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  • 1.
    Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Sao Paulo State Univ UNESP, Campus Sao Joao da Boa Vista, BR-13876750 Sao Joao da Boa Vista, SP, Brazil.;Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition and resolvent analysis of near-wall coherent structures in turbulent pipe flows2020In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 900, article id A11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations, performed with a high-order spectral-element method, are used to study coherent structures in turbulent pipe flow at friction Reynolds numbers Re-tau = 180 and 550. The database was analysed using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to identify energetically dominant coherent structures, most of which turn out to be streaks and quasi-streamwise vortices. To understand how such structures can be modelled, the linear flow responses to harmonic forcing were computed using the singular value decomposition of the resolvent operator, using the mean field as a base flow. The SPOD and resolvent analysis were calculated for several combinations of frequencies and wavenumbers, allowing the mapping out of similarities between SPOD modes and optimal responses for a wide range of relevant scales in turbulent pipe flows. In order to explore physical reasons behind the agreement between both methods, an indicator of lift-up mechanism in the resolvent analysis was introduced, activated when optimal forcing is dominated by the wall-normal and azimuthal components, and associated response corresponds to streaks of streamwise velocity. Good agreement between leading SPOD and resolvent modes is observed in a large region of parameter space. In this region, a significant gain separation is found in resolvent analysis, which may be attributed to the strong amplification associated with the lift-up mechanism, here understood as nonlinear forcing terms leading to the appearance of streamwise vortices, which in turn form high-amplitude streaks. For both Reynolds numbers, the observed concordances were generally for structures with large energy in the buffer layer. The results highlight resolvent analysis as a pertinent reduced-order model for coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence, particularly for streamwise elongated structures corresponding to near-wall streamwise vortices and streaks.

  • 2.
    Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Sao Paulo State Univ UNESP, Campus Sao Joao Boa Vista, BR-13876750 Sao Joao Da Boa Vista, SP, Brazil.;Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Tanarro, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Spanwise-coherent hydrodynamic waves around flat plates and airfoils2021In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 927, article id A1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate spanwise-coherent structures in the turbulent flow around airfoils, motivated by their connection with trailing-edge noise. We analyse well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) of the flow around NACA 0012 and NACA 4412 airfoils, both at a Reynolds number of 400 000 based on the chord length. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition performed on the data reveals that the most energetic coherent structures are hydrodynamic waves, extending over the turbulent boundary layers around the airfoils with significant amplitudes near the trailing edge. Resolvent analysis was used to model such structures, using the mean field as a base flow. We then focus on evaluating the dependence of such structures on the domain size, to ensure that they are not an artefact of periodic boundary conditions in small computational boxes. To this end, we performed incompressible LES of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer, for three different spanwise sizes, with the momentum-thickness Reynolds number matching those near the airfoils trailing edge. The same coherent hydrodynamic waves were observed for the three domains. Such waves are accurately modelled as the most amplified flow response from resolvent analysis. The signature of such wide structures is seen in non-premultiplied spanwise wavenumber spectra, which collapse for the three computational domains. These results suggest that the spanwise-elongated structures are not domain-size dependent for the studied simulations, indicating thus the presence of very wide structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows.

  • 3. Agarwal, Akshat
    et al.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Zaki, Tamer A.
    Linear and nonlinear evolution of a localized disturbance in polymeric channel flow2014In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 760, p. 278-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of an initially localized disturbance in polymeric channel flow is investigated, with the FENE-P model used to characterize the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow. In the linear growth regime, the flow response is stabilized by viscoelasticity, and the maximum attainable disturbance energy amplification is reduced with increasing polymer concentration. The reduction in the energy growth rate is attributed to the polymer work, which plays a dual role. First, a spanwise polymer-work term develops, and is explained by the tilting action of the wall-normal voracity on the mean streamwise conformation tensor. This resistive term weakens the spanwise velocity perturbation thus reducing the energy of the localized disturbance. The second action of the polymer is analogous, with a wall-normal polymer work term that weakens the vertical velocity perturbation. Its indirect effect on energy growth is substantial since it reduces the production of Reynolds shear stress and in turn of the streamwise velocity perturbation, or streaks. During the early stages of nonlinear growth, the dominant effect of the polymer is to suppress the large-scale streaky structures which are strongly amplified in Newtonian flows. As a result, the process of transition to turbulence is prolonged and, after transition, a drag-reduced turbulent state is attained.

  • 4.
    Alarcón, José Faúndez
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, André V.G.
    Aerodynamics Department, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos / SP, Brazil, SP.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Role of streak secondary instabilities on free-stream turbulence-induced transition2024In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 988, article id A6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the stability of a zero-pressure gradient boundary layer subjected to free-stream disturbances by means of local stability analysis. The dataset under study corresponds to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a flat plate with a sharp leading edge in realistic wind tunnel conditions, with a turbulence level of 3.45 % at the leading edge. We present a method to track the convective evolution of the secondary instabilities of streaks by performing sequential stability calculations following the wave packet, connecting successive unstable eigenfunctions. A scattered nature, in time and space, of secondary instabilities is seen in the stability calculations. These instabilities can be detected before they reach finite amplitude in the DNS, preceding the nucleation of turbulent spots, and whose appearance is well correlated to the transition onset. This represents further evidence regarding the relevance of secondary instabilities of streaks in the bypass transition in realistic flow conditions. Consistent with the spatio-temporal nature of this problem, our approach allows us to integrate directly the local growth rates to obtain the spatial amplification ratio of the individual instabilities, where it is shown that instabilities reaching an -factor in the range [2.5,4] can be directly correlated to more than 65 % of the nucleation events. Interestingly, it is found that high amplification is not only attained by modes with high growth rates, but also by instabilities with sustained low growth rates for a long time.

  • 5.
    Alarcón, José Faúndez
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Morra, Pierluigi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Disturbance growth on a NACA0008 wing subjected to free stream turbulence2022In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 944, article id A44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of an incompressible boundary layer flow over a wing in the presence of free stream turbulence (FST) has been investigated by means of direct numerical simulations and compared with the linearised boundary layer equations. Four different. FST conditions have been considered, which are characterised by their turbulence intensity levels and length scales. In all cases the perturbed flow develops into elongated disturbances of high and low streamwise velocity inside the boundary layer, where their spacing has been found to be strongly dependent on the scales of the incoming free stream vorticity. The breakdown of these streaks into turbulent spots from local secondary instabilities is also observed, presenting the same development as the ones reported in flat plate experiments. The disturbance growth, characterised by its root mean squares value, is found to depend not only on the turbulence level, but also on the FST length scales. Particularly, higher disturbance growth is observed for our cases with larger length scales. This behaviour is attributed to the preferred wavenumbers that can exhibit maximum transient growth. We study this boundary layer preference by projection of the flow fields at the leading edge onto optimal disturbances. Our results demonstrate that optimal disturbance growth is the main cause of growth of disturbances on the wing boundary layer.

  • 6.
    Albernaz, Daniel L.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hermanson, J. C.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Droplet deformation and heat transfer in isotropic turbulence2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 820, p. 61-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heat and mass transfer of deformable droplets in turbulent flows is crucial. to a wide range of applications, such as cloud dynamics and internal combustion engines. This study investigates a single droplet undergoing phase change in isotropic turbulence using numerical simulations with a hybrid lattice Boltzmann scheme. Phase separation is controlled by a non-ideal equation of state and density contrast is taken into consideration. Droplet deformation is caused by pressure and shear stress at the droplet interface. The statistics of thermodynamic variables are quantified and averaged over both the liquid and vapour phases. The occurrence of evaporation and condensation is correlated to temperature fluctuations, surface tension variation and turbulence intensity. The temporal spectra of droplet deformations are analysed and related to the droplet surface area. Different modes of oscillation are clearly identified from the deformation power spectrum for low Taylor Reynolds number Re, whereas nonlinearities are produced with the increase of Re A, as intermediate frequencies are seen to overlap. As an outcome, a continuous spectrum is observed, which shows a decrease in the power spectrum that scales as similar to f(-3) Correlations between the droplet Weber number, deformation parameter, fluctuations of the droplet volume and thermodynamic variables are also developed.

