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  • 1. Abolmasov, Pavel
    et al.
    Poutanen, Juri
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Gamma-ray opacity of the anisotropic stratified broad-line regions in blazars2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 464, no 1, p. 152-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The GeV-range spectra of blazars are shaped not only by non-thermal emission processes internal to the relativistic jet but also by external pair-production absorption on the thermal emission of the accretion disc and the broad-line region (BLR). For the first time, we compute here the pair-production opacities in the GeV range produced by a realistic BLR accounting for the radial stratification and radiation anisotropy. Using photoionization modelling with the CLOUDY code, we calculate a series of BLR models of different sizes, geometries, cloud densities, column densities and metallicities. The strongest emission features in the model BLR are Ly alpha and He II Ly alpha. Contribution of recombination continua is smaller, especially for hydrogen, because Ly continuum is efficiently trapped inside the large optical depth BLR clouds and converted to Lyman emission lines and higher order recombination continua. The largest effects on the gamma-ray opacity are produced by the BLR geometry and localization of the gamma-ray source. We show that when the gamma-ray source moves further from the central source, all the absorption details move to higher energies and the overall level of absorption drops because of decreasing incidence angles between the gamma-rays and BLR photons. The observed positions of the spectral breaks can be used to measure the geometry and the location of the gamma-ray emitting region relative to the BLR. Strong dependence on geometry means that the soft photons dominating the pair-production opacity may be actually produced by a different population of BLR clouds than the bulk of the observed broad line emission.

  • 2. Acero, F.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anton, G.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Conrad, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Localizing the VHE gamma-ray source at the Galactic Centre2010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 402, no 3, p. 1877-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inner 10 pc of our Galaxy contains many counterpart candidates of the very high energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) gamma-ray point source HESS J1745-290. Within the point spread function of the H.E.S.S. measurement, at least three objects are capable of accelerating particles to VHE and beyond and of providing the observed gamma-ray flux. Previous attempts to address this source confusion were hampered by the fact that the projected distances between these objects were of the order of the error circle radius of the emission centroid (34 arcsec, dominated by the pointing uncertainty of the H.E.S.S. instrument). Here we present H.E.S.S. data of the Galactic Centre region, recorded with an improved control of the instrument pointing compared to H.E.S.S. standard pointing procedures. Stars observed during gamma-ray observations by optical guiding cameras mounted on each H.E.S.S. telescope are used for off-line pointing calibration, thereby decreasing the systematic pointing uncertainties from 20 to 6 arcsec per axis. The position of HESS J1745-290 is obtained by fitting a multi-Gaussian profile to the background-subtracted gamma-ray count map. A spatial comparison of the best-fitting position of HESS J1745-290 with the position and morphology of candidate counterparts is performed. The position is, within a total error circle radius of 13 arcsec, coincident with the position of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* and the recently discovered pulsar wind nebula candidate G359.95-0.04. It is significantly displaced from the centroid of the supernova remnant Sgr A East, excluding this object with high probability as the dominant source of the VHE gamma-ray emission.

  • 3.
    Acuner, Zeynep
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Clustering of gamma-ray burst types in the Fermi GBM catalogue: indications of photosphere and synchrotron emissions during the prompt phase2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 475, no 2, p. 1708-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different physical processes have been suggested to explain the prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although there are examples of both bursts with photospheric and synchrotron emission origins, these distinct spectral appearances have not been generalized to large samples of GRBs. Here, we search for signatures of the different emission mechanisms in the full Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope/GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor) catalogue. We use Gaussian Mixture Models to cluster bursts according to their parameters from the Band function (alpha, beta, and E-pk) as well as their fluence and T-90. We find five distinct clusters. We further argue that these clusters can be divided into bursts of photospheric origin (2/3 of all bursts, divided into three clusters) and bursts of synchrotron origin (1/3 of all bursts, divided into two clusters). For instance, the cluster that contains predominantly short bursts is consistent of photospheric emission origin. We discuss several reasons that can determine which cluster a burst belongs to: jet dissipation pattern and/or the jet content, or viewing angle.

  • 4. André, Mats
    et al.
    Odelstad, Elias
    Graham, Daniel
    Eriksson, Anders
    Karlsson, Tomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella
    Vigren, Erik
    Norgren, Cecilia
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Henri, Pierre
    Rubin, M.
    Richter, Ingo
    Lower Hybrid Waves at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the generation of waves in the lower hybrid frequency range by density gradients in the near plasma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. When the plasma is dominated by water ions from the comet, a situation with magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions is favourable for the generation of lower hybrid waves. These waves can transfer energy between ions and electrons and reshape the plasma environment of the comet. We consider cometocentric distances out to a few hundred km. We find that when the electron motion is not significantly interrupted by collisions with neutrals, large average gradients within tens of km of the comet, as well as often observed local large density gradients at larger distances, are often likely to be favourable for the generation of lower hybrid waves. Overall, we find that waves in the lower hybrid frequency range are likely to be common in the near plasma environment.

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Lund Observatory, Lund University.
    Church, Ross P.
    Davies, Melvyn B.
    Levan, Andrew J.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    On the origin of black hole spin in high-mass black hole binaries: Cygnus X-12011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 412, no 4, p. 2260-2264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, there have been several detections of high-mass black hole binaries in both the Milky Way and other galaxies. For some of these, the spin parameter of the black hole has been estimated. As many of these systems are quite tight, a suggested origin of the spin is angular momentum imparted by the synchronous rotation of the black hole progenitor with its binary companion. Using Cygnus X-1, the best studied high-mass black hole binary, we investigate this possibility. We find that such an origin of the spin is not likely, and our results point rather to the spin being the result of processes during the collapse.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University.
    Larsson, S.
    Hjalmarsdotter, L.
    The aperiodic broad-band X-ray variability of Cygnus X-32009In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 394, no 3, p. 1544-1550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the soft X-ray variability of Cygnus X-3. By combining data from the All-Sky Monitor and Proportional Counter Array instruments on the RXTE satellite with EXOSAT/Medium Energy (ME) detector observations, we are able to analyse the power density spectrum (PDS) of the source from 10-9 to 0.1 Hz, thus covering time-scales from seconds to years. As the data on the longer time-scales are unevenly sampled, we combine traditional power spectral techniques with simulations to analyse the variability in this range. The PDS at higher frequencies (≳10-3 Hz) are for the first time compared for all states of this source. We find that it is for all states well described by a power law, with index ∌ -2 in the soft states and a tendency for a less steep power law in the hard state. At longer time-scales, we study the effect of the state transitions on the PDS, and find that the variability below ∌10-7 Hz is dominated by the transitions. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the length of a high/soft-state episode and the time since the previous high/soft state. On intermediate time-scales, we find evidence for a break in the PDS at time-scales of the order of the orbital period. This may be interpreted as evidence for the existence of a tidal resonance in the accretion disc around the compact object, and constraining the mass ratio to M2/M1 ≲ 0.3.

  • 7. Backstrom, E.
    et al.
    Gurell, J.
    Royen, P.
    Mannervik, S.
    Norlin, Lars-Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Physics.
    Blackwell-Whitehead, R.
    Hartman, H.
    Nilsson, H.
    The FERRUM project: metastable lifetimes in Cr II2012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 420, no 2, p. 1636-1639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parity forbidden radiative transitions from metastable levels are observed in spectra of low-density astrophysical plasmas. These lines are used as probes of the physical conditions, made possible due to the long lifetime of their upper level. In a joint effort, the FERRUM project aims to obtain new and accurate atomic data for the iron-group elements, and part of this project concerns forbidden lines. The radiative lifetimes of the metastable energy levels 3 d4(a 3 D)4 s c4 D 5/2 and 3 d4(a 3 D)4 s c4 D 7/2 of singly ionized chromium have been measured. The experiment has been performed at the ion storage ring CRYRING. We employed a laser-probing technique developed for measuring long lifetimes. In this article, we present the lifetimes of these levels to be t5/2= 1.28(16) s and t7/2= 1.37(7) s, respectively. A comparison with previous theoretical work shows good agreement and the result is discussed in a theoretical context.

