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  • 1. Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Expressiveness of a marimba player’s body movements2004In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, TMH-QPSR, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 075-086Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Musicians often make gestures and move their bodies expressing their musical intention. This visual information provides a separate channel of communication to the listener. In order to explore to what extent emotional intentions can be conveyed through musicians’ movements, video recordings were made of a marimba player performing the same piece with four different intentions, Happy, Sad, Angry and Fearful. Twenty subjects were asked to rate the silent video clips with respect to perceived emotional content and movement qualities. The video clips were presented in different viewing conditions, showing different parts of the player. The results showed that the intentions Happiness, Sadness and Anger were well communicated, while Fear was not. The identification of the intended emotion was only slightly influenced by viewing condition. The movement ratings indicated that there were cues that the observers used to distinguish between intentions, similar to cues found for audio signals in music performance.

  • 2.
    Fant, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Kruckenberg, Anita
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Co-variation of acoustic parameters in prosody2007In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Forsell, Mimmi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Elenius, Kjell
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Laukka, P.
    Acoustic correlates of frustration in spontaneous speech2007In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 37-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this master’s thesis by the first author was to investigate the acoustic attributes of frustration in spontaneous speech. The speech material was recorded from real life Swedish telephone services by the company Voice Provider. The utterances were selected speaker by speaker in order to have at least one of them judged as emotionally neutral by a listener group, while the other utterances of the same speaker were judged as displaying emotional speech. Due to the nature of the speech material most of it was spoken in a neutral way. However, some percent of the utterances displayed various degrees of frustration, mostly anger but also some despondency, and these were the emotions studied in this report. We also studied the emotional intensity of the utterances. Acoustic cues of the emotional speech were compared to those of neutral speech for the same speaker. We found some significant differences between the acoustic cues for neutral and emotional speech. Anger was characterized by a rise of fundamental frequency and an increase in speech amplitude, whereas despondency reduced the syllable rate significantly. The emotional intensity raised the pitch, increased the amplitude and decreased the syllable rate. Correlations were also found between perceived emotions and acoustic speech parameters.

  • 4.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A study of the effects of vocal intensity variation on children’s voices using long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis1997In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 119-131Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been well documented in adult studies that, as overall vocal intensity increases, the resulting increase in partials is greater in higher than in lower frequencies. Investigations involving children’s normal productions are uncommon however, and there is, as a consequence, little knowledge of how children’s vocal function differs from that of adults. Using long term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis, this study investigates the effects of vocal intensity variation on the voices of fifteen schoolchildren aged 10 years, singing in soft, mid and loud voice. Mean amplitudes, dynamic range, and gain in each frequency band were calculated, and means are presented as normative data for children’s vocal productions. Observed systematic effects of vocal loudness as well as male-female differences in the averaged spectra are discussed, and comparisons with adult data made.

  • 5.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Formant frequency analysis of children’s spoken and sung vowels using sweeping fundamental frequency production1998In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 1-2, p. 43-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-pitched productions present difficulties in formant frequency analysis due to wide harmonic spacing and poorly defined formants. As a consequence, there is little reliable data regarding children’s spoken or sung vowel formants. In order to circumvent the problem of wide harmonic spacing, 29 11-year-old Swedish children were asked to produce four sustained spoken and sung vowels with a sweeping F0. F1 and F2 measurements were taken. Experienced choir singers were used as subjects in order to minimise the larynx height adjustments associated with pitch variation in less-skilled subjects. Results showed significantly higher formant frequencies for speech than for singing. Formants were consistently higher in females than in males suggesting longer vocal tracts in these preadolescent boys. Furthermore, formant scaling demonstrated vowel-dependent differences between boys and girls suggesting non-uniform differences in male and female vocal tract dimensions. These vowel-dependent sex differences were not consistent with adult data.

  • 6.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis of developmental changes in children's voices2000In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 85-88Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Long­term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis has been found to offer representative information on voice timbre. It provides spectral information averaged over a period of time and is particularly useful when persistent spectral features are under investigation. The aim of this study was to compare perceived and actual sex of the recorded voices of children to the LTAS characteristics. A total of 320 children, 20 boys and 20 girls in each of eight age groups (range 3 to 12 years), were recorded singing a nursery rhyme. In an earlier analysis, the recorded voices were evaluated with respect to perceived sex by expert listeners. Mean LTAS analysis for boys and girls groups revealed a peak at 5 kHz for children consistently perceived as boys (whether male or female in actuality), and a flat spectrum at 5 kHz for children consistently perceived as girls.

  • 7.
    White, Peta
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Spectrum effects of subglottal pressure variation in professional baritone singers2000In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 41, p. 29-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The audio signal from five professional operatic baritone singers was analysed by means of spectrum analysis. Each subject sang a sustained diminuendo, from loudest to softest phonation, three times on the vowels [a:] and [ä:] at fundamental frequencies representing 25%, 50% and 75% of his total pitch range as measured in semitones. During the diminuendi the subjects repeatedly inserted the consonant [p] so that associated subglottal pressures could be estimated from the oral pressure during [p]­occlusions. Pooling the three takes of each condition, ten subglottal pressures (PS), equidistantly spaced between highest and lowest, were selected for analysis along with the corresponding production of [a:] and [ä:] vowels. The levels of the first formant and the singer’s formant, L1 and LSF, were measured as a function of increasing subglottal pressure. Averaged across subjects, an increase in PS resulted in (a) an increase in L1 and (b) a decrease in L1-LSF. This implies that a 10 dB increase at or near 600 Hz was, on average, accompanied by an increase of 17 dB of the level near 3 kHz.

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