  • 7.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Kufa Univ, Coll Engn, Al Najaf, Iraq..
    Lashgari, Iman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, L.uca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hormozi, Sarah
    Ohio Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Athens, OH 45701 USA..
    Interface-resolved simulations of particle suspensions in Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening carrier fluids2018In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 852, p. 329-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical study of non-colloidal spherical and rigid particles suspended in Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening fluids employing an immersed boundary method. We consider a linear Couette configuration to explore a wide range of solid volume fractions (0.1 <= Phi <= 0.4) and particle Reynolds numbers (0.1 <= Re<INF>p</INF><INF></INF> <= 10). We report the distribution of solid and fluid phase velocity and solid volume fraction and show that close to the boundaries inertial effects result in a significant slip velocity between the solid and fluid phase. The local solid volume fraction profiles indicate particle layering close to the walls, which increases with the nominal Phi. This feature is associated with the confinement effects. We calculate the probability density function of local strain rates and compare the latter's mean value with the values estimated from the homogenisation theory of Chateau et al. (J. Rheol., vol. 52, 2008, pp. 489-506), indicating a reasonable agreement in the Stokesian regime. Both the mean value and standard deviation of the local strain rates increase primarily with the solid volume fraction and secondarily with the Re<INF>p</INF>. The wide spectrum of the local shear rate and its dependency on Phi and Re<INF>p</INF> point to the deficiencies of the mean value of the local shear rates in estimating the rheology of these non-colloidal complex suspensions. Finally, we show that in the presence of inertia, the effective viscosity of these non-colloidal suspensions deviates from that of Stokesian suspensions. We discuss how inertia affects the microstructure and provide a scaling argument to give a closure for the suspension shear stress for both Newtonian and power-law suspending fluids. The stress closure is valid for moderate particle Reynolds numbers, O(Re<INF>p</INF>) similar to 10.

  • 8.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. College of Engineering, Kufa University, Al Najaf, Iraq.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Interface-resolved simulations of particle suspensions in visco-elastic carrier fluidsIn: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the rheology of a suspension of neutrally buoyant rigid particles subject touniform shear in different kinds of non-Newtonian fluids, chosen in order to disentanglethe effect of elasticity and shear thinning on the macroscopic system behavior. In par-ticular, we adopt the inelastic Carreau, viscoelastic Oldroyd-B and Giesekus models forthe carrier fluid. The rheology of the suspension is analyzed for a wide range of particlevolume fractions, Weissenberg and Reynolds numbers, comparing the results with thoseobtained for a Newtonian carrier fluid. We report here that the effective viscosity per-taining all the non-Newtonian cases is always lower than that of the suspension in theNewtonian carrier fluid and grows monotonically with the solid volume fraction. Theshear-thinning viscoelastic Giesekus fluid behaves similarly to the Oldroyd-B fluid at lowWeissenberg numbers and to the Carreau fluid at high Weissenberg numbers, indicatingthat elastic effects dominate at low Weissenberg and shear thinning is predominant athigh Weissenberg number. These variations in the effective viscosity are mainly due tochanges in the particle induced shear stress component. These data show that, at highshear rates, a viscoelastic carrier fluid can be modelled as a simple shear-thinning fluidfor which theoretical closures exists, while new models are needed at low Weissenbergnumbers to account for elastic effects such as decreased particle stress. Finally, when theinertia is increased, the suspension effective viscosity grows with the particle Reynoldsnumber at the same rate as in a Newtonian fluid for the Oldroyd-B case, while in ashear-thinning fluid the growth is less than in the Newtonian fluid. Also in the presenceof inertia, therefore, the shear-thinning behaviour dominates the suspension dynamics atrelatively high values of the imposed shear rate and elasticity effects saturate.

  • 9.
    Alvelius, Krister
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    LES computations and comparison with Kolmogorov theory for two-point pressure{velocity correlations and structure functions for globally anisotropic turbulence2000In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 403, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new extension of the Kolmogorov theory, for the two-point pressure–velocity correlation, is studied by LES of homogeneous turbulence with a large inertial subrange in order to capture the high Reynolds number nonlinear dynamics of the flow. Simulations of both decaying and forced anisotropic homogeneous turbulence were performed. The forcing allows the study of higher Reynolds numbers for the same number of modes compared with simulations of decaying turbulence. The forced simulations give statistically stationary turbulence, with a substantial inertial subrange, well suited to test the Kolmogorov theory for turbulence that is locally isotropic but has significant anisotropy of the total energy distribution. This has been investigated in the recent theoretical studies of Lindborg (1996) and Hill (1997) where the role of the pressure terms was given particular attention. On the surface the two somewhat different approaches taken in these two studies may seem to lead to contradictory conclusions, but are here reconciled and (numerically) shown to yield an interesting extension of the traditional Kolmogorov theory. The results from the simulations indeed show that the two-point pressure–velocity correlation closely adheres to the predicted linear relation in the inertial subrange where also the pressure-related term in the general Kolmogorov equation is shown to vanish. Also, second- and third-order structure functions are shown to exhibit the expected dependences on separation.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Paul
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Bottaro, A
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    On the breakdown of boundary layer streaks2001In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 428, p. 29-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A scenario of transition to turbulence likely to occur during the development of natural disturbances in a flat-plate boundary layer is studied. The perturbations at the leading edge of the flat plate that show the highest potential for transient energy amplification consist of streamwise aligned vortices. Due to the lift-up mechanism these optimal disturbances lead to elongated streamwise streaks downstream, with significant spanwise modulation, Direct numerical simulations are used to follow the nonlinear evolution of these streaks and to verify secondary instability calculations. The theory is based on a linear Floquet expansion and focuses on the temporal, inviscid instability of these flow structures. The procedure requires integration in the complex plane, in the coordinate direction normal to the wall, to properly identify neutral modes belonging to the discrete spectrum. The streak critical amplitude, beyond which streamwise travelling waves are excited, is about 26% of the free-stream velocity. The sinuous instability mode (either the fundamental or the subharmonic, depending on the streak amplitude) represents the most dangerous disturbance. Varicose waves are more stable, and are characterized by a critical amplitude of about 37%. Stability calculations of streamwise streaks employing the shape assumption, carried out in a parallel investigation, are compared to the results obtained here using the nonlinearly modified mean fields; the need to consider a base flow which includes mean flow modification and harmonics of the fundamental streak is clearly demonstrated.