  • 8.
    Basak, Rupal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, Sweden; Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Iyyani, S.
    Chand, V.
    Chattopadhyay, T.
    Bhattacharya, D.
    Rao, A. R.
    Vadawale, S. V.
    Surprise in simplicity: an unusual spectral evolution of a single pulse GRB 151006A2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 472, no 1, p. 891-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a detailed analysis of GRB 151006A, the first gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by AstroSat Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Imager (CZTI). We study the long-term spectral evolution by exploiting the capabilities of Fermi and Swift satellites at different phases, which is complemented by the polarization measurement with the CZTI. While the light curve of the GRB in different energy bands shows a simple pulse profile, the spectrum shows an unusual evolution. The first phase exhibits a hard-to-soft evolution until similar to 16-20 s, followed by a sudden increase in the spectral peak reaching a few MeV. Such a dramatic change in the spectral evolution in the case of a single pulse burst is reported for the first time. This is captured by all models we used namely, Band function, blackbody+Band and two blackbodies+power law. Interestingly, the Fermi Large Area Telescope also detects its first photon (> 100 MeV) during this time. This new injection of energy may be associated with either the beginning of afterglow phase, or a second hard pulse of the prompt emission itself that, however, is not seen in the otherwise smooth pulse profile. By constructing Bayesian blocks and studying the hardness evolution we find a good evidence for a second hard pulse. The Swift data at late epochs (> T-90 of the GRB) also show a significant spectral evolution consistent with the early second phase. The CZTI data (100-350 keV), though having low significance (1 sigma), show high values of polarization in the two epochs (77-94 per cent), in agreement with our interpretation.

  • 9.
    Basak, Rupal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.
    Parker, Michael
    Islam, Nazma
    Analysis of NuSTAR and Suzaku observations of Cyg X-1 in the hard state: evidence for a truncated disc geometry2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 472, no 4, p. 4220-4232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometry of the accretion flow in black hole X-ray binaries in the hard state, in particular the position of the disc inner edge, has been a subject of intense debate in recent years. We address this issue by performing a spectral study of simultaneous observations of Cyg X-1 in the hard state by NuSTAR and Suzaku. The same data were analysed before, and modelled by a lamppost containing hybrid electrons and located very close to the horizon, whose emission was incident on a surrounding disc extending almost to the innermost stable circular orbit. We re-analyse the incident continuum model and show that it suffers from the lack of physical self-consistency. Still, the good fit to the data provided by this model indicates that the real continuum has a similar shape. We find it features a strong soft X-ray excess below a few keV, which we model as a soft thermal-Comptonization component, in addition to the main hard thermal-Compton component. This continuum model with reflection of both components yields the overall lowest chi(2) and has a geometry with a hot inner accretion flow and a disc truncated at similar or equal to 13-20 gravitational radii. On the other hand, we have also found spectral solution with a lamppost at a large height and a disc that can extend to the innermost stable circular orbit, though somewhat statistically worse. Overall, we find that the fitted truncation radius depends on the assumed continuum and geometry.

  • 10.
    Begue, Dereli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, Sweden.
    Pe'er, A.
    Lyubarsky, Y.
    Radiative striped wind model for gamma-ray bursts2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 467, no 3, p. 2594-2611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we revisit the striped wind model in which the wind is accelerated by magnetic reconnection. In our treatment, radiation is included as an independent component, and two scenarios are considered. In the first one, radiation cannot stream efficiently through the reconnection layer, while the second scenario assumes that radiation is homogeneous in the striped wind. We show how these two assumptions affect the dynamics. In particular, we find that the asymptotic radial evolution of the Lorentz factor is not strongly modified whether radiation can stream through the reconnection layer or not. On the other hand, we show that the width, density and temperature of the reconnection layer are strongly dependent on these assumptions. We then apply the model to the gamma-ray burst context and find that photons cannot diffuse efficiently through the reconnection layer below radius r(D)(Delta) similar to 10(10.5) cm, which is about an order of magnitude below the photospheric radius. Above r(D)(Delta) , the dynamics asymptotes to the solution of the scenario in which radiation can stream through the reconnection layer. As a result, the density of the current sheet increases sharply, providing efficient photon production by the Bremsstrahlung process that could have profound influence on the emerging spectrum. This effect might provide a solution to the soft photon problem in gamma-ray bursts.

  • 11.
    Behrens, C.
    et al.
    Scuola Normale Super Pisa, Piazza Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Pallottini, A.
    Scuola Normale Super Pisa, Piazza Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.;Museo Stor Fis, Ctr Fermi, Piazza Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome, Italy.;Ctr Studi & Ric Enrico Fermi, Piazza Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome, Italy.;Univ Cambridge, Cavendish Lab, 19 JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge CB3 OHE, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Ferrara, A.
    Scuola Normale Super Pisa, Piazza Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.;Univ Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Gallerani, S.
    Scuola Normale Super Pisa, Piazza Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Vallini, Livia
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Dusty galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization: simulations2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 477, no 1, p. 552-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent discovery of dusty galaxies well into the Epoch of Reionization (redshift z > 6) poses challenging questions about the properties of the interstellar medium in these pristine systems. By combining state-of-the-art hydrodynamic and dust radiative transfer simulations, we address these questions focusing on the recently discovered dusty galaxy A2744_YD4 (z = 8.38, Laporte et al.). We show that we can reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) only using different physical values with respect to the inferred ones by Laporte et al., i.e. a star formation rate of SFR = 78 M(circle dot)yr(-1), a factor approximate to 4 higher than deduced from simple SED fitting. In this case, we find: (i) dust attenuation (corresponding to tau(v) = 1.4) is consistent with a Milky Way (MW) extinction curve; (ii) the dust-to-metal ratio is low, f(d) similar to 0.08, implying that early dust formation is rather inefficient;(iii) the luminosity-weighted dust temperature is high, T-d = 91 23 K, as a result of the intense (approximate to 100 x MW) interstellar radiation field; and (iv) due to the high T-d, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 7 detection can be explained by a limited dust mass, M-d = 1.6 x 10(6) M-circle dot. Finally, the high dust temperatures might solve the puzzling low infrared excess (IRX) recently deduced for high-z galaxies from the IRX-beta relation.

  • 12.
    Behrens, C.
    et al.
    Scuola Normale Super Pisa, Piazza Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Pallottini, A.
    Scuola Normale Super Pisa, Piazza Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.;Museo Stor Fis, Ctr Fermi, Piazza Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome, Italy.;Ctr Studi & Ric Enrico Fermi, Piazza Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome, Italy.;Univ Cambridge, Cavendish Lab, 19 JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge CB3 OHE, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Ferrara, A.
    Scuola Normale Super Pisa, Piazza Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.;Univ Tokyo, Kavli IPMU, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Gallerani, S.
    Scuola Normale Super Pisa, Piazza Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy..
    Vallini, Livia
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Dusty galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization: simulations2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 477, no 1, p. 552-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent discovery of dusty galaxies well into the Epoch of Reionization (redshift z > 6) poses challenging questions about the properties of the interstellar medium in these pristine systems. By combining state-of-the-art hydrodynamic and dust radiative transfer simulations, we address these questions focusing on the recently discovered dusty galaxy A2744_YD4 (z = 8.38, Laporte et al.). We show that we can reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) only using different physical values with respect to the inferred ones by Laporte et al., i.e. a star formation rate of SFR = 78 M(circle dot)yr(-1), a factor approximate to 4 higher than deduced from simple SED fitting. In this case, we find: (i) dust attenuation (corresponding to tau(v) = 1.4) is consistent with a Milky Way (MW) extinction curve; (ii) the dust-to-metal ratio is low, f(d) similar to 0.08, implying that early dust formation is rather inefficient;(iii) the luminosity-weighted dust temperature is high, T-d = 91 23 K, as a result of the intense (approximate to 100 x MW) interstellar radiation field; and (iv) due to the high T-d, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Band 7 detection can be explained by a limited dust mass, M-d = 1.6 x 10(6) M-circle dot. Finally, the high dust temperatures might solve the puzzling low infrared excess (IRX) recently deduced for high-z galaxies from the IRX-beta relation.

