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  • 1.
    Aho-Mantila, L.
    et al.
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000, FI-02044 Espoo, Finland.;VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, FIN-02044 Espoo, Finland..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    Assessment of SOLPS5.0 divertor solutions with drifts and currents against L-mode experiments in ASDEX Upgrade and JET2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 3, article id 035003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The divertor solutions obtained with the plasma edge modelling tool SOLPS5.0 are discussed. The code results are benchmarked against carefully analysed L-mode discharges at various density levels with and without impurity seeding in the full-metal tokamaks ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The role of the cross-field drifts and currents in the solutions is analysed in detail, and the improvements achieved by fully activating the drift and current terms in view of matching the experimental signals are addressed. The persisting discrepancies are also discussed.

  • 2. Aiba, N.
    et al.
    Pamela, S.
    Honda, M.
    Urano, H.
    Giroud, C.
    Delabie, E.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Lupelli, I.
    Hayashi, N.
    Huijsmans, G.
    Analysis of ELM stability with extended MHD models in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA tokamak plasmas2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 1, article id 014032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability with respect to a peeling-ballooning mode (PBM) was investigated numerically with extended MHD simulation codes in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA plasmas. The MINERVA-DI code was used to analyze the linear stability, including the effects of rotation and ion diamagnetic drift (omega(*i)), in JET-ILW and JT-60SA plasmas, and the JOREK code was used to simulate nonlinear dynamics with rotation, viscosity and resistivity in JT-60U plasmas. It was validated quantitatively that the ELM trigger condition in JET-ILW plasmas can be reasonably explained by taking into account both the rotation and omega(*i) effects in the numerical analysis. When deuterium poloidal rotation is evaluated based on neoclassical theory, an increase in the effective charge of plasma destabilizes the PBM because of an acceleration of rotation and a decrease in omega(*i). The difference in the amount of ELM energy loss in JT-60U plasmas rotating in opposite directions was reproduced qualitatively with JOREK. By comparing the ELM affected areas with linear eigenfunctions, it was confirmed that the difference in the linear stability property, due not to the rotation direction but to the plasma density profile, is thought to be responsible for changing the ELM energy loss just after the ELM crash. A predictive study to determine the pedestal profiles in JT-60SA was performed by updating the EPED1 model to include the rotation and w*i effects in the PBM stability analysis. It was shown that the plasma rotation predicted with the neoclassical toroidal viscosity degrades the pedestal performance by about 10% by destabilizing the PBM, but the pressure pedestal height will be high enough to achieve the target parameters required for the ITER-like shape inductive scenario in JT-60SA.

  • 3. Alfier, A.
    et al.
    Pasqualotto, R.
    Spizzo, G.
    Canton, A.
    Fassina, A.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Electron temperature profiles in RFX-mod2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 035013-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron temperature profiles have been measured by the main Thomson scattering ( TS) diagnostic on the RFX-mod reversed field pinch experiment in Padova, Italy. The increased accuracy and spatial and temporal resolution permits one to measure in detail the improvements in T-e profiles, obtained with the active saddle coil system, which allows one to obtain core temperature 30% higher and scaling stronger with plasma current, steeper gradients in the core (+30%) and at the edge (+60%). 1D power balance calculations show that the active control of MHD modes largely reduces the values of electron heat diffusivity along the whole plasma radius, with similar to 50% reduction at the edge and similar to 30% in the core. The resulting electron energy confinement time is doubled. Further improvements occur during quasi-single helicity (QSH) states: the new TS allows one to study in detail the hot island that develops in the core. A characterization of the island electron thermal profile is presented, in terms of width, temperature increase, gradients and asymmetry; the effect on density profile is also discussed. A 2D transport code has been applied to calculate the heat diffusivity inside the magnetic island corresponding to the QSH state, also considering the correlation between temperature increase and pressure gradient with the chaos level around the island. Finally, electron energy confinement time during QSH states is compared with that in MH states.

  • 4.
    Annibaldi, Silvia Valeria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Italy .
    Zonca, F.
    Buratti, P.
    Excitation of beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes in the presence of a magnetic island2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation of magnetic activity in several discharges in the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade has revealed high-frequency oscillations that accompany the development of large magnetic islands in ohmic plasmas. The frequency of these oscillations is one order of magnitude above the typical island rotation frequency and one order of magnitude below the toroidicity-induced gap of the shear-Alfvén continuum. By writing a precise dispersion relation, we interpret these modes as beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes, i.e. Alfvén eigenmodes located in the low frequency gap which is caused by finite compressibility.

  • 5.
    Baiocchi, B.
    et al.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France.;IRFM, CEA, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    Turbulent transport analysis of JET H-mode and hybrid plasmas using QuaLiKiz and Trapped Gyro Landau Fluid2015In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 57, no 3, article id 035003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The physical transport processes at the basis of JET typical inductive H-mode scenarios and advanced hybrid regimes, with improved thermal confinement, are analyzed by means of some of the newest and more sophisticated quasi-linear transport models: trapped gyro Landau fluid (TGLF) and QuaLiKiz. The temporal evolution of JET pulses is modelled by CRONOS where the turbulent transport is modelled by either QuaLiKiz or TGLF. Both are first principle models with a more comprehensive physics than the models previously developed and therefore allow the analysis of the physics at the basis of the investigated scenarios. For H-modes, ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes are found to be dominant and the transport models are able to properly reproduce temperature profiles in self-consistent simulations. However, for hybrid regimes, in addition to ITG trapped electron modes (TEM) are also found to be important and different physical mechanisms for turbulence reduction play a decisive role. Whereas E x B flow shear and plasma geometry have a limited impact on turbulence, the presence of a large population of fast ions, quite important in low density regimes, can stabilize core turbulence mainly when the electromagnetic effects are taken into account. The TGLF transport model properly captures these mechanisms and correctly reproduces temperatures.

  • 6. Baiocchi, B.
    et al.
    Mantica, P.
    Giroud, C.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Naulin, V.
    Salmi, A.
    Tala, T.
    Tsalas, M.
    Discriminating the role of rotation and its gradient in determining ion stiffness mitigation in JET2013In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 025010-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from recent JET experimental results that show a significant reduction of ion stiffness in the plasma core region due to plasma rotation in the presence of low magnetic shear, an experiment was carried out at JET in order to separate the role of rotation and rotation gradient in mitigating the ion stiffness level. Enhanced toroidal field ripple (up to 1.5%) and external resonant magnetic fields are the two mechanisms used to try and decouple the rotation value from its gradient. In addition, shots with reversed toroidal field and plasma current, yielding counter-current neutral beam injection, were compared with standard co-injection cases. These tools also allowed varying the rotation independently of the injected power. Shots with high rotation gradient are found to maintain their low stiffness level even when the absolute value of the rotation was significantly reduced. Conversely, high but flat rotation yields much less peaked ion temperature profiles than a peaked rotation profile with lower values. This behaviour suggests the rotation gradient as the main player in reducing the ion stiffness level. In addition, it is found that inverting the rotation gradient sign does not suppress its effect on ion stiffness.

  • 7.
    Basiuk, V.
    et al.
    CEA Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France.;CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Towards self-consistent plasma modelisation in presence of neoclassical tearing mode and sawteeth: effects on transport coefficients2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 12, article id 125012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) increase the effective heat and particle radial transport inside the plasma, leading to a flattening of the electron and ion temperature and density profiles at a given location depending on the safety factor q rational surface (Hegna and Callen 1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 2940). In burning plasma such as in ITER, this NTM-induced increased transport could reduce significantly the fusion performance and even lead to a disruption. Validating models describing the NTM-induced transport in present experiment is thus important to help quantifying this effect on future devices. In this work, we apply an NTM model to an integrated simulation of current, heat and particle transport on JET discharges using the European transport simulator. In this model, the heat and particle radial transport coefficients are modified by a Gaussian function locally centered at the NTM position and characterized by a full width proportional to the island size through a constant parameter adapted to obtain the best simulations of experimental profiles. In the simulation, the NTM model is turned on at the same time as the mode is triggered in the experiment. The island evolution is itself determined by the modified Rutherford equation, using self-consistent plasma parameters determined by the transport evolution. The achieved simulation reproduces the experimental measurements within the error bars, before and during the NTM. A small discrepancy is observed on the radial location of the island due to a shift of the position of the computed q = 3/2 surface compared to the experimental one. To explain such small shift (up to about 12% with respect to the position observed from the experimental electron temperature profiles), sensitivity studies of the NTM location as a function of the initialization parameters are presented. First results validate both the transport model and the transport modification calculated by the NTM model.