  • 11.
    Andreolli, Andrea
    et al.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Separating large-scale superposition and modulation in turbulent channels2023In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 958, article id A37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of very-large-scale motions in wall-bounded turbulent flows is commonly associated with their footprint in the form of the superposition of the large scales at the wall and the additional amplitude modulation of small-scale near-wall turbulence. These two phenomena are currently understood to be interlinked, with the superposed large-scale velocity gradient causing the modulation of small-scale activity in the proximity of the wall. To challenge this idea, we devise a numerical strategy that selectively suppresses either superposition or amplitude modulation, in an effort to isolate and study the remaining phenomenon. Results from our direct numerical simulations indicate that a positive correlation between the amplitude of the small scales in the near-wall region and the large-scale signal in the outer flow persists even when near-wall large-scale motions are suppressed - i.e. in absence of superposition. Clearly, this kind of correlation cannot be caused by the near-wall large-scale velocity or its gradients, as both are absent. Conversely, when modulation is blocked, the near-wall footprints of the large scales seem to disappear. This study has been carried out on channel flows at friction Reynolds number Re-tau = 1000 in both standard simulation domains and minimal streamwise units (MSUs), where the streamwise fluctuation energy is enhanced. The consistency of the results obtained by the two approaches suggests that MSUs can capture correctly this kind of scale interaction at a much reduced cost.

  • 12.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lingwood, Rebecca J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of London, United Kingdom.
    On the global nonlinear instability of the rotating-disk flow over a finite domain2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 803, p. 332-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations based on the incompressible nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations of the flow over the surface of a rotating disk have been conducted. An impulsive disturbance was introduced and its development as it travelled radially outwards and ultimately transitioned to turbulence has been analysed. Of particular interest was whether the nonlinear stability is related to the linear stability properties. Specifically three disk-edge conditions were considered; (i) a sponge region forcing the flow back to laminar flow, (ii) a disk edge, where the disk was assumed to be infinitely thin and (iii) a physically realistic disk edge of finite thickness. This work expands on the linear simulations presented by Appelquist el al. (J. Fluid. Mech., vol. 765, 2015, pp. 612-631), where, for case (i), this configuration was shown to be globally linearly unstable when the sponge region effectively models the influence of the turbulence on the flow field. In contrast, case (ii) was mentioned there to he linearly globally stable, and here, where nonlinearity is included, it is shown that both cases (ii) and (iii) are nonlinearly globally unstable. The simulations show that the flow can he globally linearly stable if the linear wavepacket has a positive front velocity. However, in the same flow field, a nonlinear global instability can emerge, which is shown to depend on the outer turbulent region generating a linear inward-travelling mode that sustains a transition front within the domain. The results show that the front position does not approach the critical Reynolds number for the local absolute instability, R = 507. Instead, the front approaches R = 583 and both the temporal frequency and spatial growth rate correspond to a global mode originating at this position.

  • 13.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. nstitute of Continuing Education, University of Cambridge, Madingley Hall, Madingley Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Global linear instability of the rotating-disk flow investigated through simulations2015In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 765, p. 612-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations of the flow developing on the surface of a rotating disk are presented based on the linearized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The boundary-layer flow is perturbed by an impulsive disturbance within a linear global framework, and the effect of downstream turbulence is modelled by a damping region further downstream. In addition to the outward-travelling modes, inward-travelling disturbances excited at the radial end of the simulated linear region, r(end), by the modelled turbulence are included within the simulations, potentially allowing absolute instability to develop. During early times the flow shows traditional convective behaviour, with the total energy slowly decaying in time. However, after the disturbances have reached r(end), the energy evolution reaches a turning point and, if the location of r(end) is at a Reynolds number larger than approximately R = 594 (radius non-dimensionalized by root v/Omega*, where v is the kinematic viscosity and Omega* is the rotation rate of the disk), there will be global temporal growth. The global frequency and mode shape are clearly imposed by the conditions at r(end). Our results suggest that the linearized Ginzburg-Landau model by Healey (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 663, 2010, pp. 148-159) captures the (linear) physics of the developing rotating-disk flow, showing that there is linear global instability provided the Reynolds number of r(end) is sufficiently larger than the critical Reynolds number for the onset of absolute instability.

  • 14.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lingwood, R. J.
    Transition to turbulence in the rotating-disk boundary-layer flow with stationary vortices2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 836, p. 43-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a resolution to the conundrum of the roles of convective and absolute instability in transition of the rotating-disk boundary layer. It also draws some comparison with swept-wing flows. Direct numerical simulations based on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations of the flow over the surface of a rotating disk with modelled roughness elements are presented. The rotating-disk flow has been of particular interest for stability and transition research since the work by Lingwood (J.FluidMech., vol.299, 1995, pp.17-33) where an absolute instability was found. Here stationary disturbances develop from roughness elements on the disk and are followed from the linear stage, growing to saturation and finally transitioning to turbulence. Several simulations are presented with varying disturbance amplitudes. The lowest amplitude corresponds approximately to the experiment by Imayama etal. (J.FluidMech., vol.745, 2014a, pp.132-163). For all cases, the primary instability was found to be convectively unstable, and secondary modes were found to be triggered spontaneously while the flow was developing. The secondary modes further stayed within the domain, and an explanation for this is a proposed globally unstable secondary instability. For the low-amplitude roughness cases, the disturbances propagate beyond the threshold for secondary global instability before becoming turbulent, and for the high-amplitude roughness cases the transition scenario gives a turbulent flow directly at the critical Reynolds number for the secondary global instability. These results correspond to the theory of Pier (J.EngngMaths, vol.57, 2007, pp.237-251) predicting a secondary absolute instability. In our simulations, high temporal frequencies were found to grow with a large amplification rate where the secondary global instability occurred. For smaller radial positions, low-frequency secondary instabilities were observed, tripped by the global instability.

  • 15. Aronsson, D.
    et al.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Löfdahl, Lennart
    Shear-free turbulence near a wall1996In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 338, p. 363-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mean shear has a major influence on near-wall turbulence but there are also other important physical processes at work in the turbulence/wall interaction. In order to isolate these, a shear-free boundary layer was studied experimentally. The desired flow conditions were realized by generating decaying grid turbulence with a uniform mean velocity and passing it over a wall moving with the stream speed. It is shown that the initial response of the turbulence field can be well described by the theory of Hunt & Graham (1978). Later, where this theory ceases to give an accurate description, terms of the Reynolds stress transport (RST) equations were measured or estimated by balancing the equations. An important finding is that two different length scales are associated with the near-wall damping of the Reynolds stresses. The wall-normal velocity component is damped over a region extending roughly one macroscale out from the wall. The pressure–strain redistribution that normally would result from the Reynolds stress anisotropy in this region was found to be completely inhibited by the near-wall influence. In a thin region close to the wall the pressure–reflection effects were found to give a pressure–strain that has an effect opposite to the normally expected isotropization. This behaviour is not captured by current models.

