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  • 1. Adriani, O.
    et al.
    Barbarino, G. C.
    Bazilevskaya, G. A.
    Bellotti, R.
    Boezio, M.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Bottai, S.
    Bruno, A.
    Cafagna, F.
    Campana, D.
    Carbone, R.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden.
    Casolino, M.
    Castellini, G.
    De Pascale, M. P.
    De Santis, C.
    De Simone, N.
    Di Felice, V.
    Formato, V.
    Galper, A. M.
    Giaccari, U.
    Karelin, A. V.
    Kheymits, M. D.
    Koldashov, S. V.
    Koldobskiy, S.
    Krut'kov, S. Yu.
    Kvashnin, A. N.
    Leonov, A.
    Malakhov, V.
    Marcelli, L.
    Martucci, M.
    Mayorov, A. G.
    Menn, W.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Monaco, A.
    Mori, N.
    Munini, Riccardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. INFN, Italy; AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden; University of Trieste, Italy.
    Nikonov, N.
    Osteria, G.
    Papini, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden.
    Picozza, P.
    Pizzolotto, C.
    Ricci, M.
    Ricciarini, S. B.
    Rossetto, Laura
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden.
    Sarkar, R.
    Simon, M.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Stozhkov, Y. I.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Voronov, S. A.
    Wu, J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. AlbaNova University Centre, Sweden; China University of Geosciences, China .
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    The PAMELA Mission: Heralding a new era in precision cosmic ray physics2014In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 544, no 4, p. 323-370Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 15th of June 2006, the PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) satellite-borne experiment was launched onboard the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite by a Soyuz rocket from the Baikonur space centre. The satellite was placed in a quasi-polar 70 degrees inclination orbit at an altitude varying between 350 km and 600 km. New results on the antiparticle component of the cosmic radiation were obtained. The positron energy spectrum and positron fraction were measured from 400 MeV up to 200 GeV revealing a positron excess over the predictions of commonly used propagation models. This can be interpreted either as evidence that the propagation models should be revised or in terms of dark matter annihilation or a pulsar contribution. The antiproton spectrum was measured over the energy range from 60 MeV to 350 GeV. The antiproton spectrum is consistent with secondary production and significantly constrains dark matter models. The energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei were measured up to 1.2 TV. The spectral shapes of these two species are different and cannot be described well by a single power law. For the First time the electron spectrum was measured up to 600 GeV complementing the information obtained from the positron data. Nuclear and isotopic composition was obtained with unprecedented precision. The variation of the low energy proton, electron and positron energy spectra was measured from July 2006 until December 2009 accurately sampling the unusual conditions of the most recent solar minimum activity period (2006-2009). Low energy particle spectra were accurately measured also for various solar events that occurred during the PAMELA mission. The Earth's magnetosphere was studied measuring the particle radiation in different regions of the magnetosphere. Energy spectra and composition of sub-cutoff and trapped particles were obtained. For the first time a belt of trapped antiprotons was detected in the South Atlantic Anomaly region. The flux was found to exceed that for galactic cosmic-ray antiprotons by three order of magnitude.

  • 2. Baev, Alexander
    et al.
    Prasad, Paras N.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Samoc, Marek
    Wegener, Martin
    Metaphotonics: An emerging field with opportunities and challenges2015In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 594, p. 1-60Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphotonics is an emerging multidisciplinary field that deals with manipulation of electro-magnetic fields in nanoengineered (meta)materials using both electric and magnetic interactions and their cross-coupling. It offers unprecedented control of both linear and nonlinear optical functions for applications ranging from optical switching, to negative- and near-zero refractive index metamaterials, to chiral bioimaging, to cloaking. However, realization of such applications requires physics-guided nanoengineering of appropriate artificial media with electro-magnetic properties at visible and infrared wavelengths that are tailored to surpass those of any naturally-occurring material. Here, we review metaphotonics with a broadened vision and scope, introduce potential applications, describe the role of theoretical physics through multiscale modeling, review the materials development and current status, and outline opportunities in this fertile emerging field.

  • 3.
    Bo, Stefano
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Celani, A.
    Multiple-scale stochastic processes: Decimation, averaging and beyond2017In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 670, p. 1-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent experimental progresses in handling microscopic systems have allowed to probe them at levels where fluctuations are prominent, calling for stochastic modeling in a large number of physical, chemical and biological phenomena. This has provided fruitful applications for established stochastic methods and motivated further developments. These systems often involve processes taking place on widely separated time scales. For an efficient modeling one usually focuses on the slower degrees of freedom and it is of great importance to accurately eliminate the fast variables in a controlled fashion, carefully accounting for their net effect on the slower dynamics. This procedure in general requires to perform two different operations: decimation and coarse-graining. We introduce the asymptotic methods that form the basis of this procedure and discuss their application to a series of physical, biological and chemical examples. We then turn our attention to functionals of the stochastic trajectories such as residence times, counting statistics, fluxes, entropy production, etc. which have been increasingly studied in recent years. For such functionals, the elimination of the fast degrees of freedom can present additional difficulties and naive procedures can lead to blatantly inconsistent results. Homogenization techniques for functionals are less covered in the literature and we will pedagogically present them here, as natural extensions of the ones employed for the trajectories. We will also discuss recent applications of these techniques to the thermodynamics of small systems and their interpretation in terms of information-theoretic concepts.