  • 13. Bhat, Pallavi
    et al.
    Subramanian, Kandaswamy
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 461, no 1, p. 240-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/ small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shapeinvariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength (B) over bar, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, Re-M. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the smallscale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the Re-M-dependent quenching of (B) over bar /B-rms. These results are obtained for 1024(3) DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, B/ Brms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For Pr-M = 10, (B) over bar /B-rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/ small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  • 14.
    Bisbas, Thomas G.
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. University College London, UK; Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Germany; University of Florida, USA.
    Haworth, Thomas J.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. University of Cambridge, UK.
    Barlow, M. J.
    Viti, S.
    Harries, T. J.
    Bell, T.
    Yates, J. A.
    TORUS-3DPDR: a self-consistent code treating three-dimensional photoionization and photodissociation regions2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 454, no 3, p. 2828-2843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of ionizing and far-ultraviolet radiation with the interstellar medium is of great importance. It results in the formation of regions in which the gas is ionized, beyond which are photodissociation regions (PDRs) in which the gas transitions to its atomic and molecular form. Several numerical codes have been implemented to study these two main phases of the interstellar medium either dynamically or chemically. In this paper we present TORUS-3DPDR, a new self-consistent code for treating the chemistry of three-dimensional photoionization and photodissociation regions. It is an integrated code coupling the two codes TORUS, a hydrodynamics and Monte Carlo radiation transport code, and 3D-PDR, a PDRs code. The new code uses a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme to account for the propagation of the ionizing radiation including the diffusive component as well as a ray-tracing scheme based on the HEALPIX package in order to account for the escape probability and column density calculations. Here, we present the numerical techniques we followed and we show the capabilities of the new code in modelling three-dimensional objects including single or multiple sources. We discuss the effects introduced by the diffusive component of the ultraviolet field in determining the thermal balance of PDRs as well as the effects introduced by a multiple sources treatment of the radiation field. With this new code, three-dimensional synthetic observations for the major cooling lines are possible, for making feasible a detailed comparison between hydrodynamical simulations and observations.

  • 15.
    Brandenburg, A.
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Stockholm Univ, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Haugen, N. E. L.
    SINTEF Energy Res, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway.;NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Li, Xiang-Yu
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80303 USA.;Stockholm Univ, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Meteorol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Subramanian, K.
    Inter Univ Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Post Bag 4,Pune Univ Campus, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India..
    Varying the forcing scale in low Prandtl number dynamos2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 479, no 2, p. 2827-2833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale dynamos are expected to operate in all astrophysical fluids that are turbulent and electrically conducting, for example the interstellar medium, stellar interiors, and accretion discs, where theymay also be affected by or competing with large-scale dynamos. However, the possibility of small-scale dynamos being excited at small and intermediate ratios of viscosity to magnetic diffusivity (the magnetic Prandtl number) has been debated, and the possibility of them depending on the large-scale forcing wavenumber has been raised. Here, we show, using four values of the forcing wavenumber, that the small-scale dynamo does not depend on the scale separation between the size of the simulation domain and the integral scale of the turbulence, i.e. the forcing scale. Moreover, the spectral bottleneck in turbulence, which has been implied as being responsible for raising the excitation conditions of small-scale dynamos, is found to be invariant under changing the forcing wavenumber. However, when forcing at the lowest few wavenumbers, the effective forcing wavenumber that enters in the definition of the magnetic Reynolds number is found to be about twice the minimum wavenumber of the domain. Our work is relevant to future studies of small-scale dynamos, of which several applications are being discussed.

  • 16.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    On spectral evolution and temporal binning in gamma-ray bursts2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 445, no 3, p. 2589-2598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the prompt gamma-ray spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is of great importance to correctly interpret the physical mechanisms that produce the underlying event as well as the structure of the relativistic jet from which the emission emanates. Time-resolved analysis of these spectra is the main method of extracting information from the data. In this work, several techniques for temporal binning of GRB spectra are examined to understand the systematics associated with each with the goal of finding the best method(s) to bin light curves for analysis. The following binning methods are examined: constant cadence (CC), Bayesian blocks (BBs), signal-to-noise (S/N) and Knuth bins (KB). I find that both the KB and BB methods reconstruct the intrinsic spectral evolution accurately while the S/N method fails in most cases. The CC method is accurate when the cadence is not too coarse but does not necessarily bin the data based on the true source variability. Additionally, the integrated pulse properties are investigated and compared to the time-resolved properties. If intrinsic spectral evolution is present, then the integrated properties are not useful in identifying physical and cosmological properties of GRBs without knowing the physical emission mechanism and its evolution.

  • 17.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, Sweden.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, Sweden.
    Are GRB blackbodies an artefact of spectral evolution?2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 447, no 4, p. 3087-3094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra with multicomponent emission models has become an important part of the field. In particular, multicomponent analysis where one component is a blackbody representing emission from a photosphere has enabled both a more detailed understanding of the energy content of the jet as well as the ability to examine the dynamic structure of the outflow. While the existence of a blackbody-like component has been shown to be significant and not a byproduct of background fluctuations, it is very possible that it can be an artefact of spectral evolution of a single component that is being poorly resolved in time. Herein, this possibility is tested by simulating a single component evolving in time and then folding the spectra through the Fermi detector response to generate time-tagged event Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data. We then fit both the time-integrated and -resolved generated spectral data with a multicomponent model using standard tools. It is found that in time-integrated spectra, a blackbody can be falsely identified due to the spectral curvature introduced by the spectral evolution. However, in a time-resolved analysis defined by time bins that can resolve the evolution of the spectra, the significance of the falsely identified blackbody is very low. Additionally, the evolution of the artificial blackbody parameters does not match the recurring behaviour that has been identified in the actual observations. These results reinforce the existence of the blackbody found in time-resolved analysis of GRBs and stress the point that caution should be taken when using time-integrated spectral analysis for identifying physical properties of GRBs.

  • 18.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova, Sweden.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova, Sweden.
    Yu, Hoi-Fung
    Taking the band function too far: a tale of two alpha's2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 451, no 2, p. 1511-1521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long standing problem of identifying the emission mechanism operating in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has produced a myriad of possible models that have the potential of explaining the observations. Generally, the empirical Band function is fit to the observed gamma-ray data and the fit parameters that are used to infer which radiative mechanisms are at work in GRB outflows. In particular, the distribution of the Band function's low-energy power-law index, alpha, has led to the so-called synchrotron 'line-of-death' (LOD) which is a statement that the distribution cannot be explained by the simplest of synchrotron models alone. As an alternatively fitting model, a combination of a blackbody in addition to the Band function is used, which in many cases provide a better or equally good fit. It has been suggested that such fits would be able to alleviate the LOD problem for synchrotron emission in GRBs. However, these conclusions rely on the Band function's ability to fit a synchrotron spectrum within the observed energy band. In order to investigate if this is the case, we simulate synchrotron and synchrotron+blackbody spectra and fold them through the instrumental response of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). We then perform a standard data analysis by fitting the simulated data with both Band and Band+blackbody models. We find two important results: the synchrotron LOD is actually more severe than the original predictions: alpha(LOD) similar to -0.8. Moreover, we find that intrinsic synchrotron+blackbody emission is insufficient to account for the entire observed alpha distribution. This implies that some other emission mechanism(s) are required to explain a large fraction of observed GRBs.

  • 19.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yu, Hoi-Fung
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Greiner, Jochen
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Mortlock, Daniel J.
    Imperial Coll London, Stat Sect, Dept Math, London SW7 2AZ, England.;Imperial Coll London, Blackett Lab, Astrophys Grp, Prince Consort Rd, London SW7 2AZ, England.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Awakening the BALROG: BAyesian Location Reconstruction Of GRBs2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 476, no 2, p. 1427-1444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accurate spatial location of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial for both accurately characterizing their spectra and follow-up observations by other instruments. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has the largest field of view for detecting GRBs as it views the entire unocculted sky, but as a non-imaging instrument it relies on the relative count rates observed in each of its 14 detectors to localize transients. Improving its ability to accurately locate GRBs and other transients is vital to the paradigm of multimessenger astronomy, including the electromagnetic follow-up of gravitational wave signals. Here we present the BAyesian Location Reconstruction Of GRBs (BALROG) method for localizing and characterizing GBM transients. Our approach eliminates the systematics of previous approaches by simultaneously fitting for the location and spectrum of a source. It also correctly incorporates the uncertainties in the location of a transient into the spectral parameters and produces reliable positional uncertainties for both well-localized sources and those for which the GBM data cannot effectively constrain the position. While computationally expensive, BALROG can be implemented to enable quick follow-up of all GBM transient signals. Also, we identify possible response problems that require attention and caution when using standard, public GBM detector response matrices. Finally, we examine the effects of including the uncertainty in location on the spectral parameters of GRB080916C. We find that spectral parameters change and no extra components are required when these effects are included in contrast to when we use a fixed location. This finding has the potential to alter both the GRB spectral catalogues and the reported spectral composition of some well-known GRBs.