  • 16.
    Augier, Pierre
    et al.
    LadHyX, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    Chomaz, Jean-Marc
    LadHyX, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau CEDEX, France.
    Billant, Paul
    LadHyX, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau CEDEX, France.
    Spectral analysis of the transition to turbulence from a dipole in stratified fluid2012In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 713, p. 86-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the spectral properties of the turbulence generated during the nonlinear evolution of a Lamb-Chaplygin dipole in a stratified fluid for a high Reynolds number Re = 28 000 and a wide range of horizontal Froude number F-h epsilon [0.0225 0.135] and buoyancy Reynolds number R = ReFh2 epsilon [14 510]. The numerical simulations use a weak hyperviscosity and are therefore almost direct numerical simulations (DNS). After the nonlinear development of the zigzag instability, both shear and gravitational instabilities develop and lead to a transition to small scales. A spectral analysis shows that this transition is dominated by two kinds of transfer: first, the shear instability induces a direct non-local transfer toward horizontal wavelengths of the order of the buoyancy scale L-b = U/N, where U is the characteristic horizontal velocity of the dipole and N the Brunt-Vaisala frequency; second, the destabilization of the Kelvin-Helmholtz billows and the gravitational instability lead to small-scale weakly stratified turbulence. The horizontal spectrum of kinetic energy exhibits epsilon(2/3)(K)k(h)(-5/3) power law (where k(h) is the horizontal wavenumber and epsilon(K) is the dissipation rate of kinetic energy) from k(b) = 2 pi/L-b to the dissipative scales, with an energy deficit between the integral scale and k(b) and an excess around k(b). The vertical spectrum of kinetic energy can be expressed as E(k(z)) = C(N)N(2)k(z)(-3) + C epsilon(2/3)(K)k(z)(-5/3) where C-N and C are two constants of order unity and k(z) is the vertical wavenumber. It is therefore very steep near the buoyancy scale with an N(2)k(z)(-3) shape and approaches the epsilon(2/3)(K)k(z)(-5/3) spectrum for k(z) > k(o), k(o) being the Ozmidov wavenumber, which is the cross-over between the two scaling laws. A decomposition of the vertical spectra depending on the horizontal wavenumber value shows that the N(2)k(z)(-3) spectrum is associated with large horizontal scales vertical bar k(h)vertical bar < k(b) and the epsilon(2/3)(K)k(z)(-5/3) spectrum with the scales vertical bar k(h)vertical bar > k(b).

  • 17. Augier, Pierre
    et al.
    Galtier, Sebastien
    Billant, Paul
    Kolmogorov laws for stratified turbulence2012In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 709, p. 659-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Kolmogorov technique, an exact relation for a vector third-order moment J is derived for three-dimensional incompressible stably stratified turbulence under the Boussinesq approximation. In the limit of a small Brunt-Vaisala frequency, isotropy may be assumed which allows us to find a generalized 4/3-law. For strong stratification, we make the ansatz that J is directed along axisymmetric surfaces parameterized by a scaling law relating horizontal and vertical coordinates. An integration of the exact relation under this hypothesis leads to a generalized Kolmogorov law which depends on the intensity of anisotropy parameterized by a single coefficient. By using a scaling relation between large horizontal and vertical length scales we fix this coefficient and propose a unique law.

  • 18.
    Augier, Pierre
    et al.
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Shallow water wave turbulence2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 874, p. 1169-1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of irrotational shallow water wave turbulence forced in large scales and dissipated at small scales is investigated. First, we derive the shallow water analogue of the `four-fifths law' of Kolmogorov turbulence for a third order structure function involving velocity and displacement increments. Using this relation and assuming that the flow is dominated by shocks we develop a simple model predicting that the shock amplitude scales as (ϵd)1/3, where ϵ is the mean dissipation rate and d the mean distance between the shocks, and that the pth order displacement and velocity structure functions scale as (ϵd)p/3r/d, where r is the separation. Then we carry out a series of forced simulations with resolutions up to 76802, varying the Froude number, Ff=ϵ1/3/ckf1/3, where kf is the forcing wave number and c is the wave speed. In all simulations a stationary state is reached in which there is a constant spectral energy flux and equipartition between kinetic and potential energy in the constant flux range. The third order structure function relation is satisfied with a high degree of accuracy. Mean energy is found to scale as E∼√(ϵc/kf), and is also dependent on resolution, indicating that shallow water wave turbulence does not fit into the paradigm of a Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade. In all simulations shocks develop, displayed as long thin bands of negative divergence in flow visualisations. The mean distance between the shocks is found to scale as dFf1/2/kf. Structure functions of second and higher order are found to scale in good agreement with the model. We conclude that in the weak limit, Ff→0, shocks will become denser and weaker and finally disappear for a finite Reynolds number. On the other hand, for a given Ff, no matter how small, shocks will prevail if the Reynolds number is sufficiently large.

  • 19.
    Bagge, Joar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosén, Tomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Tornberg, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Numerical Analysis, NA. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Parabolic velocity profile causes shape-selective drift of inertial ellipsoids2021In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 926, article id A24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding particle drift in suspension flows is of the highest importance in numerous engineering applications where particles need to be separated and filtered out from the suspending fluid. Commonly known drift mechanisms such as the Magnus force, Saffman force and Segre-Silberberg effect all arise only due to inertia of the fluid, with similar effects on all non-spherical particle shapes. In this work, we present a new shape-selective lateral drift mechanism, arising from particle inertia rather than fluid inertia, for ellipsoidal particles in a parabolic velocity profile. We show that the new drift is caused by an intermittent tumbling rotational motion in the local shear flow together with translational inertia of the particle, while rotational inertia is negligible. We find that the drift is maximal when particle inertial forces are of approximately the same order of magnitude as viscous forces, and that both extremely light and extremely heavy particles have negligible drift. Furthermore, since tumbling motion is not a stable rotational state for inertial oblate spheroids (nor for spheres), this new drift only applies to prolate spheroids or tri-axial ellipsoids. Finally, the drift is compared with the effect of gravity acting in the directions parallel and normal to the flow. The new drift mechanism is stronger than gravitational effects as long as gravity is less than a critical value. The critical gravity is highest (i.e. the new drift mechanism dominates over gravitationally induced drift mechanisms) when gravity acts parallel to the flow and the particles are small.

  • 20.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Koopman-mode decomposition of the cylinder wake2013In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 726, p. 596-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Koopman operator provides a powerful way of analysing nonlinear flow dynamics using linear techniques. The operator defines how observables evolve in time along a nonlinear flow trajectory. In this paper, we perform a Koopman analysis of the first Hopf bifurcation of the flow past a circular cylinder. First, we decompose the flow into a sequence of Koopman modes, where each mode evolves in time with one single frequency/growth rate and amplitude/phase, corresponding to the complex eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Koopman operator, respectively. The analytical construction of these modes shows how the amplitudes and phases of nonlinear global modes oscillating with the vortex shedding frequency or its harmonics evolve as the flow develops and later sustains self-excited oscillations. Second, we compute the dynamic modes using the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) algorithm, which fits a linear combination of exponential terms to a sequence of snapshots spaced equally in time. It is shown that under certain conditions the DMD algorithm approximates Koopman modes, and hence provides a viable method to decompose the flow into saturated and transient oscillatory modes. Finally, the relevance of the analysis to frequency selection, global modes and shift modes is discussed.

  • 21.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Input-output analysis, model reduction and control of the flat-plate boundary layer2009In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 620, p. 263-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics and control of two-dimensional disturbances in the spatially evolving boundary layer oil a flat plate are investigated from an input output viewpoint. A set-up of spatially localized inputs (external disturbances and actuators) and Outputs (objective functions and sensors) is introduced for the control design of convectively unstable flow configurations. From the linearized Navier Stokes equations with the inputs and outputs, controllable, observable and balanced modes are extracted using the snapshot method. A balanced reduced-order model (ROM) is constructed and shown to capture the input output behaviour of the linearized Navier Stokes equations. This model is finally used to design H-2-feedback controller to suppress the growth or two-dimensional perturbations inside the boundary layer.

  • 22.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schmid, Peter J.
    Laboratoire d'Hydrodynamique (LadHyX), CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Global stability of a jet in crossflow2009In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 624, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A linear stability analysis shows that the jet in crossflow is characterized by self-sustained global oscillations for a jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 3. A fully three-dimensional unstable steady-state solution and its associated global eigenmodes are computed by direct numerical simulations and iterative eigenvalue routines. The steady flow, obtained by means of selective frequency damping, consists mainly of a (steady) counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) in the far field and horseshoe-shaped vortices close to the wall. High-frequency unstable global eigenmodes associated with shear-layer instabilities on the CVP and low-frequency modes associated with shedding vortices in the wake of the jet are identified. Furthermore, different spanwise symmetries of the global modes are discussed. This work constitutes the first simulation-based global stability analysis of a fully three-dimensional base flow.

