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  • 1. Casolino, M.
    et al.
    De Simone, N.
    Bongue, D.
    De Pascale, M. P.
    Felice, V. D.
    Marcelli, L.
    Minori, M.
    Picozza, P.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Castellini, G.
    Adriani, O.
    Bonechi, L.
    Bongi, M.
    Bottai, S.
    Papini, P.
    Ricciarini, S.
    Spillantini, P.
    Taddei, E.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Barbarino, G.
    Campana, D.
    Carbone, R.
    De Rosa, G.
    Osteria, G.
    Boezio, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Vacchi, A.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F. S.
    Ricci, M.
    Hofverberg, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Bogomolov, E.
    Krutkov, S.Yu.
    Nikonov, N. N.
    Menn, W.
    Simon, M.
    Galper, A. M.
    Grishantseva, L.
    Koldashov, S.
    Leonov, A.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Maksumov, O.
    Stozhkov, Y.
    Two years of flight of the Pamela experiment: Results and perspectives2009In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 78, no Suppl. A, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PAMELA is a satellite borne experiment designed to study with great accuracy cosmic rays of galactic, solar, and trapped nature in a wide energy range (protons: 80 MeV-700 GeV, electrons 50 MeV-400 GeV). Main objective is the study of the antimatter component: antiprotons (80 MeV-190 GeV), positrons (50 MeV-270 GeV) and search for antinuclei with a precision of the order of 10~8). The experiment, housed on board the Russian Resurs-DKl satellite, was launched on June, 15th 2006 in a 350 x 600 km orbit with an inclination of 70 degrees. In this work we describe the scientific objectives and the performance of PAMELA in its first two years of operation. Data on protons of trapped, secondary and galactic nature - as well as measurements of the December 13th 2006 Solar Particle Event - are also provided.

  • 2.
    Del Ferraro, Gino
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Aurell, Erik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Perturbative large deviation analysis of non-equilibrium dynamics2014In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 83, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroscopic fluctuation theory has shown that a wide class of non-equilibrium stochastic dynamical systems obey a large deviation principle, but except for a few one-dimensional examples these large deviation principles are in general not known in closed form. We consider the problem of constructing successive approximations to an (unknown) large deviation functional and show that the non-equilibrium probability distribution the takes a Gibbs-Boltzmann form with a set of auxiliary (non-physical) energy functions. The expectation values of these auxiliary energy functions and their conjugate quantities satisfy a closed system of equations which can imply a considerable reduction of dimensionality of the dynamics. We show that the accuracy of the approximations can be tested self-consistently without solving the full non- equilibrium equations. We test the general procedure on the simple model problem of a relaxing 1D Ising chain. 

  • 3.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Advanved insittute of Industrial Science and Technology (JAPAN).
    Yagi, Y
    Koguchi, H
    Shimada, T
    Hirano, Y
    Martin, P
    Operating Conditions to achieve high performance in PPCD in a RFP plasma2003In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 72, p. 3297-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Holme, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Signatures of Currency Vertices2009In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 034801-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many real-world networks have broad degree distributions. For some systems, this means that the functional of the vertices is also broadly distributed, in other cases the vertices are equally significant, but in different ways. One example of the latter case is metabolic networks, where the high-degree vertices the currency metabolites-supply the molecular groups to the low-degree metabolites, and the latter are responsible for the higher-order biological function, Of Vital importance to the organism. In this paper, we propose a generalization of currency metabolites to currency vertices. We investigate the network structural characteristics of such systems, both in model networks and in sonic empirical systems. fit addition to metabolic networks, we find that a network of music collaborations and a network of e-mail exchange could be described by a division of the vertices into currency vertices and others.

  • 5.
    Mathieu, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Tokura, Yoshinori
    The nanoscale phase separation in hole-doped manganites2007In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 76, no 12, p. 124706-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A macroscopic phase separation, in which ferromagnetic clusters are observed in an insulating matrix, is sometimes observed, and believed to be essential to the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) properties of manganese oxides. The application of a magnetic field may indeed trigger large magnetoresistance effects due to the percolation between clusters allowing the movement of the charge carriers. However, this macroscopic phase separation is mainly related to extrinsic defects or impurities, which hinder the long-ranged charge-orbital order of the system. We show in the present article that rather than the macroscopic phase separation, an homogeneous short-ranged charge-orbital order accompanied by a spin glass state occurs, as an intrinsic result of the uniformity of the random potential perturbation induced by the solid solution of the cations on the A-sites of the structure of these materials. Hence the phase separation does occur, but in a more subtle and interesting nanoscopic form, here referred as "homogeneous". Remarkably, this "nanoscale phase separation" alone is able to bring forth the colossal magnetoresistance in the perovskite manganites, and is potentially relevant to a wide variety of other magnetic and/or electrical properties of manganites, as well as many other transition metal oxides, in bulk or thin film form as we exemplify throughout the article.

  • 6. Shen, J. Q.
    et al.
    Gu, J.
    KTH. Joint Research Centre of Photonics of Zhejiang University.
    Transient evolutional dynamics of quantum-dot molecular phase coherence for sensitive optical switching2018In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 87, no 4, article id 044401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic phase coherence (quantum interference) in a multilevel atomic gas exhibits a number of interesting phenomena. Such an atomic quantum coherence effect can be generalized to a quantum-dot molecular dielectric. Two quantum dots form a quantum-dot molecule, which can be described by a three-level Λ-configuration model fj0i; j1i; j2ig, i.e., the ground state of the molecule is the lower level ∣0〉 and the highly degenerate electronic states in the two quantum dots are the two upper levels j1i; j2i. The electromagnetic characteristics due to the ∣0〉–∣1〉 transition can be controllably manipulated by a tunable gate voltage (control field) that drives the ∣2〉–∣1〉 transition. When the gate voltage is switched on, the quantum-dot molecular state can evolve from one steady state (i.e., ∣0〉–∣1〉 two-level dressed state) to another steady state (i.e., three-level coherent-population-trapping state). In this process, the electromagnetic characteristics of a quantum-dot molecular dielectric, which is modified by the gate voltage, will also evolve. In this study, the transient evolutional behavior of the susceptibility of a quantum-dot molecular thin film and its reflection spectrum are treated by using the density matrix formulation of the multilevel systems. The present field-tunable and frequency-sensitive electromagnetic characteristics of a quantum-dot molecular thin film, which are sensitive to the applied gate voltage, can be utilized to design optical switching devices.