  • 20. Chamandy, Luke
    et al.
    Singh, Nishant K.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    A new constraint on mean-field galactic dynamo theory2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 468, no 3, p. 3657-3662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Appealing to an analytical result from mean-field theory, we show, using a generic galaxy model, that galactic dynamo action can be suppressed by small-scale magnetic fluctuations. This is caused by the magnetic analogue of the Radler or Omega x J effect, where rotation-induced corrections to the mean-field turbulent transport result in what we interpret to be an effective reduction of the standard a effect in the presence of small-scale magnetic fields.

  • 21.
    Chashkina, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. University of Turku, Finland.
    Abolmasov, Pavel
    Poutanen, Juri
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. University of Turku, Finland.
    Super-Eddington accretion on to a magnetized neutron star2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 470, no 3, p. 2799-2813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of ultraluminous X-ray sources are thought to be objects accreting above their Eddington limits. In the recently identified class of ultraluminous X-ray pulsars, accretor is a neutron star and thus has a fairly small mass with a small Eddington limit. The accretion disc structure around such an object affects important observables such as equilibrium period, period derivative and the size of the magnetosphere. We propose a model of a nearly standard accretion disc interacting with the magnetosphere only in a thin layer near the inner disc rim. Our calculations show that the size of the magnetosphere may be represented as the classical Alfven radius times a dimensionless factor. which depends only on the disc thickness. In the case of radiation-pressure-dominated disc, the size of the magnetosphere does not depend on the mass accretion rate. In general, increasing the disc thickness leads to a larger magnetosphere size in units of the Alfven radius. For large enough mass accretion rates and magnetic moments, it is important to take into account not only the pressure of the magnetic field and the radiation pressure inside the disc, but also the pressure of the radiation produced close to the surface of the neutron star in accretion column. The magnetospheric size may increase by up to factor of 2 as a result of the effects related to the disc thickness and the irradiation from the central source. Accounting for these effects reduces the estimate of the neutron star magnetic moment by a factor of several orders.

  • 22.
    Chauvin, Maxime
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Floren, H. -G
    Jackson, Miranda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Kamae, T.
    Kawano, T.
    Kiss, Mózsi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Kole, Merlin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Mikhalev, Victor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Moretti, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Germany.
    Olofsson, G.
    Rydström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Takahashi, H.
    Iyudin, A.
    Arimoto, M.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Kataoka, J.
    Kawai, N.
    Mizuno, T.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Tajima, H.
    Takahashi, T.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Observation of polarized hard X-ray emission from the Crab by the PoGOLite Pathfinder2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 456, no 1, p. L84-L88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured the linear polarization of hard X-ray emission from the Crab in a previously unexplored energy interval, 20-120 keV. The introduction of two new observational parameters, the polarization fraction and angle stands to disentangle geometrical and physical effects, thereby providing information on the pulsar wind geometry and magnetic field environment. Measurements are conducted using the PoGOLite Pathfinder - a balloon-borne polarimeter. Polarization is determined by measuring the azimuthal Compton scattering angle of incident X-rays in an array of plastic scintillators housed in an anticoincidence well. The polarimetric response has been characterized prior to flight using both polarized and unpolarized calibration sources. We address possible systematic effects through observations of a background field. The measured polarization fraction for the integrated Crab light curve is 18.4(-10.6)(+9.8) per cent, corresponding to an upper limit (99 per cent credibility) of 42.4 per cent, for a polarization angle of (149.2 +/- 16.0)degrees.

  • 23. Citro, Annalisa
    et al.
    Pozzetti, Lucia
    Quai, Salvatore
    Moresco, Michele
    Vallini, Livia
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Cimatti, Andrea
    A methodology to select galaxies just after the quenching of star formation2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, no 3, p. 3108-3124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new methodology aimed at finding star-forming galaxies in the phase which immediately follows the star-formation (SF) quenching, based on the use of high-to low-ionization emission line ratios. These ratios rapidly disappear after the SF halt, due to the softening of the UV ionizing radiation. We focus on [O III]lambda 5007/H alpha and [Ne III]lambda 3869/[O II]lambda 3727, studying them with simulations obtained with the CLOUDY photoionization code. If a sharp quenching is assumed, we find that the two ratios are very sensitive tracers as they drop by a factor of similar to 10 within similar to 10 Myr from the interruption of the SF; instead, if a smoother and slower SF decline is assumed (i.e. an exponentially declining SF history with e-folding time tau = 200 Myr), they decrease by a factor of similar to 2 within similar to 80 Myr. We mitigate the ionization-metallicity degeneracy affecting our methodology using pairs of emission line ratios separately related to metallicity and ionization, adopting the [N II]lambda 6584/[OII]lambda 3727 ratio as metallicity diagnostic. Using a Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy sample, we identify 10 examples among the most extreme quenching candidates within the [O III]lambda 5007/H alpha versus [N II]lambda 6584/[O II]lambda 3727 plane, characterized by low [O III]lambda 5007/H alpha, faint [Ne III]lambda 3869, and by blue dust-corrected spectra and (u - r) colours, as expected if the SF quenching has occurred in the very recent past. Our results also suggest that the observed fractions of quenching candidates can be used to constrain the quenching mechanism at work and its time-scales.

  • 24. D'Ammando, F.
    et al.
    Larsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Orienti, M.
    Raiteri, C. M.
    Angelakis, E.
    Carraminana, A.
    Carrasco, L.
    Drake, A. J.
    Fuhrmann, L.
    Giroletti, M.
    Hovatta, T.
    Max-Moerbeck, W.
    Porras, A.
    Readhead, A. C. S.
    Recillas, E.
    Richards, J. L.
    Multiwavelength observations of the gamma-ray-emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 PMN J0948+0022 in 20112014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 438, no 4, p. 3521-3534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on radio-to-gamma-ray observations during 2011 May-September of PMN J0948+0022, the first narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxy detected in gamma-rays by Fermi-Large Area Telescope. Strong variability was observed in gamma-rays, with two flaring periods peaking on 2011 June 20 and July 28. The variability observed in optical and near-infrared seems to have no counterpart in gamma-rays. This different behaviour could be related to a bending and inhomogeneous jet or a turbulent extreme multicell scenario. The radio spectra showed a variability pattern typical of relativistic jets. The XMM spectrum shows that the emission from the jet dominates above similar to 2 keV, while a soft X-ray excess is evident in the low-energy part of the X-ray spectrum. Models where the soft emission is partly produced by blurred reflection or Comptonization of the thermal disc emission provide good fits to the data. The X-ray spectral slope is similar to that found in radio-quiet NLSy1, suggesting that a standard accretion disc is present, as expected from the high accretion rate. Except for the soft X-ray excess, unusual in jet-dominated active galactic nuclei, PMN J0948+0022, shows all characteristics of the blazar class.