  • 8.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Assessment of the strength of kinetic effects of parallel electron transport in the SOL and divertor of JET high radiative H-mode plasmas using EDGE2D-EIRENE and KIPP codes2018In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 60, no 11, article id 115011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetic code for plasma periphery (KIPP) was used to assess the importance of the kinetic effects of parallel electron transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor of JET high radiative H-mode inter-ELM plasma conditions with the ITER-like wall and strong nitrogen (N-2) injection. Plasma parameter profiles along a magnetic field from one of the EDGE2D-EIRENE simulation cases were used as an input for KIPP runs. Profiles were maintained by particle and power sources. KIPP generated electron distribution functions, f(e), parallel power fluxes, electron-ion thermoforces, Debye sheath potential drops and electron sheath transmission factors at divertor targets. For heat fluxes in the main SOL, KIPP results showed deviations from classical (e.g. Braginskii) fluxes by factors typically of similar to 1.5, sometimes up to 2, with the flux limiting for more upstream positions and flux enhancement near entrances to the divertor. In the divertor, at the same time, for radial positions closer to the separatrix, very large heat flux enhancement factors of up to ten or even higher, indicative of a strong nonlocal heat transport, were found at the outer target, with heat power flux density exhibiting bump-on-tail features at high energies. Under such extreme conditions, however, contributions of conductive power fluxes to total power fluxes were strongly reduced, with convective power fluxes becoming comparable, or sometimes exceeding, conductive power fluxes. Electron-ion thermoforce, on the other hand, which is known to be determined mostly by thermal and subthermal electrons, was found to be in good agreement with Braginskii formulas, including the Z(eff) dependence. Overall, KIPP results indicate, at least for the plasma conditions used in this modelling, a sizable, but not dominant, effect of kinetics on parallel electron transport.

  • 9.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Welander, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Measurements of hot electrons in the Extrap T1 reversed field pinch1998In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 40, p. 319-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Beurskens, M. N. A.
    et al.
    Osborne, T. H.
    Horton, L. D.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Groebner, R.
    Leonard, A.
    Lomas, P.
    Nunes, I.
    Saarelma, S.
    Snyder, P. B.
    Balboa, I.
    Bray, B.
    Crombe, K.
    Flanagan, J.
    Giroud, C.
    Giovannozzi, E.
    Kempenaars, M.
    Kohen, N.
    Loarte, A.
    Lonnroth, J.
    de la Luna, E.
    Maddison, G.
    Maggi, C.
    McDonald, D.
    McKee, G.
    Pasqualotto, R.
    Saibene, G.
    Sartori, R.
    Solano, E.
    Suttrop, W.
    Wolfrum, E.
    Walsh, M.
    Yan, Z.
    Zabeo, L.
    Zarzoso, D.
    Pedestal width and ELM size identity studies in JET and DIII-D; implications for ITER2009In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 124051-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dependence of the H-mode edge transport barrier width on normalized ion gyroradius (rho* = rho/a) in discharges with type I ELMs was examined in experiments combining data for the JET and DIII-D tokamaks. The plasma configuration as well as the local normalized pressure (beta), collisionality (nu*), Mach number and the ratio of ion and electron temperature at the pedestal top were kept constant, while rho* was varied by a factor of four. The width of the steep gradient region of the electron temperature (T-e) and density (n(e)) pedestals normalized to machine size showed no or only a weak trend with rho*. A rho(1/2) or rho(1) dependence of the pedestal width, given by some theoretical predictions, is not supported by the current experiments. This is encouraging for the pedestal scaling towards ITER as it operates at lower rho* than existing devices. Some differences in pedestal structure and ELM behaviour were, however, found between the devices; in the DIII-D discharges, the n(e) and T-e pedestal were aligned at high rho* but the ne pedestal shifted outwards in radius relative to T-e as rho* decreases, while on JET the profiles remained aligned while rho* was scanned by a factor of two. The energy loss at an ELM normalized to the pedestal energy increased from 10% to 40% as rho* increased by a factor of two in the DIII-D discharges but no such variation was observed in the case of JET. The measured pedestal pressures and widths were found to be consistent with the predictions from modelling based on peeling-ballooning stability theory, and are used to make projections towards ITER

  • 11. Beurskens, M. N. A.
    et al.
    Schweinzer, J.
    Angioni, C.
    Burckhart, A.
    Challis, C. D.
    Chapman, I.
    Fischer, R.
    Flanagan, J.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Giroud, C.
    Hobirk, J.
    Joffrin, E.
    Kallenbach, A.
    Kempenaars, M.
    Leyland, M.
    Lomas, P.
    Maddison, G.
    Maslov, M.
    McDermott, R.
    Neu, R.
    Nunes, I.
    Osborne, T.
    Ryter, F.
    Saarelma, S.
    Schneider, P. A.
    Snyder, P.
    Tardini, G.
    Viezzer, E.
    Wolfrum, E.
    The effect of a metal wall on confinement in JET and ASDEX Upgrade2013In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 124043-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both JET and ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) the plasma energy confinement has been affected by the presence of a metal wall by the requirement of increased gas fuelling to avoid tungsten pollution of the plasma. In JET with a beryllium/tungsten wall the high triangularity baseline H-mode scenario (i.e. similar to the ITER reference scenario) has been the strongest affected and the benefit of high shaping to give good normalized confinement of H-98 similar to 1 at high Greenwald density fraction of f(GW) similar to 0.8 has not been recovered to date. In AUG with a full tungsten wall, a good normalized confinement H-98 similar to 1 could be achieved in the high triangularity baseline plasmas, albeit at elevated normalized pressure beta(N) > 2. The confinement lost with respect to the carbon devices can be largely recovered by the seeding of nitrogen in both JET and AUG. This suggests that the absence of carbon in JET and AUG with a metal wall may have affected the achievable confinement. Three mechanisms have been tested that could explain the effect of carbon or nitrogen (and the absence thereof) on the plasma confinement. First it has been seen in experiments and by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations (with the GENE code), that nitrogen seeding does not significantly change the core temperature profile peaking and does not affect the critical ion temperature gradient. Secondly, the dilution of the edge ion density by the injection of nitrogen is not sufficient to explain the plasma temperature and pressure rise. For this latter mechanism to explain the confinement improvement with nitrogen seeding, strongly hollow Z(eff) profiles would be required which is not supported by experimental observations. The confinement improvement with nitrogen seeding cannot be explained with these two mechanisms. Thirdly, detailed pedestal structure analysis in JET high triangularity baseline plasmas have shown that the fuelling of either deuterium or nitrogen widens the pressure pedestal. However, in JET-ILW this only leads to a confinement benefit in the case of nitrogen seeding where, as the pedestal widens, the obtained pedestal pressure gradient is conserved. In the case of deuterium fuelling in JET-ILW the pressure gradient is strongly degraded in the fuelling scan leading to no net confinement gain due to the pedestal widening. The pedestal code EPED correctly predicts the pedestal pressure of the unseeded plasmas in JET-ILW within +/- 5%, however it does not capture the complex variation of pedestal width and gradient with fuelling and impurity seeding. Also it does not predict the observed increase of pedestal pressure by nitrogen seeding in JET-ILW. Ideal peeling ballooning MHD stability analysis shows that the widening of the pedestal leads to a down shift of the marginal stability boundary by only 10-20%. However, the variations in the pressure gradient observed in the JET-ILW fuelling experiment is much larger and spans a factor of more than two. As a result the experimental points move from deeply unstable to deeply stable on the stability diagram in a deuterium fuelling scan. In AUG-W nitrogen seeded plasmas, a widening of the pedestal has also been observed, consistent with the JET observations. The absence of carbon can thus affect the pedestal structure, and mainly the achieved pedestal gradient, which can be recovered by seeding nitrogen. The underlying physics mechanism is still under investigation and requires further understanding of the role of impurities on the pedestal stability and pedestal structure formation.

