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  • 1. Andersson, J. Y.
    et al.
    Hoglund, L.
    Noharet, B.
    Wang, Q.
    Ericsson, P.
    Wissmar, Stanley
    Asplund, C.
    Malm, H.
    Martijn, H.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hellström, S.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Holtz, P. O.
    Quantum structure based infrared detector research and development within Acreo's centre of excellence IMAGIC2010Ingår i: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 227-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acreo has a long tradition of working with quantum structure based infrared (IR) detectors and arrays. This includes QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector), QDIP (quantum dot infrared photodetector), and InAs/GaInSb based photon detectors of different structure and composition. It also covers R&D on uncooled microbolometers. The integrated thermistor material of such detectors is advantageously based on quantum structures that are optimised for high temperature coefficient and low noise. Especially the SiGe material system is preferred due to the compatibility with silicon technology. The R&D work on IR detectors is a prominent part of Acreo's centre of excellence "IMAGIC" on imaging detectors and systems for non-visible wavelengths. IMAGIC is a collaboration between Acreo, several industry partners and universities like the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Linkoping University. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Samel, Björn
    Acreo AB.
    Ericsson, Per
    Acreo AB.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikro- och nanosystemteknik.
    Very Large Scale Heterogeneous Integration (VLSHI) and Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging for Infrared Bolometer Focal Plane Arrays2013Ingår i: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 60, s. 251-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Imaging in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm is an extremely useful tool for non-contact measurement and imaging of temperature in many industrial, automotive and security applications. However, the cost of the infrared (IR) imaging components has to be significantly reduced to make IR imaging a viable technology for many cost-sensitive applications. This paper demonstrates new and improved fabrication and packaging technologies for next-generation IR imaging detectors based on uncooled IR bolometer focal plane arrays. The proposed technologies include very large scale heterogeneous integration for combining high-performance, SiGe quantum-well bolometers with electronic integrated read-out circuits and CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packing. The fabrication and characterization of bolometers with a pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm that are arranged on read-out-wafers in arrays with 320 × 240 pixels are presented. The bolometers contain a multi-layer quantum well SiGe thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistance of −3.0%/K. The proposed CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packaging technology uses Cu–Sn solid–liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The presented technologies are suitable for implementation in cost-efficient fabless business models with the potential to bring about the cost reduction needed to enable low-cost IR imaging products for industrial, security and automotive applications.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Ekenberg, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Fotonik och optik (Stängd 20120101), Fotonik (Stängd 20120101).
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Höglund, L.
    Karim, A.
    Noharet, B.
    Wang, Q.
    Gromov, A.
    Almqvist, S.
    Zhang, A.
    Acreo, Sweden.
    Junique, S.
    Andersson, J. Y.
    Asplund, C.
    von Würtemberg, R. Marcks
    Malm, H.
    Martijn, H.
    Long-wavelength infrared quantum-dot based interband photodetectors2011Ingår i: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 287-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the design and fabrication of (Al)GaAs(Sb)/InAs tensile strained quantum-dot (QD) based detector material for thermal infrared imaging applications in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) regime. The detection is based on transitions between confined dot states and continuum states in a type-II band lineup, and we therefore refer to it as a dot-to-bulk (D2B) infrared photodetector with expected benefits including long carrier lifetime due to the type-II band alignment, suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall generation-recombination due to the relatively large-bandgap matrix material, inhibited Auger recombination processes due to the tensile strain and epitaxial simplicity. Metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy was used to grow multiple (Al)GaAs(Sb) QD layers on InAs substrates at different QD nominal thicknesses, compositions, doping conditions and multilayer periods, and the material was characterized using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. Dot densities up to 1 x 10(11) cm(-2), 1 x 10(12) cm(-2) and 3 x 10(10) cm(-2) were measured for GaAs, AlGaAs and GaAsSb QDs, respectively. Strong absorption in GaAs, AlGaAs and GaAsSb multilayer QD samples was observed in the wavelength range 6-12 mu m. From the wavelength shift in the spectral absorption for samples with varying QD thickness and composition it is believed that the absorption is due to an intra- valance band transition. From this it is possible to estimate the type-II inter-band transition wavelength, thereby suggesting that (Al)GaAs(Sb) QD/InAs heterostructures are suitable candidates for LWIR detection and imaging.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Karim, Amir
    Asplund, Carl
    Wang, Qin
    Zabel, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Almqvist, S.
    Savage, S.
    Andersson, Jan Y.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    A performance assessment of type-II interband In0.5Ga0.5Sb QD photodetectors2013Ingår i: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 61, s. 319-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled quantum-dot (QD) structures with type-II band alignment to the surrounding matrix material have been proposed as a III/V material approach to realize small-bandgap device structures suitable for photon detection and imaging in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) band. Here, we analyze the photoresponse of In0.5Ga0.5Sb/InAs QD photodiodes and estimate the system performance of type-II QD - based photodetectors. A review of alternative design approaches is presented and the choice of matrix material is discussed in terms of band alignment and its effect on the photoresponse. Photodiodes were fabricated consisting of 10 layers of In0.5Ga0.5Sb QDs grown on InAs (0 0 1) substrates with metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The photoresponse and dark current were measured in single pixel devices as a function of temperature in the range 20-230 K. The quantum efficiency shows an Arrhenius type behavior, which is attributed to hole trapping. This severely limits the detector performance at typical LWIR sensor operating temperatures (60-120 K). A device design with the matrix material InAs0 6Sb0 4 is proposed as a mean to improve the performance by reducing the barrier for hole transport. This can potentially allow type-II InGaSb QDs to be a competitive sensor material for LWIR detection.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Karim, Amir
    Wang, Qin
    Berggren, Jesper
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Asplund, Carl
    Andersson, Jan Y.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Long-wavelength infrared photoluminescence from InGaSb/InAs quantum dots2013Ingår i: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 59, s. 89-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the growth of self-assembled InGaSb/InAs quantum dots (QDs) and investigate how gallium can be used to reduce the optical transition energy in the InSb QD system. InGaSb QDs were grown on InAs (0 0 1) substrates by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and the material was characterized by photoluminescence (PL) measurements. A PL peak wavelength is demonstrated beyond 8 μm at 77 K, which is significantly longer than what has been reported for InSb QDs. The results suggest that InGaSb QDs can be grown at a larger size than InSb QDs leading to reduced confinement in the QDs.

  • 6.
    Niklaus, Frank
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Decharat, Adit
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Jansson, Christer
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik.
    Performance model for uncooled infrared bolometer arrays and performance predictions of bolometers operating at atmospheric pressure2008Ingår i: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 168-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive calculational model for the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of infrared imaging systems based on uncooled bolometer arrays. The equations are presented in a new and convenient form. The NETD model is validated and benchmarked using published performance data of a state-of-the-art uncooled infrared bolometer array. The NETD model is used to evaluate possible system and bolometer design improvements. The results of the calculations suggest that infrared imaging systems based on uncooled bolometer arrays with a bolometer pixel pitch of 28 mu m x 28 mu m have the potential to reach NETDs on the order of 12 mK. The calculations also suggest that NETDs on the order of 200 mK can be achieved with infrared imaging systems based on uncooled bolometer arrays that operate in air at atmospheric pressure.

1 - 6 av 6
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