  • 25. D'Ammando, F.
    et al.
    Orienti, M.
    Finke, J.
    Raiteri, C. M.
    Hovatta, T.
    Larsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Max-Moerbeck, W.
    Perkins, J.
    Readhead, A. C. S.
    Richards, J. L.
    Beilicke, M.
    Benbow, W.
    Berger, K.
    Bird, R.
    Bugaev, V.
    Cardenzana, J. V.
    Cerruti, M.
    Chen, X.
    Ciupik, L.
    Dickinson, H. J.
    Eisch, J. D.
    Errando, M.
    Falcone, A.
    Finley, J. P.
    Fleischhack, H.
    Fortin, P.
    Fortson, L.
    Furniss, A.
    Gerard, L.
    Gillanders, G. H.
    Griffiths, S. T.
    Grube, J.
    Gyuk, G.
    Håkansson, N.
    Holder, J.
    Humensky, T. B.
    Kar, P.
    Kertzman, M.
    Khassen, Y.
    Kieda, D.
    Krennrich, F.
    Kumar, S.
    Lang, M. J.
    Maier, G.
    McCann, A.
    Meagher, K.
    Moriarty, P.
    Mukherjee, R.
    Nieto, D.
    de Bhroithe, A. O'Faolain
    Ong, R. A.
    Otte, A. N.
    Pohl, M.
    Popkow, A.
    Prokoph, H.
    Pueschel, E.
    Quinn, J.
    Ragan, K.
    Reynolds, P. T.
    Richards, G. T.
    Roache, E.
    Rousselle, J.
    Santander, M.
    Sembroski, G. H.
    Smith, A. W.
    Staszak, D.
    Telezhinsky, I.
    Tucci, J. V.
    Tyler, J.
    Varlotta, A.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Wakely, S. P.
    Weinstein, A.
    Welsing, R.
    Williams, D. A.
    Zitzer, B.
    The most powerful flaring activity from the NLSyl PMN J0948+00222015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 446, no 3, p. 2456-2467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on multifrequency observations performed during 2012 December-2013 August of the first narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy detected in gamma-rays, PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846). A y -ray flare was observed by the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi during 2012 December-2013 January, reaching a daily peak flux in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range of (155 31) x 10 8 ph cm(-2) S-1 on 2013 January 1, corresponding to an apparent isotropic luminosity of similar to 1.5 x 1048 erg s(-1). The y -ray flaring period triggered Swift and Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) observations in addition to radio and optical monitoring by Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with VLBA Experiments, and Catalina Real-time Transient Survey. A strong flare was observed in optical, UV, and X-rays on 2012 December 30, quasi-simultaneously to the y -ray flare, reaching a record flux for this source from optical to y gamma-rays. VERITAS observations at very high energy (E > 100 GeV) during 2013 January 6-17 resulted in an upper limit of F>0.2 Trev < 4.0 x 10(-12) ph cm(-2) s(-1). We compared the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the flaring state in 2013 January with that of an intermediate state observed in 2011. The two SEDs, modelled as synchrotron emission and an external Compton scattering of seed photons from a dust torus, can be modelled by changing both the electron distribution parameters and the magnetic field.

  • 26. D'Ammando, F.
    et al.
    Orienti, M.
    Larsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Giroletti, M.
    The first gamma-ray detection of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 FBQS J1644+26192015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 452, no 1, p. 520-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray emission from the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxy FBQS J1644+2619 by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite. The Third Fermi LAT Source catalogue reports an unidentified gamma-ray source, detected over the first four years of Fermi operation, 0 degrees.23 from the radio position of the NLSy1. Analysing 76 months of gamma-ray data (2008 August 4-2014 December 31) we are able to better constrain the localization of the gamma-ray source. The new position of the gamma-ray source is 0 degrees.05 from FBQS J1644+2619, suggesting a spatial association with the NLSy1. This is the sixth NLSy1 detected at high significance by Fermi-LAT so far. Notably, a significant increase of activity was observed in gamma-rays from FBQS J1644+2619 during 2012 July-October, and an increase of activity in the V band was detected by the Catalina Real-Time Sky Survey in the same period.

  • 27. Decataldo, D.
    et al.
    Ferrara, A.
    Pallottini, A.
    Gallerani, S.
    Vallini, L.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Molecular clumps photoevaporation in ionized regions2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 471, no 4, p. 4476-4487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the photoevaporation of molecular clumps exposed to a UV radiation field including hydrogen-ionizing photons (h nu > 13.6 eV) produced by massive stars or quasars. We follow the propagation and collision of shockwaves inside clumps and take into account self-shielding effects, determining the evolution of clump size and density with time. The structure of the ionization-photodissociation region is obtained for different initial clump masses (M = 0.01- 10(4)M(circle dot)) and impinging fluxes (G(0) = 10(2)-10(5) in units of the Habing flux). The cases of molecular clumps engulfed in the HII region of an OB star and clumps carried within quasar outflows are treated separately. We find that the clump undergoes in both cases an initial shock-contraction phase and a following expansion phase, which lets the radiation penetrate in until the clump is completely evaporated. Typical evaporation time-scales are similar or equal to 0.01 Myr in the stellar case and 0.1 Myr in the quasar case, where the clump mass is 0.1 M-circle dot and 10(3)M(circle dot) , respectively. We find that clump lifetimes in quasar outflows are compatible with their observed extension, suggesting that photoevaporation is the main mechanism regulating the size of molecular outflows.

  • 28.
    Del Sordo, Fabio
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Guerrero, Gustavo
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Turbulent dynamos with advective magnetic helicity flux2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 429, no 2, p. 1686-1694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many astrophysical bodies harbour magnetic fields that are thought to be sustained by a dynamo process. However, it has been argued that the production of large-scale magnetic fields by mean-field dynamo action is strongly suppressed at large magnetic Reynolds numbers owing to the conservation of magnetic helicity. This phenomenon is known as catastrophic quenching. Advection of magnetic fields by stellar and galactic winds towards the outer boundaries and away from the dynamo is expected to alleviate such quenching. Here we explore the relative roles played by advective and turbulent-diffusive fluxes of magnetic helicity in the dynamo. In particular, we study how the dynamo is affected by advection. We do this by performing direct numerical simulations of a turbulent dynamo of alpha(2) type driven by forced turbulence in a Cartesian domain in the presence of a flow away from the equator where helicity changes sign. Our results indicate that in the presence of advection, the dynamo, otherwise stationary, becomes oscillatory. We confirm an earlier result for turbulent-diffusive magnetic helicity fluxes that for small magnetic Reynolds numbers (Rm less than or similar to 100 ... 200, based on the wavenumber of the energy-carrying eddies) the magnetic helicity flux scales less strongly with magnetic Reynolds number (Rm(-1/2)) than the term describing magnetic helicity destruction by resistivity (Rm(-1)). Our new results now suggest that for larger Rm the former becomes approximately independent of Rm, while the latter falls off more slowly. We show for the first time that both for weak and stronger winds, the magnetic helicity flux term becomes comparable to the resistive term for Rm greater than or similar to 1000, which is necessary for alleviating catastrophic quenching.

  • 29.
    Devlen, E.
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Univ Ege, Fac Sci, Dept Astron & Space Sci, TR-35100 Izmir, Turkey.; Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Camurdan, D. Zengin
    Yardimci, M.
    Pekunlu, E. R.
    A new model for heating of the Solar North Polar Coronal Hole2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 467, no 1, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a new model of the North Polar Coronal Hole (NPCH) with the aim of revealing the dissipative/propagative characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. We investigate the effects of isotropic viscosity and anisotropic heat conduction on the propagation characteristics of MHD waves in the NPCH. We first model the NPCH by considering differences in the radial direction as well as in the direction perpendicular to the line of sight (los) in temperature, particle number density and non-thermal velocities between plumes and interplume lanes, for the specific case of OVI ions. This model includes parallel and perpendicular (to the magnetic field) heat conduction and viscous dissipation. Next, we derive the dispersion relations for MHD waves in cases of the absence and presence of parallel heat conduction. In the case of the absence of parallel heat conduction, we find that MHD wave dissipation depends strongly on viscosity for modified acoustic and Alfven waves. The energy flux densities of acoustic waves vary between 10(4.7) and 10(7) erg cm-(2) s(-1), while the energy flux densities of Alfven waves turn out to be between 10(6) and 10(8.6) erg cm(-2) s(-1). When there is parallel heat conduction, we calculate the damping length-scales and the energy flux densities of magnetoacoustic waves. Our results suggest that modified magnetoacoustic waves may provide a significant source for the observed preferential acceleration and heating of OVI ions, thus coronal plasma heating, and an extra accelerating agent for the fast solar wind in the NPCH, depending on the values of the transport coefficients.

  • 30.
    Devlen, Ebru
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Mitra, Dhrubaditya
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    A mean field dynamo from negative eddy diffusivity2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 432, no 2, p. 1651-1657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using direct numerical simulations, we verify that Roberts-IV flow exhibits dynamo action dominated by horizontally averaged large-scale magnetic field. With the test-field method, we compute the turbulent magnetic diffusivity and find that it is negative and overcomes the molecular diffusivity, thus explaining quantitatively the large-scale dynamo for magnetic Reynolds numbers above approximate to 8. As expected for a dynamo of this type, but contrary to alpha-effect dynamos, the two horizontal field components grow independently of each other and have arbitrary amplitude ratios and phase differences. Small length-scales of the mean magnetic field are shown to be stabilized by the turbulent magnetic diffusivity becoming positive at larger wavenumbers. Oscillatory decaying or growing solutions have also been found in certain wavenumber intervals and sufficiently large values of the magnetic Reynolds number. For magnetic Reynolds numbers below approximate to 0.5, the turbulent magnetic diffusivity is confirmed to be positive, as expected for all incompressible flows. Earlier claims of a dynamo driven by a modified Taylor-Green flow through negative eddy diffusivity could not be confirmed.