  • 12.
    Bravenec, R.
    et al.
    Fourth State Res, Austin, TX 78701 USA..
    Bergsåker, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, EES, Fus Plasma Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, EES, Fus Plasma Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, S.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, P
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al,
    Benchmarking the GENE and GYRO codes through the relative roles of electromagnetic and E x B stabilization in JET high-performance discharges2016In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 58, no 12, article id 125018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GENE code have previously predicted a significant nonlinear enhanced electromagnetic stabilization in certain JET discharges with high neutral-beam power and low core magnetic shear (Citrin et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 155001, 2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 014032). This dominates over the impact of E x B flow shear in these discharges. Furthermore, fast ions were shown to be a major contributor to the electromagnetic stabilization. These conclusions were based on results from the GENE gyrokinetic turbulence code. In this work we verify these results using the GYRO code. Comparing results (linear frequencies, eigenfunctions, and nonlinear fluxes) from different gyrokinetic codes as a means of verification (benchmarking) is only convincing if the codes agree for more than one discharge. Otherwise, agreement may simply be fortuitous. Therefore, we analyze three discharges, all with a carbon wall: a simplified, two-species, circular geometry case based on an actual JET discharge; an L-mode discharge with a significant fast-ion pressure fraction; and a low-triangularity high-beta hybrid discharge. All discharges were analyzed at normalized toroidal flux coordinate rho = 0.33 where significant ion temperature peaking is observed. The GYRO simulations support the conclusion that electromagnetic stabilization is strong, and dominates E x B shear stabilization.

  • 13.
    Brenning, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Axnäs, Ingvar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Koepke, Mark
    KTH.
    Raadu, Michael A.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tennfors, Einar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Radiation from an electron beam in magnetized plasma: excitation of a whistler mode wave packet by interacting, higher-frequency, electrostatic-wave eigenmodes2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 12, article id 124006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrequent, bursty, electromagnetic, whistler-mode wave packets, excited spontaneously in the laboratory by an electron beam from a hot cathode, appear transiently, each with a time duration tau around similar to 1 mu s. The wave packets have a center frequency f(W) that is broadly distributed in the range 7 MHz < f(W) < 40 MHz. They are excited in a region with separate electrostatic (es) plasma oscillations at values of f(hf), 200 MHz < f(hf) < 500 MHz, that are hypothesized to match eigenmode frequencies of an axially localized hf es field in a well-defined region attached to the cathode. Features of these es-eigenmodes that are studied include: the mode competition at times of transitions from one dominating es-eigenmode to another, the amplitude and spectral distribution of simultaneously occurring es-eigenmodes that do not lead to a transition, and the correlation of these features with the excitation of whistler mode waves. It is concluded that transient coupling of es-eigenmode pairs at f(hf) such that vertical bar f(1, hf) - f(2, hf)vertical bar = f(W) < f(ge) can explain both the transient lifetime and the frequency spectra of the whistler-mode wave packets (f(W)) as observed in lab. The generalization of the results to bursty whistler-mode excitation in space from electron beams, created on the high potential side of double layers, is discussed.

  • 14.
    Brunsell, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Gravestijn, Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Hedqvist, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Malmberg, Jenny A.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Initial results from the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R RFP device2001In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 1457-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch (RFP) device has recently resumed operation after a major rebuild including the replacement of the graphite armour with molybdenum limiters, a fourfold increase of the shell time constant, and the replacement of the helical coil used for the toroidal field with a conventional solenoid-type coil. Wall-conditioning using hydrogen glow discharge cleaning was instrumental for successful RFP operation. Carbon was permanently removed from the walls during the first week of operation. The initial results from RFP operation with relatively low plasma currents in the range I-p = 70-100 kA are reported. RFP discharges are sustained for more than three shell times. Significant improvements in plasma parameters are observed, compared to operation before the rebuild. There is a substantial reduction in the carbon impurity level. The electron density behaviour is more shot-to-shot reproducible. The typical density is n(e) = 0.5-1 x 10(19) m(-3). Monitors of H-alpha line radiation indicate that the plasma wall interaction is more toroidally symmetric and that there is less transient gas release from the wall. The minimum loop voltage is in the range V-t = 28-35 V, corresponding to a reduction by a factor of two to three compared to the value before the rebuild.

  • 15.
    Brunsell, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Yadikin, Dmitriy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Cecconello, Marco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Zanca, P.
    Active control of multiple resistive wall modes2005In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 47, no 12 B, p. B25-B36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A two-dimensional array of saddle coils at M-c poloidal and N-c toroidal positions is used on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (Brunsell P R et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1457) to study active control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). Spontaneous growth of several RWMs with poloidal mode number m = 1 and different toroidal mode number n is observed experimentally, in agreement with linear MHD modelling. The measured plasma response to a controlled coil field and the plasma response computed using the linear circular cylinder MHD model are in quantitive agreement. Feedback control introduces a linear coupling of modes with toroidal mode numbers n, n' that fulfil the condition vertical bar n - n'vertical bar = N-c. Pairs of coupled unstable RWMs are present in feedback experiments with an array of Mc x Nc = 4 x 16 coils. Using intelligent shell feedback, the coupled modes are generally not controlled even though the field is suppressed at the active coils. A better suppression of coupled modes may be achieved in the case of rotating modes by using the mode control feedback scheme with individually set complex gains. In feedback with a larger array of Mc x Nc = 4 x 32 coils, the coupling effect largely disappears, and with this array, the main internal RWMs n = -11, -10, +5, +6 are all simultaneously suppressed throughout the discharge (7-8 wall times). With feedback there is a two-fold extension of the pulse length, compared to discharges without feedback.

  • 16.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Banon, Jean-Philippe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Transport asymmetry and release mechanisms of metal dust in the reversed-field pinch configuration2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 035014-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental data on dust resident in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch are reported. Mobile dust grains are captured in situ by silicon collectors, whereas immobile grains are sampled post mortem from the wall by adhesive tape. The simulation of collection asymmetries by the MIGRAINe dust dynamics code in combination with the experimental results is employed to deduce some characteristics of the mechanism of intrinsic dust release. All evidence suggests that re-mobilization is dominant with respect to dust production.

  • 17. Castaldo, C.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angeli, M.
    de Angelis, U.
    On the feasibility of electro-optical detection of dust-impact ionization in tokamaks2010In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 105003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of the optical and electrical detection of dust-impact ionization events in the scrape-off layers of tokamak plasmas is evaluated. It is shown that the expected light emission and the charge released during a dust impact on a biased target can be measured above the light emission and the charge collected due to the background plasma. A scheme of an electro-optical probe for diagnostics of fast dust particles is proposed.

  • 18.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Malmberg, Jenny A.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Spizzo, G.
    Chapman, B. E.
    Gravestjin, Robert M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Franz, P.
    Piovesan, P.
    Martin, P.
    Drake, James R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R2004In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 145-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) experiments have been conducted in the resistive shell EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. During the current profile modification phase, the fluctuation level of the m = 1 internally resonant tearing modes decreases, and the velocity of these modes increases. The m = 0 modes are not affected during PPCD, although termination occurs with a burst in the m = 0 amplitude. The PPCD phase is characterized by an increase in the central electron temperature (up to 380 eV) and in the soft x-ray signal. Spectroscopic observations confirm an increase in the central electron temperature. During PPCD, the plasma poloidal beta increases to 14%, and the estimated energy confinement time doubles, reaching 380 mus. The reduction in the fluctuation level and the corresponding increase in the energy confinement time are qualitatively consistent with a reduction in parallel transport along stochastic magnetic field lines.