  • 23. Bailey, S. C. C.
    et al.
    Hultmark, M.
    Monty, J. P.
    Alfredsson, Per Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chong, M. S.
    Duncan, R. D.
    Fransson, Jens
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hutchins, N.
    Marusic, I.
    McKeon, B. J.
    Nagib, H. M.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Smits, A. J.
    Vinuesa, R.
    Obtaining accurate mean velocity measurements in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers using Pitot tubes2013In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 715, p. 642-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on one component of a larger study on measurement of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent flat plate boundary layer, in which a detailed investigation was conducted of the suite of corrections required for mean velocity measurements performed using Pitot tubes. In particular, the corrections for velocity shear across the tube and for blockage effects which occur when the tube is in close proximity to the wall were investigated using measurements from Pitot tubes of five different diameters, in two different facilities, and at five different Reynolds numbers ranging from Reθ = 11 100 to 67 000. Only small differences were found amongst commonly used corrections for velocity shear, but improvements were found for existing near-wall proximity corrections. Corrections for the nonlinear averaging of the velocity fluctuations were also investigated, and the results compared to hot-wire data taken as part of the same measurement campaign. The streamwise turbulence-intensity correction was found to be of comparable magnitude to that of the shear correction, and found to bring the hot-wire and Pitot results into closer agreement when applied to the data, along with the other corrections discussed and refined here.

  • 24.
    Banaei, Arash Alizad
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Numerical study of filament suspensions at finite inertia2020In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 882, article id A5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical study on the rheology of semi-dilute and concentrated filament suspensions of different bending stiffness and Reynolds number, with the immersed boundary method used to couple the fluid and solid. The filaments are considered as one-dimensional inextensible slender bodies with fixed aspect ratio, obeying the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. To understand the global suspension behaviour we relate it to the filament microstructure, deformation and elastic energy and examine the stress budget to quantify the effect of the elastic contribution. At fixed volume fraction, the viscosity of the suspension reduces when decreasing the bending rigidity and grows when increasing the Reynolds number. The change in the relative viscosity is stronger at finite inertia, although still in the laminar flow regime, as considered here. Moreover, we find the first normal stress difference to be positive as in polymeric fluids, and to increase with the Reynolds number; its value has a peak for an intermediate value of the filament bending stiffness. The peak value is found to be proportional to the Reynolds number, moving towards more rigid suspensions at larger inertia. Moreover, the viscosity increases when increasing the filament volume fraction, and the rate of increase of the filament stress with the bending rigidity is stronger at higher Reynolds numbers and reduces with the volume fraction. We show that this behaviour is associated with the formation of a more ordered structure in the flow, where filaments tend to be more aligned and move as a compact aggregate, thus reducing the filament-filament interactions despite their volume fraction increases.

  • 25.
    Baxerres, Victor
    et al.
    Illinois Tech IIT, Chicago, IL 60616 USA..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Nagib, Hassan
    Illinois Tech IIT, Chicago, IL 60616 USA..
    Evidence of quasiequilibrium in pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers2024In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 987, article id R8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two sets of measurements utilizing hot-wire anemometry and oil-film interferometry for flat-plate turbulent boundary layers, exposed to various controlled adverse and favourable pressure gradients, are used to evaluate history effects of the imposed and varying free-stream gradients. The results are from the NDF wind tunnel at Illinois Tech (IIT) and the MTL wind tunnel at KTH, over the range 800 < Re-tau <22000 (where Re-tau is the friction Reynolds number). The streamwise pressure-gradient parameter beta equivalent to (-& ell;/tau(w))& sdot;(partial derivative P-e/partial derivative x) varied between -2 < beta < 7, where & ell; is an outer length scale for boundary layers equivalent to the half-height of channel flow and the radius of pipe flow, and is estimated for each boundary-layer profile; note that tau(w) is the wall-shear stress and P-e is the free-stream static pressure. Extracting from each profile the three parameters of the overlap region, following the recent work of Monkewitz & Nagib (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 967, 2023, p. A15) that led to an overlap region of combined logarithmic and linear parts, we find minimum history effects in the overlap region. Thus, the overlap region in this range of pressure-gradient boundary layers appears to be in 'quasiequilibrium'.

  • 26.
    Bellani, Gabriele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Byron, Margaret L.
    Collignon, Audric G.
    Meyer, Colin R.
    Variano, Evan A.
    Shape effects on turbulent modulation by large nearly neutrally buoyant particles2012In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 712, p. 41-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate dilute suspensions of Taylor-microscale-sized particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. In particular, we focus on the effect of particle shape on particle-fluid interaction. We conduct laboratory experiments using a novel experimental technique to simultaneously measure the kinematics of fluid and particle phases. This uses transparent particles having the same refractive index as water, whose motion we track via embedded optical tracers. We compare the turbulent statistics of a single-phase flow to the turbulent statistics of the fluid phase in a particle-laden suspension. Two suspensions are compared, one in which the particles are spheres and the other in which they are prolate ellipsoids with aspect ratio 2. We find that spherical particles at volume fraction phi(v) = 0.14% reduce the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) by 15% relative to the single-phase flow. At the same volume fraction (and slightly smaller total surface area), ellipsoidal particles have a much smaller effect: they reduce the TKE by 3% relative to the single-phase flow. Spectral analysis shows the details of TKE reduction and redistribution across spatial scales: spherical particles remove energy from large scales and reinsert it at small scales, while ellipsoids remove relatively less TKE from large scales and reinsert relatively more at small scales. Shape effects are far less evident in the statistics of particle rotation, which are very similar for ellipsoids and spheres. Comparing these with fluid enstrophy statistics, we find that particle rotation is dominated by velocity gradients on scales much larger than the particle characteristic length scales.

  • 27.
    Beneitez Galan, Miguel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Duguet, Yohann
    LIMSI-CNRS, UPR 3251, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay, F-91403, France Abstract.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Edge tracking in spatially developing boundary layer flows2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 881, p. 164-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in understanding subcritical transition to turbulence is based on the concept of the edge, the manifold separating the basins of attraction of the laminar and the turbulent state. Originally developed in numerical studies of parallel shear flows with a linearly stable base flow, this concept is adapted here to the case of a spatially developing Blasius boundary layer. Longer time horizons fundamentally change the nature of the problem due to the loss of stability of the base flow due to Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. We demonstrate, using a moving box technique, that efficient long-time tracking of edge trajectories is possible for the parameter range relevant to bypass transition, even if the asymptotic state itself remains out of reach. The flow along the edge trajectory features streak switching observed for the first time in the Blasius boundary layer. At long enough times, TS waves co-exist with the coherent structure characteristic of edge trajectories. In this situation we suggest a reinterpretation of the edge as a manifold dividing the state space between the two main types of boundary layer transition, i.e. bypass transition and classical transition.