  • 31. Doroshenko, Victor
    et al.
    Tsygankov, Sergey S.
    Mushtukov, Alexander A.
    Lutovinov, Alexander A.
    Santangelo, Andrea
    Suleimanov, Valery F.
    Poutanen, Juri
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Luminosity dependence of the cyclotron line and evidence for the accretion regime transition in V 0332+532017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 466, no 2, p. 2143-2150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the analysis of NuSTAR observations of the Be-transient X-ray pulsar V 0332+ 53 during the giant outburst in 2015 and another minor outburst in 2016. We confirm the cyclotronline energy-luminosity correlation previously reported in the source and the line energy decrease during the giant outburst. Based on 2016 observations, we find that a year later the line energy has increased again essentially reaching the pre-outburst values. We discuss this behaviour and conclude that it is likely caused by a change of the emission region geometry rather than previously suggested accretion-induced decay of the neutron stars magnetic field. At lower luminosities, we find for the first time a hint of departure from the anticorrelation of line energy with flux, which we interpret as a transition from super-to sub-critical accretion associated with the disappearance of the accretion column. Finally, we confirm and briefly discuss the orbital modulation observed in the outburst light curve of the source.

  • 32.
    Falocco, Serena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Larsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Nandi, Sumana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    A (likely) X-ray jet from NGC6217 observed by XMM-Newton2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 472, no 2, p. 2280-2288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NGC6217 is a nearby spiral galaxy with a starburst region near its centre. Evidence for a low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) in its core has also been found in optical spectra. Intriguingly, X-ray observations by ROSAT revealed three knots aligned with the galaxy centre, resembling a jet structure. This paper presents a study of XMM-Newton observations made to assess the hypothesis of a jet emitted from the centre of NGC6217. The XMM data confirm the knots found with ROSAT and our spectral analysis shows that they have similar spectral properties with a hard photon index Gamma similar to 1.7. The core of NGC6217 is well fitted by a model with an AGN and a starburst component, where the AGN contributes at most 46 per cent of the total flux. The candidate jet has an apparent length similar to 15 kpc and a luminosity of similar to 5 x 10(38) erg s(-1). It stands out by being hosted by a spiral galaxy, since jets are more widely associated with ellipticals. To explain the jet launching mechanism we consider the hypothesis of an advection dominated accretion flow with a low accretion rate. The candidate jet emitted from NGC6217 is intriguing since it represents a challenge to the current knowledge of the connection between AGN, jets and host galaxies.

  • 33.
    Gressel, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Bendre, Abhijit
    Elstner, Detlef
    On the magnetic quenching of mean-field effects in supersonic interstellar turbulence2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 429, no 2, p. 967-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of large-scale magnetic fields observed in the diffuse interstellar medium is explained by a turbulent dynamo. The underlying transport coefficients have previously been extracted from numerical simulations. So far, this was restricted to the kinematic regime, but we aim to extend our analysis into the realm of dynamically important fields. This marks an important step on which derived mean-field models rely to explain observed equipartition-strength fields. As in previous work, we diagnose turbulent transport coefficients by means of the test-field method. We derive quenching functions for the dynamo a effect, diamagnetic pumping and turbulent diffusivity, which are compared with theoretical expectations. At late times, we observe the suppression of the vertical wind. Because this potentially affects the removal of small-scale magnetic helicity, new concerns arise about circumventing constraints imposed by the conservation of magnetic helicity at high magnetic Reynolds numbers. While present results cannot safely rule out this possibility, the issue only becomes important at late stages and is absent when the dynamo is quenched by the wind itself.

  • 34. Guessoum, N.
    et al.
    Jean, P.
    Gillard, William
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Positron annihilation on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in the interstellar medium2010In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 402, no 2, p. 1171-1178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the annihilation of positrons on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in interstellar medium (ISM) conditions. We estimate the annihilation rates of positrons on PAHs by a semi-empirical approach. We show that PAHs can play a significant role in the overall Galactic positron annihilation picture and use the annihilation rates and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Galactic emission measurements to constrain the number of PAHs present in the ISM. We find an upper limit of 4.6 x 10(-7) for the PAH abundance (by number, relative to hydrogen).

  • 35. Hartman, H
    et al.
    Schef, P
    Lundin, P
    Ellmann, A
    Johansson, S
    Lundberg, H
    Mannervik, S
    Norlin, Lars-Olov
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Physics.
    Rostohar, D
    Royen, P
    The FERRUM project: experimentally determined metastable lifetimes and transition probabilities for forbidden [Ti II] lines observed in eta Carinae2005In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 361, no 1, p. 206-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the spectrum of an emission-line region ejected from the massive star Eta Carinae, called the strontium filament (SrF), forbidden lines from many elements, in particular [Sr II] and [Ti II], are observed. These lines are strong in this specific region and valuable for plasma diagnostics. Forbidden lines are not easily produced in laboratory light sources and the atomic parameters for these lines can thus not be measured in a straightforward way. We use a combination of laboratory and astrophysical measurements to determine transition probabilities for the [Ti II] lines. Lifetimes for metastable levels in Ti II are measured using a laser probing technique on a stored ion beam at CRYRING, MSL, Stockholm. Branching fractions from some of these levels are derived from Hubble Space Telescope/STIS spectra of the SrF. The astrophysical branching fractions are combined with the experimental lifetimes to determine absolute transition probabilities. We report lifetimes for the Ti II levels b(4)P(3/2), b(2)P(1/2), c(2)D(3/2) and c(2)D(5/2), in the range 0.29-17 s, and transition probabilities for eight parity-forbidden lines from the levels c(2)D(3/2) and c(2)D(5/2), along with uncertainty estimates.

  • 36. Iyyani, S
    et al.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Burgess, J. M.
    Guiriec, S.
    Larsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Lundman, Christoffer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Moretti, Elena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    McGlynn, S.
    Nymark, Tanja
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rosquist, K.
    Variable jet properties in GRB 110721A: time resolved observations of the jet photosphere2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 433, no 4, p. 2739-2748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observations of GRB 110721A have revealed two emission components from the relativistic jet: emission from the photosphere, peaking at similar to 100 keV, and a non-thermal component, which peaks at similar to 1000 keV. We use the photospheric component to calculate the properties of the relativistic outflow. We find a strong evolution in the flow properties: the Lorentz factor decreases with time during the bursts from G similar to 1000 to similar to 150 (assuming a redshift z = 2; the values are only weakly dependent on unknown efficiency parameters). Such a decrease is contrary to the expectations from the internal shocks and the isolated magnetar birth models. Moreover, the position of the flow nozzle measured from the central engine, r(0), increases by more than two orders of magnitude. Assuming a moderately magnetized outflow we estimate that r(0) varies from 10(6) to similar to 10(9) cm during the burst. We suggest that the maximal value reflects the size of the progenitor core. Finally, we show that these jet properties naturally explain the observed broken power-law decay of the temperature which has been reported as a characteristic for gamma-ray burst pulses.

  • 37.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ahlgren, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Burgess, J. Michael
    Larsson, Josefin
    Pe'er, A.
    Lundman, Christopher
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Axelsson, M.
    McGlynn, S.
    Extremely narrow spectrum of GRB110920A: further evidence for localized, subphotospheric dissipation2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 450, no 2, p. 1651-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much evidence points towards that the photosphere in the relativistic outflow in GRBs plays an important role in shaping the observed MeV spectrum. However, it is unclear whether the spectrum is fully produced by the photosphere or whether a substantial part of the spectrum is added by processes far above the photosphere. Here we make a detailed study of the. ray emission from single pulse GRB110920A which has a spectrum that becomes extremely narrow towards the end of the burst. We show that the emission can be interpreted as Comptonization of thermal photons by cold electrons in an unmagnetized outflow at an optical depth of tau similar to 20. The electrons receive their energy by a local dissipation occurring close to the saturation radius. The main spectral component of GRB110920A and its evolution is thus, in this interpretation, fully explained by the emission from the photosphere including localized dissipation at high optical depths.