  • 19.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Malmberg, Jenny-Ann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Nielsen, P
    Pasqualotto, R
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Study of the confinement properties in a reversed-field pinch with mode rotation and gas fuelling2002In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1625-1638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive investigation of the global confinement properties in different operating scenarios in the rebuilt EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) experiment is reported here. In particular, the role of a fast gas puff valve system, used to control plasma density, on confinement is studied. Without gas puffing, the electron density decays below 0.5 x 10(19) M-3. The poloidal beta varies between 5% and 15%, decreasing at large I/N. The energy confinement time ranges from 70 to 225 mus. With gas puffing, the density is sustained at n(e) approximate to 1.5 x 10(19) m(-3). However, a general slight deterioration of the plasma performances is observed for the same values of I/N: the plasma becomes cooler and more radiative. The poloidal beta is comparable to that in the scenarios without puff but the energy confinement time drops ranging from 60 to 130 mus. The fluctuation level and the energy confinement time have been found to scale with the Lundquist number as S-0.05+/-0.07 and S0.5+/-0.1, respectively. Mode rotation is typical for all the discharges and rotation velocity is observed to increase with increasing electron diamagnetic velocity.

  • 20.
    Cecconello, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Kuldkepp, Mattias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes2006In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1311-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the `slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non- resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non- linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma- wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  • 21. Chankin, A. , V
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Chankin, A.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, S.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, P
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Y
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    et al,
    EDGE2D-EIRENE simulations of the influence of isotope effects and anomalous transport coefficients on near scrape-off layer radial electric field2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 7, article id 075010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EDGE2D-EIRENE (the 'code') simulations show that radial electric field, Er, in the near scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks can have large variations leading to a strong local E x B shear greatly exceeding that in the core region. This was pointed out in simulations of JET plasmas with varying divertor geometry, where the magnetic configuration with larger predicted near SOL E-r was found to have lower H-mode power threshold, suggesting that turbulence suppression in the SOL by local E. x. B shear can be a player in the L-H transition physics (Delabie et al 2015 42nd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics (Lisbon, Portugal, 22-26 June 2015) paper O3.113 (http://ocs.ciemat.es/EPS2015PAP/pdf/O3.113.pdf), Chankin et al 2017 Nucl. Mater. Energy 12 273). Further code modeling of JET plasmas by changing hydrogen isotopes (H-D-T) showed that the magnitude of the near SOL E-r is lower in H cases in which the H-mode threshold power is higher (Chankin et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 045012). From the experiment it is also known that hydrogen plasmas have poorer particle and energy confinement than deuterium plasmas, consistent with the code simulation results showing larger particle diffusion coefficients at the plasma edge, including SOL, in hydrogen plasmas (Maggi et al 2018 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 60 014045). All these experimental observations and code results support the hypothesis that the near SOL E x B shear can have an impact on the plasma confinement. The present work analyzes neutral ionization patterns of JET plasmas with different hydrogen isotopes in L-mode cases with fixed input power and gas puffing rate, and its impact on target electron temperature, T-e, and SOL E-r. The possibility of a self-feeding mechanism for the increase in the SOL E-r via the interplay between poloidal E x B drift and target T-e is discussed. It is also shown that reducing anomalous turbulent transport coefficients, particle diffusion and electron and ion heat conductivities, leads to higher peak target T-e and larger E-r, suggesting the possibility of a positive feedback loop, under an implicitly made assumption that the E x B shear in the SOL is capable of suppressing turbulence.

  • 22. Chankin, A. V.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Influence of the E X B drift in high recycling divertors on target asymmetries2015In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 57, no 9, article id 095002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed analysis of convective fluxes caused by E x B drifts is carried out in a realistic JET configuration, based on a series of EDGE2D-EIRENE runs. The EDGE2D-EIRENE code includes all guiding centre drifts, E x B as well as. B and centrifugal drifts. Particle sources created by divergences of radial and poloidal components of the E x B drift are separately calculated for each flux tube in the divertor. It is demonstrated that in high recycling divertor conditions radial E x B drift creates particle sources in the common flux region (CFR) consistent with experimentally measured divertor and target asymmetries, with the poloidal E x B drift creating sources of an opposite sign but smaller in absolute value. That is, the experimentally observed asymmetries in the CFR are the opposite to what poloidal E x B drift by itself would cause. In the private flux region (PFR), the situation is reversed, with poloidal E x B drift being dominant. In this region poloidal E x B drift by itself contributes to experimentally observed asymmetries. Thus, in each region, the dominant component of the E x B drift acts so as to create the density (and hence, also temperature) asymmetries that are observed both in experiment and in 2D edge fluid codes. Since the total number of charged particles is much greater in the CFR than in PFR, divertor asymmetries caused by the E x B drift should be attributed primarily to particle sources in the CFR caused by radial E x B drift.

  • 23. Chapman, I. T.
    et al.
    Graves, J. P.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Asunta, O.
    Bonoli, P.
    Choi, M.
    Jaeger, E. F.
    Jucker, M.
    Sauter, O.
    Sawtooth control in ITER using ion cyclotron resonance heating2011In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 53, no 12, p. 124003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modelling of the effects of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) on the stability of the internal kink mode suggests that ICRH should be considered as an essential sawtooth control tool in ITER. Sawtooth control using ICRH is achieved by directly affecting the energy of the internal kink mode rather than through modification of the magnetic shear by driving localized currents. Consequently, ICRH can be seen as complementary to the planned electron cyclotron current drive actuator, and indeed will improve the efficacy of current drive schemes. Simulations of the ICRH distribution using independent RF codes give confidence in numerical predictions that the stabilizing influence of the fusion-born alphas can be negated by appropriately tailored minority (3)He ICRH heating in ITER. Finally, the effectiveness of all sawtooth actuators is shown to increase as the q = 1 surface moves towards the manetic axis, whilst the passive stabilization arising from the alpha and NBI particles decreases.

  • 24. Chapman, I. T.
    et al.
    Pinches, S. D.
    Graves, J. P.
    Akers, R. J.
    Appel, L. C.
    Budny, R. V.
    Coda, S.
    Conway, N. J.
    de Bock, M.
    Eriksson, L-G
    Hastie, R. J.
    Hender, T. C.
    Huysmans, G. T. A.
    Johnson, Thomas J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Koslowski, H. R.
    Kraemer-Flecken, A.
    Lennholm, M.
    Liang, Y.
    Saarelma, S.
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Voitsekhovitch, I.
    The physics of sawtooth stabilization2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no 12B, p. B385-B394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long period sawteeth have been observed to result in low-beta triggering of neo-classical tearing modes, which can significantly degrade plasma confinement. Consequently, a detailed physical understanding of sawtooth behaviour is critical, especially for ITER where fusion-born a particles are likely to lead to very long sawtooth periods. Many techniques have been developed to control, and in particular to destabilize the sawteeth. The application of counter-current neutral beam injection (NBI) in JET has resulted in shorter sawtooth periods than in Ohmic plasmas. This result has been explained because, firstly, the counter-passing fast ions give a destabilizing contribution to the n=1 internal kink mode-which is accepted to be related to sawtooth oscillations-and secondly, the flow shear strongly influences the stabilizing trapped particles. A similar experimental result has been observed in counter-NBI heated plasmas in MAST. However, the strong toroidal flows in spherical tokamaks mean that the sawtooth behaviour is determined by the gyroscopic flow stabilization of the kink mode rather than kinetic effects. In NBI heated plasmas in smaller conventional aspect-ratio tokamaks, such as TEXTOR, the flow and kinetic effects compete to give different sawtooth behaviour. Other techniques applied to destabilize sawteeth are the application of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) or ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). In JET, it has been observed that localized ICRH is able to destabilize sawteeth which were otherwise stabilized by a co-existing population of energetic trapped ions in the core. This is explained through the dual role of the ICRH in reducing the critical magnetic shear required to trigger a sawtooth crash, and the increase in the local magnetic shear which results from driving current near the q=1 rational surface. Sawtooth control in ITER could be provided by a combination of ECCD and co-passing off-axis negative-NBI fast ions.

