abandoned copper mine sites and one active mine upstream in the River Fani catchment. Upstream in the Mati catchment, there is a large chromium smelter and several chromium mines. Water samples and sediment samples were collected at all the sites. Moreover, the water samples at a number of the sites were fractionated by filtering and by dialysis to assess in which form the metals were transported. There was a relatively larger abundance of metals in the suspended (unfiltered water) and colloidal phases (filtered by 0.2-um filters). Metal concentrations in water and in sediments decreased rapidly downstream away from point sources, approaching background levels within 10 km, indicating that the larger fractions could settle in the sediments. The River Mati recharges a large coastal aquifer via an alluvial fan at the entrance into the coastal plain. There does not seem to be any risk of metals appearing in the groundwater, as the transport mode is that of largely suspended and colloidal matter. The offshore metals in the Adriatic Sea are likely to be flushed out during rainy seasons with high discharge. The bioavailability of the metals is likely to be low except for just downstream of point sources. In view of the relatively large fractions of metals found in the suspended and colloidal phases, the establishment of sedimentation basins downstream point sources would decrease the export to the rivers.

  • 8. Mishra, Bhupendra K.
    et al.
    Dubey, Chandra S.
    Shukla, Dericks P.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Usham, Arnold L.
    Concentration of arsenic by selected vegetables cultivated in the Yamuna flood plains (YFP) of Delhi, India2014In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 3281-3291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High Arsenic (As) concentrations have been reported in superficial water in the Yamuna flood plains (YFP), Delhi, which is being extensively used for agriculture. The concentration of As in some common vegetables such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (lady's finger), Solanum melongena (brinjal), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), Raphanus sativus (radish), Zea mays (corn), and Luffa acutangula (ridge gourd) has been studied in this work. The range of As concentrations (dry weight) varies from 0.6 to 2.52 mg/kg with the highest accumulation of 2.52 mg/kg in radish followed by tomato (2.36 mg/kg). The order of As concentration in the decreasing order is R. sativus>S. lycopersicum>Z. mays>L. acutangula>L. siceraria>S. melongena>A. esculentus. Thus, As accumulation is the highest in roots and the lowest in least juicy fruits. The daily dietary intake of As through the consumption of various vegetables was also calculated. Though the mean As concentration was the highest in radish (2.52 mg/kg) but the highest amount of As is being consumed through tomato (0.383 mg/day), which is nearly three times the World Health Organization's provisional maximum tolerable daily intake limit of 0.126 mg/day for a 60 kg person. High concentration of As in vegetables grown in YFP, Delhi is being reported here. This high contamination is primarily due to the presence of As in irrigation water having its source from coal-based thermal power plants in the vicinity of the area. If not checked properly, it will pose a serious health risk to people living in these densely populated areas surrounding YFP.

1 - 8 of 8
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