  • 38.
    Iyyani, Shabnam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Sweden.
    Burgess, J Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Sweden.
    Bégué, D
    Synchrotron emission in GRBs observed with Fermi: Its limitations and the role of the photosphere2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 456, no 2, p. 2157-2171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts consists of several components giving rise to the observed spectral shape. Here we examine a sample of the eight brightest, single pulsed Fermi bursts whose spectra are modelled by using synchrotron emission as one of the components. Five of these bursts require an additional photospheric component (blackbody). In particular, we investigate the inferred properties of the jet and the physical requirements set by the observed components for these five bursts, in the context of a baryonic dominated outflow, motivated by the strong photospheric component. We find similar jet properties for all five bursts: the bulk Lorentz factor decreases monotonously over the pulses and lies between 1000 and 100. This evolution is robust and can neither be explained by a varying radiative efficiency nor a varying magnetization of the jet (assuming the photosphere radius is above the coasting radius). Such a behaviour challenges several dissipation mechanisms, e.g. the internal shocks. Furthermore, in all eight cases the data clearly reject a fast-cooled synchrotron spectrum (in which a significant fraction of the emitting electrons have cooled to energies below the minimum injection energy), inferring a typical electron Lorentz factor of 104-107. Such values are much higher than what is typically expected in internal shocks. Therefore, while the synchrotron scenario is not rejected by the data, the interpretation does present several limitations that need to be addressed. Finally, we point out and discuss alternative interpretations.

  • 39.
    Jabbari, Sarah
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Monash Univ, Australia; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ Colorado, USA; Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, USA.
    Kleeorin, Nathan
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Ben Gurion Univ Negev, Israel.
    Rogachevskii, Igor
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Ben Gurion Univ Negev, Israel.
    Sharp magnetic structures from dynamos with density stratification2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 467, no 3, p. 2753-2765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) of large-scale turbulent dynamos in strongly stratified layers have resulted in surprisingly sharp bipolar structures at the surface. Here, we present new DNS of helically and non-helically forced turbulence with and without rotation and compare with corresponding mean-field simulations (MFS) to show that these structures are a generic outcome of a broader class of dynamos in density-stratified layers. The MFS agree qualitatively with the DNS, but the period of oscillations tends to be longer in the DNS. In both DNS and MFS, the sharp structures are produced by converging flows at the surface and might be driven in non-linear stage of evolution by the Lorentz force associated with the large-scale dynamo-driven magnetic field if the dynamo number is at least 2.5 times supercritical.

  • 40.
    Jabbari, Sarah
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Mitra, Dhrubaditya
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Kleeorin, Nathan
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Rogachevskii, Igor
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
    Turbulent reconnection of magnetic bipoles in stratified turbulence2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 459, no 4, p. 4046-4056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider strongly stratified forced turbulence in a plane-parallel layer with helicity and corresponding large-scale dynamo action in the lower part and non-helical turbulence in the upper. The magnetic field is found to develop strongly concentrated bipolar structures near the surface. They form elongated bands with a sharp interface between opposite polarities. Unlike earlier experiments with imposed magnetic field, the inclusion of rotation does not strongly suppress the formation of these structures. We perform a systematic numerical study of this phenomenon by varying magnetic Reynolds number, scale-separation ratio, and Coriolis number. We focus on the formation of a current sheet between bipolar regions where reconnection of oppositely oriented field lines occurs. We determine the reconnection rate by measuring either the inflow velocity in the vicinity of the current sheet or by measuring the electric field in the reconnection region. We demonstrate that for large Lundquist numbers, S > 10(3), the reconnection rate is nearly independent of S in agreement with results of recent numerical simulations performed by other groups in simpler settings.

  • 41.
    Jackson, Miranda S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. Univ Manitoba, Canada.
    Safi-Harb, S.
    Kothes, R.
    XMM-Newton and Canadian Galactic Plane Survey observations of the supernova remnant G107.5-1.52014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 444, no 3, p. 2228-2235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an XMM-Newton observation of the highly polarized low-surface-brightness supernova remnant (SNR) G107.5-1.5, discovered with the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey. We do not detect diffuse X-ray emission from the SNR and set an upper limit on the surface brightness of similar to 2 x 10(30) erg arcmin(-2) s(-1), at an assumed distance of 1.1 kpc. We found eight bright point sources in the field, including the ROSAT source 1RXS J225203.8+574249 near the centre of the radio shell. Spectroscopic analysis of some of the embedded point sources, including the ROSAT source, has been performed, and all eight sources are most likely ruled out as the associated neutron star, primarily due to counterpart bright stars in optical and infrared bands. Timing analysis of the bright point sources yielded no significant evidence for pulsations, but, due to the timing resolution, only a small part of the frequency space could be searched. An additional 10 fainter point sources were identified in the vicinity of the SNR. Further X-ray observation of these and the region in the vicinity of the radio shell may be warranted.

  • 42. Kajava, J. J. E.
    et al.
    Koljonen, K. I. I.
    Nattila, J.
    Suleimanov, V.
    Poutanen, Juri
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Univ Turku, Finland; Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Univ Calif Santa Barbara, USA.
    Variable spreading layer in 4U 1608-52 during thermonuclear X-ray bursts in the soft state2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 472, no 1, p. 78-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, observed from neutron star (NS) low-massX-ray binaries (LMXB), provide constraints on NS masses and radii and consequently the equation of state of NS cores. In such analyses, various assumptions are made without knowing if they are justified. We have analysed X-ray burst spectra from the LMXB 4U 1608-52, with the aim of studying how the different persistent emission components react to the bursts. During some bursts in the soft spectral state we find that there are two variable components: one corresponding to the burst blackbody component and another optically thick Comptonized component. We interpret the latter as the spreading layer between the NS surface and the accretion disc, which is not present during the hard-state bursts. We propose that the spectral changes during the soft-state bursts are driven by the spreading layer that could cover almost the entire NS in the brightest phases due to the enhanced radiation pressure support provided by the burst, and that the layer subsequently returns to its original state during the burst decay. When deriving the NS mass and radius using the soft-state bursts two assumptions are therefore not met: the NS is not entirely visible and the burst emission is reprocessed in the spreading layer, causing distortions of the emitted spectrum. For these reasons, the NS mass and radius constraints using the soft-state bursts are different compared to the ones derived using the hard-state bursts.

  • 43. Kajava, J. J. E.
    et al.
    Nattila, J. N.
    KTH.
    Poutanen, Juri
    KTH. Univ Turku, Finland; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Cumming, A.
    Suleimanov, V.
    Kuulkers, E.
    Detection of burning ashes from thermonuclear X-ray bursts2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 464, no 1, p. L6-L10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When neutron stars (NS) accrete gas from low-mass binary companions, explosive nuclear burning reactions in the NS envelope fuse hydrogen and helium into heavier elements. The resulting thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts produce energy spectra that are fit well with black bodies, but a significant number of burst observations show deviations from Planck spectra. Here we present our analysis of RXTE/ PCA observations of X-ray bursts from the NS low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455. We have discovered that the non-Planckian spectra are caused by photoionization edges. The anticorrelation between the strength of the edges and the colour temperature suggests that the edges are produced by the nuclear burning ashes that have been transported upwards by convection and become exposed at the photosphere. The atmosphere model fits show that occasionally the photosphere can consist entirely of metals, and that the peculiar changes in blackbody temperature and radius can be attributed to the emergence and disappearance of metals in the photosphere. As the metals are detected already in the Eddington-limited phase, it is possible that a radiatively driven wind ejects some of the burning ashes into the interstellar space.

  • 44. Kleeorin, Y.
    et al.
    Safiullin, N.
    Kleeorin, Nathan
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Porshnev, S.
    Rogachevskii, Igor
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Sokoloff, D.
    The dynamics of Wolf numbers based on nonlinear dynamos with magnetic helicity: comparisons with observations2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 460, no 4, p. 3960-3967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the dynamics of solar activity using a nonlinear one-dimensional dynamo model and a phenomenological equation for the evolution of Wolf numbers. This system of equations is solved numerically. We take into account the algebraic and dynamic nonlinearities of the alpha effect. The dynamic nonlinearity is related to the evolution of a small-scale magnetic helicity, and it leads to a complicated behaviour of solar activity. The evolution equation for the Wolf number is based on a mechanism of formation of magnetic spots as a result of the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). This phenomenon was predicted 25 yr ago and has been investigated intensively in recent years through direct numerical simulations and mean-field simulations. The evolution equation for the Wolf number includes the production and decay of sunspots. Comparison between the results of numerical simulations and observational data of Wolf numbers shows a 70 per cent correlation over all intervals of observation (about 270 yr). We determine the dependence of the maximum value of the Wolf number versus the period of the cycle and the asymmetry of the solar cycles versus the amplitude of the cycle. These dependences are in good agreement with observations.