  • 25.
    Citrin, J.
    et al.
    DIFFER Dutch Inst Fundamental Energy Res, De Zaale 20, NL-5612 AJ Eindhoven, Netherlands.;CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France.;FOM Inst DIFFER, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al.,
    Tractable flux-driven temperature, density, and rotation profile evolution with the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 12, article id 124005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quasilinear turbulent transport models are a successful tool for prediction of core tokamak plasma profiles in many regimes. Their success hinges on the reproduction of local nonlinear gyrokinetic fluxes. We focus on significant progress in the quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014036), which employs an approximated solution of the mode structures to significantly speed up computation time compared to full linear gyrokinetic solvers. Optimisation of the dispersion relation solution algorithm within integrated modelling applications leads to flux calculations x 10(6-7) faster than local nonlinear simulations. This allows tractable simulation of flux-driven dynamic profile evolution including all transport channels: ion and electron heat, main particles, impurities, and momentum. Furthermore, QuaLiKiz now includes the impact of rotation and temperature anisotropy induced poloidal asymmetry on heavy impurity transport, important for W-transport applications. Application within the JETTO integrated modelling code results in 1 s of JET plasma simulation within 10 h using 10 CPUs. Simultaneous predictions of core density, temperature, and toroidal rotation profiles for both JET hybrid and baseline experiments are

  • 26. Citrin, J.
    et al.
    Garcia, J.
    Görler, T.
    Jenko, F.
    Mantica, P.
    Told, D.
    Bourdelle, C.
    Hatch, D. R.
    Hogeweij, G. M. D.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Pueschel, M. J.
    Schneider, M.
    Electromagnetic stabilization of tokamak microturbulence in a high-beta regime2015In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 014032-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of electromagnetic stabilization and flow shear stabilization on ITG turbulence is investigated. Analysis of a low-beta JET L-mode discharge illustrates the relation between ITG stabilization and proximity to the electromagnetic instability threshold. This threshold is reduced by suprathermal pressure gradients, highlighting the effectiveness of fast ions in ITG stabilization. Extensive linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are then carried out for the high-beta JET hybrid discharge 75225, at two separate locations at inner and outer radii. It is found that at the inner radius, nonlinear electromagnetic stabilization is dominant and is critical for achieving simulated heat fluxes in agreement with the experiment. The enhancement of this effect by suprathermal pressure also remains significant. It is also found that flow shear stabilization is not effective at the inner radii. However, at outer radii the situation is reversed. Electromagnetic stabilization is negligible while the flow shear stabilization is significant. These results constitute the high-beta generalization of comparable observations found at low-beta at JET. This is encouraging for the extrapolation of electromagnetic ITG stabilization to future devices. An estimation of the impact of this effect on the ITER hybrid scenario leads to a 20% fusion power improvement.

  • 27. Corre, Y.
    et al.
    Joffrin, E.
    Monier-Garbet, P.
    Andrew, Y.
    Arnoux, G.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Brix, M.
    Buttery, R.
    Coffey, I.
    Crombe, K.
    de La Luna, E.
    Felton, R.
    Giroud, C.
    Hacquin, S.
    Hobirk, J.
    Huber, A.
    Imbeaux, F.
    Jachmich, S.
    Kempenaars, M.
    Litaudon, X.
    Leggate, H.
    Loarer, T.
    Maddison, G.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Rapp, J.
    Sauter, O.
    Savchkov, A.
    Telesca, G.
    Widdowson, A.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Zimmermann, O.
    Hybrid H-mode scenario with nitrogen seeding and type III ELMs in JET2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 115012-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of the 'hybrid' H-mode regime (long pulse operation with high neutron fluency) has been extensively investigated in JET during the 2005-2007 experimental campaign up to normalized pressure beta(N) = 3, toroidal magnetic field B-t = 1.7T, with type I ELMs plasma edge conditions. The optimized external current drive sources, self-generated non-inductive bootstrap current and plasma core stability properties provide a good prospect of achieving a high fusion gain at reduced plasma current for long durations in ITER. One of the remaining issues is the erosion of the divertor target plates associated with the type I ELM regime. A possible solution could be to operate with a plasma edge in the type III ELM regime (reduced transient and stationary heat loads) obtained with impurity seeding. An integrated hybrid type III ELM regime with a normalized pressure beta(N) = 2.6 (PNBI similar to 20-22 MW) and a thermal confinement factor of H-98* 98(y, 2) similar to 0.83 has been recently successfully developed on JET with nitrogen seeding. This scenario shows good plasma edge condition (compatible with the future ITER-like wall on JET) and moderate MHD activity. In this paper, we report on the experimental development of the scenario (with plasma current I-p = 1.7MA and magnetic field B-t = 1.7T) and the trade-off between heat load reduction at the target plates and global confinement due to nitrogen seeding and type III ELM working conditions.

  • 28. Counsell, G.
    et al.
    Coad, P.
    Grisola, C.
    Hopf, C.
    Jacob, W.
    Kirschner, A.
    Kreter, A.
    Krieger, K.
    Likonen, J.
    Philipps, V.
    Roth, J.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Salancon, E.
    Semerok, A.
    Tabares, F. L.
    Widdowson, A.
    Tritium retention in next step devices and the requirements for mitigation and removal techniques2006In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 48, no 12B, p. B189-B199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms underlying the retention of fuel species in tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components are presented, together with estimates for the corresponding retention of tritium in ITER. The consequential requirement for new and improved schemes to reduce the tritium inventory is highlighted and the results of ongoing studies into a range of techniques are presented, together with estimates of the tritium removal rate in ITER in each case. Finally, an approach involving the integration of many tritium removal techniques into the ITER operational schedule is proposed as a means to extend the period of operations before major intervention is required.

  • 29.
    Dahlin, Jon-Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Scheffel, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Anderson, Jay
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Numerical studies of active current profile control in the reversed-field pinch2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 183-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quenching of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) dynamo is observed in numerical simulations using current profile control. A novel algorithm employing active feedback of the dynamo field has been utilized. The quasi-steady state achieved represents an important improvement as compared with earlier numerical work and may indicate a direction for the design of future experiments. Both earlier and the novel schemes of feedback control result in quasi-single helicity states. The energy confinement time and poloidal beta are observed to be substantially increased, as compared with the conventional RFP, in both the cases. Different techniques for experimental implementation are discussed.

  • 30. de Vries, P. C.
    et al.
    Joffrin, E.
    Hawkes, N. C.
    Litaudon, X.
    Challis, C. D.
    Andrew, Y.
    Beurskens, M.
    Brix, M.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Crombe, K.
    Giroud, C.
    Hobirk, J.
    Johnson, T.
    Lonnroth, J.
    Salmi, A.
    Tala, T.
    Yavorskij, V.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Effect of toroidal field ripple on the formation of internal transport barriers2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a toroidal field (TF) ripple on the formation and performance of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has been studied in JET. It was found that the TF ripple had a profound effect on the toroidal plasma rotation. An increased TF ripple up to delta = 1% led to a lower rotation and reduced the rotational shear in the region where the ITBs were formed. ITB triggering events were observed in all cases and it is thought that the rotational shear may be less important for this process than, for example, the q-profile. However, the increase in the pressure gradient following the ITB trigger was reduced in discharges with a larger TF ripple and consequently a lower rotational shear. This suggests that toroidal rotation and its shear play a role in the growth of the ITB once it has been triggered.

  • 31.
    Devynck, P.
    et al.
    CEA IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France.;IRFM, CEA, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Inst Plasma Phys & Laser Microfus, PL-01497 Warsaw, Poland..
    et al.,
    Scaling of the frequencies of the type one edge localized modes and their effect on the tungsten source in JET ITER-like wall2016In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 58, no 12, article id 125014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A database of 250 pulses taken randomly during the experimental campaigns of JET with the ITER-like wall (ILW) is used to study the frequency dependences of the type I edge localized modes (ELM). A scaling of the ELM frequency is presented as a function of the pedestal density drop dN(ped) and a very simple model to interpret this scaling is discussed. In this model, the frequency of the ELMs is governed by the time needed by the neutral flux to refill the density of the pedestal. The filling rate is the result of a small imbalance between the neutral flux filling the pedestal and the outward flux that expels the particles to the SOL. The ELM frequency can be governed by such a mechanism if the recovery time of the temperature of the pedestal in JET occurs before or at the same time as the one of the density. This is observed to be the case. An effect of the fuelling is measured when the number of injected particles is less than 1 x 10(22) particles s(-1). In that case an increase of the inter-ELM time is observed which is related to the slower recovery of the density pedestal. Additionally, a scaling is found for the source of tungsten during the ELMs. The number of tungsten atoms eroded by the ELMs per second is proportional to dNped multiplied by the ELM frequency. This is possible only if the tungsten sputtering yield is independent of the energy of the impinging particle hitting the divertor. This result is in agreement with Guillemault et al (2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 085006) and is compatible with the D+ ions hitting the divertor having energies above 2 keV. Finally, by plotting the W-content/W-source ratio during ELM crash, a global decreasing behaviour with the ELM frequency is found. However at frequencies below 40 Hz a scatter towards upper values is found. This scatter is found to correlate with the gas injection level. In a narrow ELM frequency band around 20 Hz, it is found that both the ratio W-content/W-source and W-source decrease with the gas injection.