  • 4. Chen, P.
    et al.
    Ong, Yen Chin
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Yeom, D-h.
    Black hole remnants and the information loss paradox2015In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 603, p. 1-45Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty years after the discovery of Hawking radiation, its exact nature remains elusive. If Hawking radiation does not carry any information out from the ever shrinking black hole, it seems that unitarity is violated once the black hole completely evaporates. On the other hand, attempts to recover information via quantum entanglement lead to the firewall controversy. Amid the confusions, the possibility that black hole evaporation stops with a "remnant" has remained unpopular and is often dismissed due to some "undesired properties" of such an object. Nevertheless, as in any scientific debate, the pros and cons of any proposal must be carefully scrutinized. We fill in the void of the literature by providing a timely review of various types of black hole remnants, and provide some new thoughts regarding the challenges that black hole remnants face in the context of the information loss paradox and its latest incarnation, namely the firewall controversy. The importance of understanding the role of curvature singularity is also emphasized, after all there remains a possibility that the singularity cannot be cured even by quantum gravity. In this context a black hole remnant conveniently serves as a cosmic censor. We conclude that a remnant remains a possible end state of Hawking evaporation, and if it contains large interior geometry, may help to ameliorate the information loss paradox and the firewall controversy. We hope that this will raise some interests in the community to investigate remnants more critically but also more thoroughly.

  • 5. Delion, D. S.
    et al.
    Liotta, Roberto
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Physics.
    Wyss, Ramon
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Physics.
    Theories of proton emission2006In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 424, no 3, p. 113-174Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton emission studies are presently the focal point of nuclear structure as well as nuclear reaction investigations in rare nuclei. Theoretical approaches to investigate the properties of such nuclei by using proton emission are reviewed. We analyse time-dependent and stationary formalisms within adiabatic and non-adiabatic methods. We investigate and compare the use of resonant Gamow states within coupled channels, R-matrix and distorded wave approaches. We give a description of odd-even as well as odd-odd proton emitters using axially symmetric or triaxial potentials. The emission to excited states of the daughter nucleus and angular distribution of the emitted proton is discussed. The status of numerical applications for both spherical and deformed approaches is reviewed. The importance of proton emission in analysing the properties of nuclear matter under exotic conditions is emphasized. in the appendices we give all technical details necessary to compute the observables connected with proton emission.

  • 6. Schael, Stefan
    et al.
    Tranströmer, Göran L
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Zhou, Jianfeng
    et al,
    Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance2006In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 427, no 5-6, p. 257-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLD experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, mZ Z, and ΓZ, its couplings to fermions, for example the ρ parameter and the efffective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: mZ = 91.1875 ± 0.0021 GeV, ΓZ = 2.4952 ± 0.0023 GeV, ρℓ = 1.0050 ± 0.0010, sin2 θefflept = 0.23153 ± 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 ± 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. Of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its SM expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, mt = 173-10+13 GeV, and the mass of the W boson, mW = 80.363 ± 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the SM. Using in addition the direct measurements of mt and mW, the mass of the as yet unobserved SM Higgs boson is predicted with a relative uncertainty of about 50% and found to be less than 285 GeV at 95% confidence level.

  • 7. Weiglein, G.
    et al.
    Lafaye, Remi
    Univ Savoie, LAPP, CNTS IN2P3, Annecy Le Vieux, France.
    Živković, L.
    et, al
    Physics interplay of the LHC and the ILC2006In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 426, no 2-6, p. 47-358Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International e(+)e(-) Linear Collider (ILC) will be complementary in many respects, as has been demonstrated at previous generations of hadron and lepton colliders. This report addresses the possible interplay between the LHC and ILC in testing the Standard Model and in discovering and determining the origin of new physics. Mutual benefits for the physics programme at both machines can occur both at the level of a combined interpretation of Hadron Collider and Linear Collider data and at the level of combined analyses of the data, where results obtained at one machine can directly influence the way analyses are carried out at the other machine. Topics under study comprise the physics of weak and strong electroweak symmetry breaking, supersymmetric models, new gauge theories, models with extra dimensions, and electroweak and QCD precision physics. The status of the work that has been carried out within the LHC/ILC Study Group so far is summarized in this report. Possible topics for future studies are outlined.

1 - 7 of 7
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