  • 45.
    Kosenkov, Ilia A.
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Berdyugin, Andrei V.
    Piirola, Vilppu
    Tsygankov, Sergey S.
    Palle, Enric
    Miles-Paez, Paulo A.
    Poutanen, Juri
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    High-precision optical polarimetry of the accreting black hole V404 Cyg during the 2015 June outburst2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 468, no 4, p. 4362-4373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our simultaneous three-colour (BVR) polarimetric observations of the low-mass black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg show a small but statistically significant change of polarization degree (Delta(p) similar to 1 per cent) between the outburst in 2015 June and the quiescence. The polarization of V404 Cyg in the quiescent state agrees within the errors with that of the visually close (1.4 arc-sec) companion (pR = 7.3 +/- 0.1 per cent), indicating that it is predominantly of interstellar origin. The polarization pattern of the surrounding field stars supports this conclusion. From the observed variable polarization during the outburst, we show that the polarization degree of the intrinsic component peaks in the V band, p(V) = 1.1 +/- 0.1 per cent, at the polarization position angle of theta(V) =-7 degrees+/- 2 degrees, which is consistent in all three passbands. We detect significant variations in the position angle of the intrinsic polarization in the R band from -30. to similar to 0 degrees during the outburst peak. The observed wavelength dependence of the intrinsic polarization does not support non-thermal synchrotron emission from a jet as a plausible mechanism, but it is in better agreement with the combined effect of electron (Thomson) scattering and absorption in a flattened plasma envelope or outflow surrounding the illuminating source. Alternatively, the polarization signal can be produced by scattering of the disc radiation in a mildly relativistic polar outflow. The position angle of the intrinsic polarization, nearly parallel to the jet direction (i. e. perpendicular to the accretion disc plane), is in agreement with these interpretations.

  • 46.
    Kosenkov, Ilia A.
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.;St Petersburg State Univ, Dept Astrophys, Univ Skiy Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia..
    Veledina, Alexandra
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Superhump period of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-42018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 478, no 4, p. 4710-4719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the variability of optical and near-infrared light curves of the X-ray binary GX 339-4 on a time-scale of days. We use the data in four filters from six intervals corresponding to the soft state and from four intervals corresponding to the quiescent state. In the soft state, we find prominent oscillations with an average period P = 1.772 +/- 0.003 d, which is offset from the measured orbital period of the system by 0.7 per cent. We suggest that the measured periodicity originates from the superhumps. In line with this interpretation, we find no periodicity in the quiescent state. The obtained period excess epsilon is below typical values found for cataclysmic variables for the same mass ratio of the binary. We discuss the implications of this finding in the context of superhump theory.

  • 47. Krivonos, Roman
    et al.
    Clavel, Maica
    Hong, JaeSub
    Mori, Kaya
    Ponti, Gabriele
    Poutanen, Juri
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Univ Turku, Finland.
    Rahoui, Farid
    Tomsick, John
    Tsygankov, Sergey
    NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the Arches cluster in 2015: fading hard X-ray emission from the molecular cloud2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 468, no 3, p. 2822-2835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results of long Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR; 200 ks) and XMM-Newton (100 ks) observations of the Arches stellar cluster, a source of bright thermal (kT similar to 2 keV) X-rays with prominent Fe XXV K alpha 6.7 keV line emission and a nearby molecular cloud, characterized by an extended non-thermal hard X-ray continuum and fluorescent Fe K alpha 6.4 keV line of a neutral or low-ionization state material around the cluster. Our analysis demonstrates that the non-thermal emission of the Arches cloud underwent a dramatic change, with its homogeneous morphology, traced by fluorescent Fe K alpha line emission, vanishing after 2012, revealing three bright clumps. The declining trend of the cloud emission, if linearly fitted, is consistent with half-life decay time of similar to 8 yr. Such strong variations have been observed in several other molecular clouds in the Galactic Centre, including the giant molecular cloud Sgr B2, and point towards a similar propagation of illuminating fronts, presumably induced by the past flaring activity of Sgr A(star). We also detect a significant drop of the equivalent width of the fluorescent Fe Ka line, which could mean either that the new clumps have a different position along the line of sight or that the contribution of cosmic ray has become more dominant.

  • 48. Larsson, J.
    et al.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Lundman, Christoffer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    McGlynn, Sinead
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Ohno, M.
    Yamaoka, K.
    Spectral components in the bright, long GRB 061007: properties of the photosphere and the nature of the outflow2011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 414, no 3, p. 2642-2649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a time-resolved spectral analysis of the bright, long GRB 061007 (z = 1.261) using Swift and Suzaku data. We find that the prompt emission of the burst can be equally well explained by a photospheric component together with a power law as by a Band function, and we explore the implications of the former model. The photospheric component, which we model with a multicolour blackbody, dominates the spectra and has a very stable shape throughout the burst. This component provides a natural explanation for the hardness-intensity correlation seen within the burst and also allows us to estimate the bulk Lorentz factor and the radius of the photosphere. The power-law component dominates the fit at high energies and has a nearly constant slope of -1.5. We discuss the possibility that this component is of the same origin as the high-energy power laws recently observed in some Fermi bursts.

  • 49.
    Larsson, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    D'Ammando, F.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Ist Radio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Falocco, Serena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Giroletti, M.
    Ist Radio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Orienti, M.
    Ist Radio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Piconcelli, E.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Rome, Italy..
    Righini, S.
    Ist Radio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    FBQS J1644+2619: multiwavelength properties and its place in the class of gamma-ray emitting Narrow Line Seyfert 1s2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 476, no 1, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small fraction of Narrow Line Seyfert 1s (NLSy1s) are observed to be gamma-ray emitters. Understanding the properties of these sources is of interest since the majority of NLSy1s are very different from typical blazars. Here, we present a multifrequency analysis of FBQS J1644+2619, one of the most recently discovered gamma-ray emitting NLSy1s. We analyse an similar to 80 ks XMM-Newton observation obtained in 2017, as well as quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength observations covering the radio-gamma-ray range. The spectral energy distribution of the source is similar to the other gamma-ray NLSy1s, confirming its blazar-like nature. The X-ray spectrum is characterized by a hard photon index (Gamma = 1.66) above 2 keV and a soft excess at lower energies. The hard photon index provides clear evidence that inverse Compton emission from the jet dominates the spectrum, while the soft excess can be explained by a contribution from the underlying Seyfert emission. This contribution can be fitted by reflection of emission from the base of the jet, as well as by Comptonization in a warm, optically thick corona. We discuss our results in the context of the other gamma-ray NLSy1s and note that the majority of them have similar X-ray spectra, with properties intermediate between blazars and radio-quiet NLSy1s.

  • 50. Liu, Zhu
    et al.
    Yuan, Weimin
    Lu, Youjun
    Carrera, Francisco J.
    Falocco, Serena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. Oskar Klein Ctr, Sweden.
    Dong, Xiao-Bo
    Dependence of the broad Fe K alpha line on the physical parameters of AGN2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 463, no 1, p. 684-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the dependence of the broad Fe K alpha line on the physical parameters of AGN, such as the black hole mass M-BH, accretion rate (equivalently represented by Eddington ratio lambda(Edd)) and optical classification is investigated by applying the X-ray spectra stacking method to a large sample of AGN which have well measured optical parameters. A broad-line feature is detected (> 3 sigma) in the stacked spectra of the high lambda(Edd) sub-sample (log lambda(Edd) > -0.9). The profile of the broad line can be well fitted with relativistic broad-line model, with the line energy consistent with highly ionized Fe K alpha line (i.e. Fe xxvi). A model consisting of multiple narrow lines cannot be ruled out, however. We found hints that the Fe K line becomes broader as the lambda(Edd) increases. No broad-line feature is shown in the sub-sample of broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies and in the full sample, while a broad line might be present, though at low significance, in the sub-sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies. We find no strong dependence of the broad line on black hole masses. Our results indicate that the detection/properties of the broad Fe K alpha line may strongly depend on lambda(Edd), which can be explained if the ionization state and/or truncation radius of the accretion disc changes with lambda(Edd). The non-detection of the broad line in the BLS1 sub-sample can be explained if the average equivalent width of the relativistic Fe K alpha line is weak or/and the fraction of sources with relativistic Fe K alpha line is small in BLS1 galaxies.

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