  • 32. Doveil, F.
    et al.
    Cherigier-Kovacic, L.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Lamb-shift and electric field measurements in plasmas2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 014020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric field is a quantity of particular relevance in plasma physics. Indeed, its fluctuations are responsible for different macroscopic phenomena such as anomalous transport in fusion plasmas. Answering a long-standing challenge, we offer a new method to locally and non-intrusively measure weak electric fields and their fluctuations in plasmas, by means of a beam of hydrogen ions or atoms. We present measurements of the electric field in vacuum and in a plasma where Debye shielding is measured. For the first time, we have used the Lamb-shift resonance to measure oscillating electric fields around 1 GHz and observed the strong enhancement of the Lyman-alpha signal. The measurement is both direct and non-intrusive. This method provides sensitivity (mV cm(-1)) and temporal resolution (ns) that are three orders higher compared to current diagnostics. It thus allows measuring fluctuations of the electric field at scales not previously reached experimentally.

  • 33. Dunne, M. G.
    et al.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Beurskens, M. N. A.
    Cavedon, M.
    Fietz, S.
    Fischer, R.
    Giannone, L.
    Huijsmans, G. T. A.
    Kurzan, B.
    Laggner, F.
    McCarthy, P. J.
    McDermott, R. M.
    Tardini, G.
    Viezzer, E.
    Willensdorfer, M.
    Wolfrum, E.
    Global performance enhancements via pedestal optimisation on ASDEX Upgrade2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 2, article id 025010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of experimental scans of heating power, plasma shape, and nitrogen content are presented, with a focus on global performance and pedestal alteration. In detailed scans at low triangularity, it is shown that the increase in stored energy due to nitrogen seeding stems from the pedestal. It is also shown that the confinement increase is driven through the temperature pedestal at the three heating power levels studied. In a triangularity scan, an orthogonal effect of shaping and seeding is observed, where increased plasma triangularity increases the pedestal density, while impurity seeding (carbon and nitrogen) increases the pedestal temperature in addition to this effect. Modelling of these effects was also undertaken, with interpretive and predictive models being employed. The interpretive analysis shows a general agreement of the experimental pedestals in separate power, shaping, and seeding scans with peeling-ballooning theory. Predictive analysis was used to isolate the individual effects, showing that the trends of additional heating power and increased triangularity can be recoverd. However, a simple change of the effective charge in the plasma cannot explain the observed levels of confinement improvement in the present models.

  • 34. Dunne, M. G.
    et al.
    Potzel, S.
    Reimold, F.
    Wischmeier, M.
    Wolfrum, E.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Beurskens, M.
    Bilkova, P.
    Cavedon, M.
    Fischer, R.
    Kurzan, B.
    Laggner, F. M.
    McDermott, R. M.
    Tardini, G.
    Trier, E.
    Viezzer, E.
    Willensdorfer, M.
    The role of the density profile in the ASDEX-Upgrade pedestal structure2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 014017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental evidence for the impact of a region of high density localised in the high-field side scrape-off layer (the HFSHD) on plasma confinement is shown in various dedicated experiments on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). Increasing main ion fuelling is shown to increase the separatrix density and shift the density profile outwards. Predictive pedestal modelling of this shift indicates a 25% decrease in the attainable pedestal top pressure, which compares well with experimental observations in the gas scan. Since the HFSHD can be mitigated by applying nitrogen seeding, a combined scan in fuelling rate, heating power, and nitrogen seeding is presented. Significant increases in the achievable pedestal top pressure are observed with seeding, in particular at high heating powers, and are correlated with inward shifted density profiles and a reduction of the HFSHD and separatrix density. Interpretive linear stability analysis also confirms the impact of a radially shifted pressure profile on peeling-ballooning stability, with an inward shift allowing access to higher pressure gradients and pedestal widths.

  • 35. Ekedahl, A.
    et al.
    Petrzilka, V.
    Baranov, Y.
    Biewer, T. M.
    Brix, M.
    Goniche, M.
    Jacquet, P.
    Kirov, K. K.
    Klepper, C. C.
    Mailloux, J.
    Mayoral, M-L
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Ongena, J.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Influence of gas puff location on the coupling of lower hybrid waves in JET ELMy H-mode plasmas2012In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 074004-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable coupling of the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) to H-mode plasmas in JET is made feasible through a dedicated gas injection system, located at the outer wall and magnetically connected to the antenna (Pericoli Ridolfini et al 2004 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 349, Ekedahl et al 2005 Nucl. Fusion 45 351, Ekedahl et al 2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 044001). An experiment was carried out in JET in order to investigate whether a gas injection from the top of the torus, as is foreseen for the main gas injection in ITER, could also provide good coupling of the LH waves if magnetically connected to the antenna. The results show that a top gas injection was not efficient for providing a reliable LHCD power injection, in spite of being magnetically connected and in spite of using almost twice the amount of gas flow compared with the dedicated outer mid-plane gas puffing system. A dedicated gas injection system, set in the outer wall and magnetically connected to the LHCD antenna, is therefore recommended in order to provide the reliable coupling conditions for an LHCD antenna in ITER.

  • 36. Ekedahl, A.
    et al.
    Rantamaki, K.
    Goniche, M.
    Mailloux, J.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    et al,
    Effect of gas injection during LH wave coupling at ITER-relevant plasma-wall distances in JET2009In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 51, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Good coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves has been demonstrated in different H-mode scenarios in JET, at high triangularity (delta similar to 0.4) and at large distance between the last closed flux surface and the LH launcher ( up to 15 cm). Local gas injection of D-2 in the region magnetically connected to the LH launcher is used for increasing the local density in the scrape-off layer ( SOL). Reciprocating Langmuir probe measurements magnetically connected to the LH launcher indicate that the electron density profile flattens in the far SOL during gas injection and LH power application. Some degradation in normalized H-mode confinement, as given by the H98(gamma,2)-factor, could be observed at high gas injection rates in these scenarios, but this was rather due to total gas injection and not specifically to the local gas puffing used for LH coupling. Furthermore, experiments carried out in L-mode plasmas in order to evaluate the effect on the LH current drive efficiency, when using local gas injection to improve the coupling, indicate only a small degradation (Delta I-LH/I-LH similar to 15%). This effect is largely compensated by the improvement in coupling and thus increase in coupled power when using gas puffing.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, F.
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Earth & Space Sci, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, S.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, P
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Y
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al,
    Impact of fast ions on density peaking in JET: fluid and gyrokinetic modeling2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 7, article id 075008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of fast ions on turbulent particle transport, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG)/trapped electron mode turbulence, is studied. Two neutral beam injection (NBI) heated JET discharges in different regimes are analyzed at the radial position rho(t) = 0.6, one of them an L-mode and the other one an H-mode discharge. Results obtained from the computationally efficient fluid model EDWM and the gyro-fluid model TGLF are compared to linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic GENE simulations as well as the experimentally obtained density peaking. In these models, the fast ions are treated as a dynamic species with a Maxwellian background distribution. The dependence of the zero particle flux density gradient (peaking factor) on fast ion density, temperature and corresponding gradients, is investigated. The simulations show that the inclusion of a fast ion species has a stabilizing influence on the ITG mode and reduces the peaking of the main ion and electron density profiles in the absence of sources. The models mostly reproduce the experimentally obtained density peaking for the L-mode discharge whereas the H-mode density peaking is significantly underpredicted, indicating the importance of the NBI particle source for the H-mode density profile.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, F.
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;EUROfus Consortium JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergsåker, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Fridström, Richard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Moon, Sunwoo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, P
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Y
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I
    EUROfus Consortium JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al,
    Interpretative and predictive modelling of Joint European Torus collisionality scans2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 11, article id 115004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport modelling of Joint European Torus (JET) dimensionless collisionality scaling experiments in various operational scenarios is presented. Interpretative simulations at a fixed radial position are combined with predictive JETTO simulations of temperatures and densities, using the TGLF transport model. The model includes electromagnetic effects and collisions as well as (E)over-right-arrow x (b)over-right-arrow shear in Miller geometry. Focus is on particle transport and the role of the neutral beam injection (NBI) particle source for the density peaking. The experimental 3-point collisionality scans include L-mode, and H-mode (D and H and higher beta D plasma) plasmas in a total of 12 discharges. Experimental results presented in (Tala et al 2017 44th EPS Conf.) indicate that for the H-mode scans, the NBI particle source plays an important role for the density peaking, whereas for the L-mode scan, the influence of the particle source is small. In general, both the interpretative and predictive transport simulations support the experimental conclusions on the role of the NBI particle source for the 12 JET discharges.