  • 28.
    Beneitez Galan, Miguel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Duguet, Yohann
    LISN-CNRS, Campus Universitaire d'Orsay, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91400 Orsay, France.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Instability of the optimal edge trajectory in the Blasius boundary layer2023In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 971, article id A42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of linear stability analysis, considering unsteady base flows is notoriously difficult. A generalisation of modal linear stability analysis, allowing for arbitrarily unsteady base flows over a finite time, is therefore required. The recently developed optimally time-dependent (OTD) modes form a projection basis for the tangent space. They capture the leading amplification directions in state space under the constraint that they form an orthonormal basis at all times. The present numerical study illustrates the possibility to describe a complex flow case using the leading OTD modes. The flow under investigation is an unsteady case of the Blasius boundary layer, featuring streamwise streaks of finite length and relevant to bypass transition. It corresponds to the state space trajectory initiated by the minimal seed; such a trajectory is unsteady, free from any spatial symmetry and shadows the laminar-turbulent separatrix for a finite time only. The finite-time instability of this unsteady base flow is investigated using the 8 leading OTD modes. The analysis includes the computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponents as well as instantaneous eigenvalues, and of the associated flow structures. The reconstructed instantaneous eigenmodes are all of outer type. They map unambiguously the spatial regions of largest instantaneous growth. Other flow structures, previously reported as secondary, are identified with this method as relevant to streak switching and to streamwise vortical ejections. The dynamics inside the tangent space features both modal and non-modal amplification. Non-normality within the reduced tangent subspace, quantified by the instantaneous numerical abscissa, emerges only as the unsteadiness of the base flow is reduced.

  • 29.
    Biancofiore, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Crossover between two- and three-dimensional turbulence in spatial mixing layers2014In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 745, p. 164-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how the domain depth affects the turbulent behaviour in spatially developing mixing layers by means of large-eddy simulations based on a spectral vanishing viscosity technique. Analyses of spectra of the vertical velocity, of Lumley's diagrams, of the turbulent kinetic energy and of the vortex stretching show that a two-dimensional behaviour of the turbulence is promoted in spatial mixing layers by constricting the fluid motion in one direction. This finding is in agreement with previous works on turbulent systems constrained by a geometric anisotropy, pioneered by Smith, Chasnov & Waleffe (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 77, 1996, pp. 2467-2470). We observe that the growth of the momentum thickness along the streamwise direction is damped in a confined domain. An almost fully two-dimensional turbulent behaviour is observed when the momentum thickness is of the same order of magnitude as the confining scale.

  • 30.
    Blanco, Diego C. P.
    et al.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aerosp, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aerosp, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Linear and nonlinear receptivity mechanisms in boundary layers subject to free-stream turbulence2024In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 979, article id A31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-eddy simulations of a flat-plate boundary layer, without a leading edge, subject to multiple levels of incoming free-stream turbulence are considered in the present work. Within an input-output model, where nonlinear terms of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are treated as an external forcing, we manage to separate inputs related to perturbations coming through the intake of the numerical domain, whose evolution represents a linear mechanism, and the volumetric nonlinear forcing due to triadic interactions. With these, we perform the full reconstruction of the statistics of the flow, as measured in the simulations, to quantify pairs of wavenumbers and frequencies more affected by either linear or nonlinear receptivity mechanisms. Inside the boundary layer, different wavenumbers at near-zero frequency reveal streaky structures. Those that are amplified predominantly via linear interactions with the incoming vorticity occur upstream and display transient growth, while those generated by the nonlinear forcing are the most energetic and appear in more downstream positions. The latter feature vortices growing proportionally to the laminar boundary layer thickness, along with a velocity profile that agrees with the optimal amplification obtained by linear transient growth theory. The numerical approach presented is general and could potentially be extended to any simulation for which receptivity to incoming perturbations needs to be assessed.

  • 31.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    History effects and near equilibrium in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 820, p. 667-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent boundary layers under adverse pressure gradients are studied using well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) with the goal of assessing the influence of the streamwise pressure-gradient development. Near-equilibrium boundary layers were characterized through the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter β. In order to fulfil the near-equilibrium conditions, the free stream velocity was prescribed such that it followed a power-law distribution. The turbulence statistics pertaining to cases with a constant value of β (extending up to approximately 40 boundary-layer thicknesses) were compared with cases with non-constant β distributions at matched values of β and friction Reynolds number Reδ∗. An additional case at matched Reynolds number based on displacement thickness Reδ∗ was also considered. It was noticed that non-constant β cases appear to approach the conditions of equivalent constant β cases after long streamwise distances (approximately 7 boundary-layer thicknesses). The relevance of the constant β cases lies in the fact that they define a 'canonical' state of the boundary layer, uniquely characterized by β and Re. The investigations on the flat plate were extended to the flow around a wing section overlapping in terms of β and Re. Comparisons with the flat-plate cases at matched values of β and Re revealed that the different development history of the turbulent boundary layer on the wing section leads to a less pronounced wake in the mean velocity as well as a weaker second peak in the Reynolds stresses. This is due to the weaker accumulated effect of the β history. Furthermore, a scaling law suggested by Kitsios et al. (Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 61, 2016, pp. 129-136), proposing the edge velocity and the displacement thickness as scaling parameters, was tested on two constant-pressure-gradient parameter cases. The mean velocity and Reynolds-stress profiles were found to be dependent on the downstream development. The present work is the first step towards assessing history effects in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers and highlights the fact that the values of the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter and the Reynolds number are not sufficient to characterize the state of the boundary layer.

  • 32. Bogey, Christophe
    et al.
    Gojon, Romain
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Feedback loop and upwind-propagating waves in ideally expanded supersonic impinging round jets2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 823, p. 562-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aeroacoustic feedback loop establishing in a supersonic round jet impinging on a flat plate normally has been investigated by combining compressible large-eddy simulations and modelling of that loop. At the exit of a straight pipe nozzle of radius r(0), the jet is ideally expanded, and has a Mach number of 1.5 and a Reynolds number of 6 x 10(4). Four distances between the nozzle exit and the flat plate, equal to 6r(0), 8r(0), 10r(0) and 12r(0), have been considered. In this way, the variations of the convection velocity of the shear-layer turbulent structures according to the nozzle-to-plate distance are shown. In the spectra obtained inside and outside of the flow near the nozzle, several tones emerge at Strouhal numbers in agreement with measurements in the literature. At these frequencies, by applying Fourier decomposition to the pressure fields, hydrodynamic-acoustic standing waves containing a whole number of cells between the nozzle and the plate and axisymmetric or helical jet oscillations are found. The tone frequencies and the mode numbers inferred from the standing-wave patterns are in line with the classical feedback-loop model, in which the loop is closed by acoustic waves outside the jet. The axisymmetric or helical nature of the jet oscillations at the tone frequencies is also consistent with a wave analysis using a jet vortex-sheet model, providing the allowable frequency ranges for the upstream-propagating acoustic wave modes of the jet. In particular, the tones are located on the part of the dispersion relations of the modes where these waves have phase and group velocities close to the ambient speed of sound. Based on the observation of the pressure fields and on frequency-wavenumber spectra on the jet axis and in the shear layers, such waves are identified inside the present jets, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, for a supersonic jet flow. This study thus suggests that the feedback loop in ideally expanded impinging jets is completed by these waves.

  • 33.
    Bonfils, A. F.
    et al.
    Nordita SU.
    Mitra, Dhrubaditya
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Moon, W.
    Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, 48513 Pusan, South Korea.
    Wettlaufer, John
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
    Flow-driven interfacial waves: An inviscid asymptotic study2023In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 976, article id A19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by wind blowing over water, we use asymptotic methods to study the evolution of short wavelength interfacial waves driven by the combined action of these flows. We solve the Rayleigh equation for the stability of the shear flow, and construct a uniformly valid approximation for the perturbed streamfunction, or eigenfunction. We then expand the real part of the eigenvalue, the phase speed, in a power series of the inverse wavenumber and show that the imaginary part is exponentially small. We give expressions for the growth rates of the Miles (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 3, 1957, pp. 185-204) and rippling (e.g. Young & Wolfe, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 739, 2014, pp. 276-307) instabilities that are valid for an arbitrary shear flow. The accuracy of the results is demonstrated by a comparison with the exact solution of the eigenvalue problem in the case when both the wind and the current have an exponential profile.