  • 7.
    Shen, Jian Qi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP. Zhejiang Univ, China.
    A Three-Dimensionally Isotropic and Perfectly Vacuum-Impedance-Matched Negative-Index Material2014In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 83, no 12, p. 124401-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new scenario for realizing a gain left-handed atomic vapor medium based on both dressed-state mixed-parity transitions (for simultaneous electric-and magnetic-dipole resonance) and incoherently-pumped population transfer (for high gain amplification) in a four-level atomic system is suggested. Dressed-state assisted simultaneous electric-and magnetic-dipole allowed transitions in such a four-level atomic system (of, e.g., neutral alkali-metal atoms such as lithium and potassium atoms) are utilized for achieving negative refractive index with impedance perfectly matched to vacuum. The attractive features of the present scenario include: i) three-dimensionally isotropic negative indices; ii) incoherent-gain wave amplification; iii) perfect impedance matching to vacuum. All these important properties of the double-negative medium would have potential applications in designing some optical and photonic devices, including particularly subwavelength focusing system and negative-index superlens for perfect imaging.

  • 8.
    Shen, Jian Qi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP. Zhejiang University, China.
    Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials2016In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 85, no 8, article id 084401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Phi, V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p, u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  • 9.
    Shen, Jian Qi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Coherent Manipulation of Optical Waves with Microwave Quantum Interference2013In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 044001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally feasible scheme of a four-level atomic system driven by two microwaves and one optical field is suggested in order to realize destructive and constructive quantum interference between the two microwave-driven transition pathways and hence to coherently manipulate the applied optical field. The destructive quantum interference can be switched to the constructive interference and vice versa if one tunes the intensity ratio of the two microwaves. Such an effect of tunable optical response based on microwave quantum interference may have some potential applications to the technique for designing new photonic and quantum optical devices, e. g., photonic logic gates, optical switches, and photonic transistors.

  • 10.
    Shen, Jian Qi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Fine-Structure Level Transition for Incoherent-Gain Isotropic Negative Permeability2013In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 82, no 12, p. 124003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensionally isotropic negative permeability of a neutral alkali-metal atomic medium, in which a fine-structure magnetic dipole-allowed transition in terahertz band is pumped for population transfer (and hence incoherent gain for negative permeability can be realized), is suggested based on quantum optical approach. The effects relevant to photonic resonance and quantum coherence are involved in the present quantum optical scheme of pumped magnetic-dipole allowed transition. The incoherent-gain assisted atomic medium (with fine-structure transition involved) may have some attractive features, e. g., three-dimensionally isotropic and homogeneous negative permeability for high-gain wave amplification at terahertz frequencies. Such a gain-assisted negative-permeability medium can be a candidate of magnetically resonant materials for artificial composite metamaterials, e.g., it may serve as a substrate of lossy negative-index materials for loss compensation or as a supporting medium for high-gain amplification of a TE-mode surface plasmon-like wave.

  • 11.
    Shen, Jian Qi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Sensitive Optical Behavior in an Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Waveguide via Double-Control Quantum Interference2012In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 024403-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tripod-configuration four-level atomic system can exhibit nontrivial quantum destructive and constructive interference that could manipulate the optical response of an atomic vapour. It is shown that the tunable double-control electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) would be controlled via the quantum interference between two control fields interacting with the present atomic system. If a metallic waveguide is filled with such a double-control four-level atomic vapour, the quantum vacuum mode structure in the present EIT waveguide would have a novel influence on the atomic spontaneous emission decay (and hence on the EIT optical behavior). As the waveguide dimension change (i.e., the change in length scale of cross section of waveguide) can vary the vacuum mode structure, which can lead to spontaneous emission enhancement or inhibition, the optical response (including absorption and transparency induced by the tunable double-control quantum destructive and constructive interference) of the atomic vapour in the waveguide is quite sensitive to small change in the waveguide dimension caused by external environmental factors (such as electric signal voltage, environmental temperature change and acoustic pressure). The sensitive optical response based on the mechanisms of both double-control quantum interference and quantum-vacuum manipulation presented here may have some potential applications to the technique for designing new photonic and quantum optical devices.

  • 12.
    Shen, Jian Qi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Total Reflection Enhancement in an Incoherent-Gain Prism Coupler towards Optical Switches and Photonic Transistors2014In: Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, ISSN 0031-9015, E-ISSN 1347-4073, Vol. 83, no 4, p. 044401-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An incoherent-gain prism coupler that can lead to enhanced total reflection is suggested by taking full advantage of pumped electric-dipole allowed transition that leads to gain-assisted negative permittivity. The tunable reflection spectrum of the prism coupler is quite sensitive to frequency detuning (e.g., 10(7) times that in conventional metal-substrate prism couplers) since the incoherent-gain optical response presented here results from atomic dipole-allowed transition. The present gain-assisted prism coupler, which can exhibit an unusual effect of dispersion-sensitive tunable reflection enhancement, has potential applications in design of new quantum optical and photonic devices, e.g., frequency-sensitive optical switches and photonic transistors.

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