  • 39. Eriksson, L. G.
    et al.
    Bergeaud, V.
    Basiuk, V.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Modelling of ripple losses in tokamak plasmas heated by ICRF waves2001In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1291-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for treating ripple induced fast ion losses during ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating is presented. It is suitable for codes solving an orbit averaged three-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation with a Monte Carlo method, and has been implemented in such a code. The resulting code has been used for a comparison with experimental data form Tore Supra and for assessing the ripple induced losses in different ICRF heating scenarios.

  • 40. Eriksson, L. G.
    et al.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn A. K.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Nave, M. F. F.
    Brzozowski, Jerzy H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Holmström, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ongena, J.
    Zastrow, K. D.
    Holmström, K.
    Toroidal rotation in RF heated JET plasmas2009In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 51, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of bulk plasma rotation in radio frequency (RF) heated JET discharges are reported. This study is concentrated on RF heated L-mode plasmas. In particular, the toroidal rotation profiles in plasmas heated by ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) waves and lower hybrid (LH) waves have been analysed. It is the first time that rotation profiles in JET plasmas with LH waves have been measured in dedicated discharges. It is found that the toroidal plasma rotation in the outer region of the plasmas is in the co-current direction irrespective of the heating scenario. An interesting feature is that the toroidal rotation profile appears to be hollow in many discharges at low plasma current, but a low current in itself does not seem to be a sufficient condition for finding such profiles. Fast ion transport and finite orbit width effects are mechanisms that could explain hollow rotation profiles. This possibility has been investigated by numerical simulations of the torque on the bulk plasma due to fast ICRF accelerated ions. The obtained torque is used in a transport equation for the toroidal momentum density to estimate the effect on the thermal bulk plasma rotation profile.

  • 41. Field, A. R.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefanikova, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Yushun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, Fusion Plasma Phys, EES, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Dynamics and stability of divertor detachment in H-mode plasmas on JET2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 9, article id 095003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics and stability of divertor detachment in N-2 seeded, type-I, ELMy H-mode plasmas with dominant NBI heating in the JET ITER-like wall device is studied by means of an integrated analysis of diagnostic data from several systems, classifying data relative to the ELM times. It is thereby possible to study the response of the detachment evolution to the control parameters (SOL input power, upstream density and impurity fraction) prevailing during the inter-ELM periods and the effect of ELMs on the detached divertor. A relatively comprehensive overview is achieved, including the interaction with the targets at various stages of the ELM cycle, the role of ELMs in affecting the detachment process and the overall performance of the scenario. The results are consistent with previous studies in devices with an ITER-like, metal wall, with the important advance of distinguishing data from intra-and inter-ELM periods. Operation without significant degradation of the core confinement can be sustained in the presence of strong radiation from the x-point region (MARFE).

  • 42. Fortov, V.
    et al.
    Morfill, G.
    Petrov, O.
    Thoma, M.
    Usachev, A.
    Hoefner, H.
    Zobnin, A.
    Kretschmer, M.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Fink, M.
    Tarantik, K.
    Gerasimov, Y.
    Esenkov, V.
    The project 'Plasmakristall-4' (PK-4) - a new stage in investigations of dusty plasmas under microgravity conditions: first results and future plans2005In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 47, p. B537-B549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PK-4 experiment is a continuation of the successful dusty plasma experiments PK-1, PK-2 and PK-3 conducted on board of the orbital space stations Mir and International Space Station. For all these experiments it is important to avoid the strong influence of gravity, exerting an external stress on the system. Whereas PK-3 and PK-3 Plus experiments are using a planar rf capacitive discharge, PK-4 studies complex plasmas in a long cylindrical chamber with a combined dc/rf discharge. Such a configuration of the chamber will provide a particular advantage for investigation of different dynamical phenomena in complex plasmas such as sheared laminar flow of a highly nonideal dusty liquid and its transition to the turbulent regime, nozzle flow, boundary layers and instabilities, shock waves (solitons) formation and propagation, dust particle lane formation, and space dust grain separation according to their size.

  • 43.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Fridström, Richard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    The tearing mode locking-unlocking mechanism to an external resonant field in EXTRAP T2R2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 104001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tearing mode (TM) locking and unlocking process due to an external resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) is experimentally studied in EXTRAP T2R. The RMP produces a reduction of the natural TM velocity and ultimately the TM locking if a threshold in the RMP amplitude is exceeded. During the braking process, the TM slows down via a mechanism composed of deceleration and acceleration phases. During the acceleration phases, the TM can reach velocities higher than the natural velocity. Once the TM locking occurs, the RMP must be reduced to a small amplitude to obtain the TM unlocking, showing that the unlocking threshold is significantly smaller than the locking threshold and that the process is characterized by hysteresis. Experimental results are in qualitative agreement with a model that describes the locking-unlocking process via the balance of the electromagnetic torque produced by the RMP that acts to brake the TM and the viscous torque that tends to re-establish the unperturbed velocity.

  • 44.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Olofsson, K. Erik J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Fridström, Richard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Setiadi, Agung Chris
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Volpe, F. A.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    A method for the estimate of the wall diffusion for non-axisymmetric fields using rotating external fields2013In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 084001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for the estimate of the wall diffusion time of non-axisymmetric fields is developed. The method based on rotating external fields and on the measurement of the wall frequency response is developed and tested in EXTRAP T2R. The method allows the experimental estimate of the wall diffusion time for each Fourier harmonic and the estimate of the wall diffusion toroidal asymmetries. The method intrinsically considers the effects of three-dimensional structures and of the shell gaps. Far from the gaps, experimental results are in good agreement with the diffusion time estimated with a simple cylindrical model that assumes a homogeneous wall. The method is also applied with non-standard configurations of the coil array, in order to mimic tokamak-relevant settings with a partial wall coverage and active coils of large toroidal extent. The comparison with the full coverage results shows good agreement if the effects of the relevant sidebands are considered.

  • 45.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Saarelma, S.
    Lomas, P.
    Nunes, I.
    Rimini, F.
    Beurskens, M. N. A.
    Bilkova, P.
    Boom, J. E.
    de la Luna, E.
    Delabie, E.
    Drewelow, P.
    Flanagan, J.
    Garzotti, L.
    Giroud, C.
    Hawks, N.
    Joffrin, E.
    Kempenaars, M.
    Kim, Hyun-Tae
    Kruezi, U.
    Loarte, A.
    Lomanowski, B.
    Lupelli, I.
    Meneses, L.
    Maggi, C. F.
    Menmuir, S.
    Peterka, M.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Romanelli, M.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Dimensionless scalings of confinement, heat transport and pedestal stability in JET-ILW and comparison with JET-C2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 014014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three dimensionless scans in the normalized Larmor radius rho*, normalized collisionality nu* and normalized plasma pressure beta have been performed in JET with the ITER-like wall (JET-ILW). The normalized energy confinement and the thermal diffusivity exhibit a scaling with rho* consistent with the earlier results obtained in the carbon wall JET (JET-C) and with a gyro-Bohm scaling. In the pedestal, experimental results show that the stability is not dependent on rho*, qualitatively in agreement with the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model. The nu* dimensionless scaling shows that JET-ILW normalized confinement has a stronger dependence on collisionality than JET-C. This leads to a reduction of the difference in the confinement between JET-ILW and JET-C to approximate to 10% at low nu*. The pedestal stability shows an improvement with decreasing nu*. This is ascribed to the increase of the bootstrap current, to the reduction of the pedestal width and to the reduction of the relative shift between pedestal density and temperature position. The beta dimensionless scan shows that, at low collisionality, JET-ILW normalized confinement has no clear dependence with beta, in agreement with part of the earlier scalings. At high collisionality, a reduction of the normalized confinement with increasing beta is observed. This behaviour is driven mainly by the pedestal where the stability is reduced with increasing beta. The P-B analysis shows that the stability reduction with increasing beta at high nu* is due to the destabilizing effect of the increased relative shift.