  • 34.
    Bonfils, Anthony
    et al.
    NORDITA, SU; Stockholm Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mitra, Dhrubaditya
    NORDITA, SU;Stockholm Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moon, Woosok
    NORDITA, SU;Stockholm Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Math, S-10661 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wettlaufer, John
    Royal Inst Technol, NORDITA, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Yale Univ, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Asymptotic interpretation of the Miles mechanism of wind-wave instability2022In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 944, article id A8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When wind blows over water, ripples are generated on the water surface. These ripples can be regarded as perturbations of the wind field, which is modelled as a parallel inviscid flow. For a given wavenumber k, the perturbed streamfunction of the wind field and the complex phase speed are the eigenfunction and the eigenvalue of the so-called Rayleigh equation in a semi-infinite domain. Because of the small air-water density ratio, rho(a)/rho(w) epsilon << 1, the wind and the ripples are weakly coupled, and the eigenvalue problem can be solved perturbatively. At the leading order, the eigenvalue is equal to the phase speed c(0) of surface waves. At order epsilon, the eigenvalue has a finite imaginary part, which implies growth. Miles (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 3, 1957, pp. 185-204) showed that the growth rate is proportional to the square modulus of the leading-order eigenfunction evaluated at the so-called critical level z = z

  • 35.
    Brandt, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Cossu, C.
    Chomaz, J. M.
    Huerre, P.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    On the convectively unstable nature of optimal streaks in boundary layers2003In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 485, p. 221-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to determine the absolute/convective nature of the secondary instability experienced by finite-amplitude streaks in the flat-plate boundary layer. A family of parallel streaky base flows is defined by extracting velocity profiles from direct numerical simulations of nonlinearly saturated optimal streaks. The computed impulse response of the streaky base flows is then determined as a function of streak amplitude and streamwise station. Both the temporal and spatio-temporal instability properties are directly retrieved from the impulse response wave packet, without solving the dispersion relation or applying the pinching point criterion in the complex wavenumber plane. The instability of optimal streaks is found to be unambiguously convective for all streak amplitudes and streamwise stations. It is more convective than the Blasius boundary layer in the absence of streaks; the trailing edge-velocity of a Tollmien-Schlichting wave packet in the Blasius boundary layer is around 35% of the free-stream velocity, while that of the wave packet riding on the streaky base flow is around 70%. This is because the streak instability is primarily induced by the spanwise shear and the associated Reynolds stress production term is located further away from the wall, in a larger velocity region, than for the Tollmien-Schlichting instability. The streak impulse response consists of the sinuous mode of instability triggered by the spanwise wake-like profile, as confirmed by comparing the numerical results with the absolute/convective instability properties of the family of two-dimensional wakes introduced by Monkewitz (1988). The convective nature of the secondary streak instability implies that the type of bypass transition studied here involves streaks that behave as amplifiers of external noise.

  • 36.
    Brandt, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Transition of streamwise streaks in zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers2002In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 472, p. 229-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition scenario initiated by streamwise low- and high-speed streaks in a flat-plate boundary layer is studied. In many shear flows, the perturbations that show the highest potential for transient energy amplification consist of streamwise-aligned vortices. Due to the lift-up mechanism these optimal disturbances lead to elongated streamwise streaks downstream, with significant spanwise modulation. In a previous investigation (Andersson et al. 2001), the stability of these streaks in a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer was studied by means of Floquet theory and numerical simulations. The sinuous instability mode was found to be the most dangerous disturbance. We present here the first simulation of the breakdown to turbulence originating from the sinuous instability of streamwise streaks. The main structures observed during the transition process consist of elongated quasi-streamwise vortices located on the flanks of the low-speed streak. Vortices of alternating sign are overlapping in the streamwise direction in a staggered pattern. The present scenario is compared with transition initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting waves and their secondary instability and by-pass transition initiated by a pair of oblique waves. The relevance of this scenario to transition induced by free-stream turbulence is also discussed.

  • 37.
    Brandt, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Transition in boundary layers subject to free-stream turbulence2004In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 517, p. 167-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of high levels of free-stream turbulence on the transition in a Blasius boundary layer is studied by means of direct numerical simulations, where a synthetic turbulent inflow is obtained as superposition of modes of the continuous spectrum of the Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire operators. In the present bypass scenario the flow in the boundary layer develops streamwise elongated regions of high and low streamwise velocity and it is suggested that the breakdown into turbulent spots is related to local instabilities of the strong shear layers associated with these streaks. Flow structures typical of the spot precursors are presented and these show important similarities with the flow structures observed in previous studies on the secondary instability and breakdown of steady symmetric streaks. Numerical experiments are performed by varying the energy spectrum of the incoming perturbation. It is shown that the transition location moves to lower Reynolds numbers by increasing the integral length scale of the free-stream turbulence. The receptivity to free-stream turbulence is also analysed and it is found that two distinct physical mechanisms are active depending on the energy content of the external disturbance. If low-frequency modes diffuse into the boundary layer, presumably at the leading edge, the streaks Lire induced by streamwise vorticity through the linear lift-up effect. If, conversely, the free-stream perturbations are mainly located above the boundary layer a nonlinear process is needed to create streamwise vortices inside the shear layer. The relevance of the two mechanisms is discussed.

  • 38.
    Brandt, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Sipp, Denis
    Pralits, Jan O.
    Marquet, Olivier
    Effect of base-flow variation in noise amplifiers: the flat-plate boundary layer2011In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 687, p. 503-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-modal analysis determines the potential for energy amplification in stable flows. The latter is quantified in the frequency domain by the singular values of the resolvent operator. The present work extends previous analysis on the effect of base-flow modifications on flow stability by considering the sensitivity of the flow non-modal behaviour. Using a variational technique, we derive an analytical expression for the gradient of a singular value with respect to base-flow modifications and show how it depends on the singular vectors of the resolvent operator, also denoted the optimal forcing and optimal response of the flow. As an application, we examine zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers where the different instability mechanisms of wall-bounded shear flows are all at work. The effect of the component-type non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes operator, which concentrates the optimal forcing and response on different components, is first studied in the case of a parallel boundary layer. The effect of the convective-type non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes operator, which separates the spatial support of the structures of the optimal forcing and response, is studied in the case of a spatially evolving boundary layer. The results clearly indicate that base-flow modifications have a strong impact on the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instability mechanism whereas the amplification of streamwise streaks is a very robust process. This is explained by simply examining the expression for the gradient of the resolvent norm. It is shown that the sensitive region of the lift-up (LU) instability spreads out all over the flat plate and even upstream of it, whereas it is reduced to the region between branch I and branch II for the TS waves.