  • 46.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Advanved insittute of Industrial Science and Technology (JAPAN).
    Yambe, K
    Kiyama, S
    Hirano, Y
    Koguchi, H
    Sakakita, H
    Turbulence and particle confinement in a reversed-field pinch plasma2007In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 199-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The confinement properties of a reversed-field pinch ( RFP) device are limited by the high level of magnetic stochasticity produced by the interaction of tearing modes in the plasma core. Away to reduce the core magnetic stochasticity is the application of the pulsed poloidal current drive ( PPCD) technique. By applying the PPCD, tearing modes are stabilized, magnetic stochasticity and turbulence are reduced and hence the confinement is enhanced. In the TPE-RX device, standard RFP plasmas are characterized by magnetic and electrostatic edge turbulence dominated by intermittent phenomena; on the contrary, the improved confinement regime generated by the PPCD is characterized by turbulence with a self-similar nature. We show that the increase in tau(p) is well correlated with the change in the nature of both the magnetic and the electrostatic turbulence. While plasmas with low confinement are dominated by intermittent events and by magnetic and electrostatic activity with a non-self-similar nature, plasmas with high confinement show turbulence with a self-similar character.

  • 47.
    Fridström, Richard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hysteresis in the tearing mode locking/unlocking due to resonant magnetic perturbations in EXTRAP T2R2015In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 57, no 10, article id 104008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The physical mechanisms behind the hysteresis in the tearing mode locking and unlocking to a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) are experimentally studied in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. The experiments show that the electromagnetic and the viscous torque increase with increasing perturbation amplitude until the mode locks to the wall. At the wall-locking, the plasma velocity reduction profile is peaked at the radius where the RMP is resonant. Thereafter, the viscous torque drops due to the relaxation of the velocity in the central plasma. This is the main reason for the hysteresis in the RMP locking and unlocking amplitude. The increased amplitude of the locked tearing mode produces further deepening of the hysteresis. Both experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the model in Fitzpatrick et al (2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 4489)

  • 48. Garcia, J.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Elevant, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Menmuir, Sheena
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I.
    et al.,
    Challenges in the extrapolation from DD to DT plasmas: experimental analysis and theory based predictions for JET-DT2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 014023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strong modelling program has been started in support of the future JET-DT campaign with the aim of guiding experiments in deuterium (D) towards maximizing fusion energy production in Deuterium-Tritium (DT). Some of the key elements have been identified by using several of the most updated and sophisticated models for predicting heat and particle transport, pedestal pressure and heating sources in an integrated modelling framework. For the high beta and low gas operational regime, the density plays a critical role and a trend towards higher fusion power is obtained at lower densities. Additionally, turbulence stabilization by E x B flow shear is shown to generate an isotope effect leading to higher confinement for DT than DD and therefore plasmas with high torque are suitable for maximizing fusion performance. Future JET campaigns will benefit from this modelling activity by defining clear priorities on their scientific program.

  • 49.
    Garcia, J.
    et al.
    CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France.;EUROfus Consortium JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Bergsåker, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Fridström, Richard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Moon, Sunwoo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, P
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Olivares, Pablo Vallejos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Y
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I
    EUROfus Consortium JET, Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon, England.;Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland..
    et al,
    A new mechanism for increasing density peaking in tokamaks: improvement of the inward particle pinch with edge E x B shearing2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 10, article id 104002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing successful tokamak operation scenarios, as well as confident extrapolation of present-day knowledge requires a rigorous understanding of plasma turbulence, which largely determines the quality of the confinement. In particular, accurate particle transport predictions are essential due to the strong dependence of fusion power or bootstrap current on the particle density details. Here, gyrokinetic turbulence simulations are performed with physics inputs taken from a JET power scan, for which a relatively weak degradation of energy confinement and a significant density peaking is obtained with increasing input power. This way physics parameters that lead to such increase in the density peaking shall be elucidated. While well-known candidates, such as the collisionality, previously found in other studies are also recovered in this study, it is furthermore found that edge E x B shearing may adopt a crucial role by enhancing the inward pinch. These results may indicate that a plasma with rotational shear could develop a stronger density peaking as compared to a non-rotating one, because its inward convection is increased compared to the outward diffusive particle flux as long as this rotation has a significant on E x B flow shear stabilization. The possibly significant implications for future devices, which will exhibit much less torque compared to present day experiments, are discussed.

  • 50.
    Garcia-Munoz, M.
    et al.
    Univ Seville, Dept Atom Mol & Nucl Phys, Seville, Spain..
    Sharapov, S. E.
    Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon, Oxon, England..
    Van Zeeland, M. A.
    Gen Atom, San Diego, CA USA..
    Ascasibar, E.
    CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain..
    Cappa, A.
    CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain..
    Chen, L.
    Zhejiang Univ, IFTS, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.;Zhejiang Univ, Dept Phys, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA USA..
    Ferreira, J.
    IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Galdon-Quiroga, J.
    Univ Seville, Dept Atom Mol & Nucl Phys, Seville, Spain..
    Geiger, B.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany..
    Gonzalez-Martin, J.
    Univ Seville, Dept Atom Mol & Nucl Phys, Seville, Spain..
    Heidbrink, W. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA USA..
    Johnson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Lauber, Ph
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany..
    Mantsinen, M.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Barcelona, Spain.;ICREA, Pg Lluis Companys 23, Barcelona, Spain..
    Melnikov, A. , V
    Nabais, F.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA USA..
    Rivero-Rodriguez, J. F.
    Univ Seville, Dept Atom Mol & Nucl Phys, Seville, Spain..
    Sanchis-Sanchez, L.
    Univ Seville, Dept Atom Mol & Nucl Phys, Seville, Spain..
    Schneider, P.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany..
    Stober, J.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany..
    Suttrop, W.
    Max Planck Inst Plasma Phys, Garching, Germany..
    Todo, Y.
    Natl Inst Fus Sci, Toki, Gifu, Japan..
    Vallejos, Pablo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zonca, F.
    Zhejiang Univ, IFTS, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.;Zhejiang Univ, Dept Phys, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.;ENEA, Fus & Nucl Safety Dept, CR Frascati, Rome, Italy..
    Meyer, H.
    Active control of Alfven eigenmodes in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas2019In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 61, no 5, article id 054007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alfven waves are electromagnetic perturbations inherent to magnetized plasmas that can be driven unstable by a free energy associated with gradients in the energetic particles' distribution function. The energetic particles with velocities comparable to the Alfven velocity may excite Alfven instabilities via resonant wave-particle energy and momentum exchange. Burning plasmas with large population of fusion born super-Alfvenic alpha particles in magnetically confined fusion devices are prone to excite weakly-damped Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) that, if allowed to grow unabated, can cause a degradation of fusion performance and loss of energetic ions through a secular radial transport. In order to control the fast-ion distribution and associated Alfvenic activity, the fusion community is currently searching for external actuators that can control AEs and energetic ions in the harsh environment of a fusion reactor. Most promising control techniques are based on (i) variable fast-ion sources to modify gradients in the energetic particles' distribution, (ii) localized electron cyclotron resonance heating to affect the fast-ion slowing-down distribution, (iii) localized electron cyclotron current drive to modify the equilibrium magnetic helicity and thus the AE existence criteria and damping mechanisms, and (iv) externally applied 3D perturbative fields to manipulate the fast-ion distribution and thus the wave drive. Advanced simulations help to identify the key physics mechanisms underlying the observed AE mitigation and suppression and thus to develop robust control techniques towards future burning plasmas.

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