  • 39.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Statistics and structure of spanwise rotating turbulent channel flow at moderate Reynolds numbers2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 828, p. 424-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of fully developed plane turbulent channel flow subject to spanwise system rotation through direct numerical simulations is presented. In order to study both the influence of the Reynolds number and spanwise rotation on channel flow, the Reynolds number Re U(b)h/nu is varied from a low 3000 to a moderate 31600 and the rotation number Ro = 2 Omega h/U-b is varied from 0 to 2.7, where U-b is the mean bulk velocity, h the channel half-gap, nu the viscosity and Omega the system rotation rate. The mean streamwise velocity profile displays also at higher Re a characteristic linear part with slope near to 2 Omega, and a corresponding linear part in the profiles of the production and dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy appears. With increasing Ro, a distinct unstable side with large spanwise and wall-normal Reynolds stresses and a stable side with much weaker turbulence develops in the channel. The flow starts to relaminarize the stable side of the channel and persisting turbulent-laminar patterns appear at higher Re. If Ro is further increased, the flow on the stable side becomes laminar-like while at yet higher Ro the whole flow relaminarizes, although the calm periods might be disrupted by repeating bursts of turbulence, as explained by Brethouwer (Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol. 1, 2016, 054404). The influence of the Reynolds number is considerable, in particular on the stable side of the channel where velocity fluctuations are stronger and the flow relaminarizes less quickly at higher Re. Visualizations and statistics show that, at Ro = 0.15 and 0.45, large-scale structures and large counter-rotating streamwise roll cells develop on the unstable side. These become less noticeable and eventually vanish when Ro rises, especially at higher Re. At high Ro, the largest energetic structures are larger at lower Re.

  • 40.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    The effect of rotation on rapidly sheared homogeneous turbulence and passive scalar transport. Linear theory and direct numerical simulation2005In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 542, p. 305-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of rotation on a homogeneous turbulent shear flow has been studied by means of a series of direct numerical simulations with different rotation numbers. The evolution of passive scalar fields with mean gradients in each of the three orthogonal directions in the flow was investigated in order to elucidate the effect of rotation on turbulent scalar transport. Conditions of the near-wall region of a boundary layer were approached by using a rapid shear and therefore, comparisons could be made with rapid distortion theory based on the linearized equations of the flow and scalar transport. Reynolds stresses, pressure-strain correlations and two-point velocity correlations were computed and turbulent structures were visualized. It is shown that rotation has a strong influence on the time development of the turbulent kinetic energy, the anisotropy of the flow and on the turbulent structures. Furthermore, rotation significantly affects turbulent scalar transport. The transport rate of the scalar and the direction of the scalar flux vector show large variations with different rotation numbers, and a strong alignment was observed between the scalar flux and the principal axes of the Reynolds stress tensor. The ratio of the turbulent and scalar time scales is influenced by rotation as well. The predictions of the linear theory of the turbulent one-point statistics and the scalar flux agreed fairly well with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results based on the full nonlinear governing equations. Nonetheless, some clear and strong nonlinear effects are observed in a couple of cases which significantly influence the development of the turbulence and scalar transport.

  • 41.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics, Turbulence. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulent flow in curved channels2021In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 931, article id A21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully developed turbulent flow in channels with mild to strong longitudinal curvature is studied by direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds based on the bulk mean velocity and channel half-width delta is fixed at 20 000, resulting in a friction Reynolds number of approximately 1000. Four cases are considered with curvature varying from gamma = 2 delta/r

  • 42.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Billant, P.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Chomaz, J. M.
    Scaling analysis and simulation of strongly stratified turbulent flows2007In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 585, p. 343-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations of stably and strongly stratified turbulent flows with Reynolds number Re >> 1 and horizontal Froude number F-h << 1 are presented. The results are interpreted on the basis of a scaling analysis of the governing equations. The analysis suggests that there are two different strongly stratified regimes according to the parameter R = ReFh2. When R >> 1, viscous forces are unimportant and l(v) scales as l(v) similar to U/N (U is a characteristic horizontal velocity and N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency) so that the dynamics of the flow is inherently three-dimensional but strongly anisotropic. When R << 1, vertical viscous shearing is important so that l(v) similar to l(h)/Re-1/2 (l(h) is a characteristic horizontal length scale). The parameter R is further shown to be related to the buoyancy Reynolds number and proportional to (l(O)/eta)(4/3), where l(O) is the Ozmidov length scale and eta the Kolmogorov length scale. This implies that there are simultaneously two distinct ranges in strongly stratified turbulence when R >> 1: the scales larger than l(O) are strongly influenced by the stratification while those between l(O) and eta are weakly affected by stratification. The direct numerical simulations with forced large-scale horizontal two-dimensional motions and uniform stratification cover a wide Re and F-h, range and support the main parameter controlling strongly stratified turbulence being R. The numerical results are in good agreement with the scaling laws for the vertical length scale. Thin horizontal layers are observed independently of the value of R but they tend to be smooth for R < 1, while for R > 1 small-scale three-dimensional turbulent disturbances are increasingly superimposed. The dissipation of kinetic energy is mostly due to vertical shearing for R < 1 but tends to isotropy as R increases above unity. When R < 1, the horizontal and vertical energy spectra are very steep while, when R > 1, the horizontal spectra of kinetic and potential energy exhibit an approximate k(h)(-5/3)-power-law range and a clear forward energy cascade is observed.

  • 43. Brethouwer, Geert
    et al.
    Hunt, J. C. R.
    Nieuwstadt, F. T. M.
    Micro-structure and Lagrangian statistics of the scalar field with a mean gradient in isotropic turbulence2003In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 474, p. 193-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis and numerical study of the relations between the small-scale velocity and scalar fields in fully developed isotropic turbulence with random forcing of the large scales and with an imposed constant mean scalar gradient. Simulations have been performed for a range of Reynolds numbers from Re-lambda = 22 to 130 and Schmidt numbers from Sc = 1/25 to 144. The simulations show that for all values of Sc > 0.1 steep scalar gradients are concentrated in intermittently distributed sheet-like structures with a thickness approximately equal to the Batchelor length scale eta/Sc-1/2 with eta the Kolmogorov length scale. We observe that these sheets or cliffs are preferentially aligned perpendicular to the direction of the mean scalar gradient. Due to this preferential orientation of the cliffs the small-scale scalar field is anisotropic and this is an example of direct coupling between the large- and small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent field. The numerical simulations also show that the steep cliffs are formed by straining motions that compress the scalar field along the imposed mean scalar gradient in a very short time period, proportional to the Kolmogorov time scale. This is valid for the whole range of Sc. The generation of these concentration gradients is amplified by rotation of the scalar gradient in the direction of compressive strain. The combination of high strain rate and the alignment results in a large increase of the scalar gradient and therefore in a large scalar dissipation rate. These results of our numerical study are discussed in the context of experimental results (Warhaft 2000) and kinematic simulations (Holzer & Siggia 1994). The theoretical arguments developed here follow from earlier work of Batchelor & Townsend (1956), Betchov (1956) and Dresselhaus Tabor (1991).

  • 44.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Numerical study of vertical dispersion by stratified turbulence2009In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 631, p. 149-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations are carried Out to investigate vertical fluid particle dispersion in uniformly stratified stationary turbulent flows. The results are compared with the analysis of Lindborg & Brethouwer (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 614, 2008, pp. 303-314), who derived long- and short-time relations for the mean square vertical displacement of fluid particles. Several direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with different degrees of stratification and different buoyancy Reynolds numbers are carried out to test the long-time relation = 2 epsilon(P)t/N-2. Here, epsilon(P) is the mean dissipation of turbulent potential energy; N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency; and t is time. The DNSs show good agreement with this relation, with a weak dependence on the buoyancy Reynolds number. Simulations with hyperviscosity are carried out to test the relation = (1 + pi C-PL)2 epsilon(P)t/N-2, which should be valid for shorter time scales in the range N-1 << t << T, where T is the turbulent eddy turnover time. The results of the hyperviscosity simulations come closer to this prediction with C-PL about 3 with increasing stratification. However, even in the simulation with the strongest stratification the growth of is somewhat slower than linear in this regime. Based on the simulation results it is argued that the time scale determining the evolution Of is the eddy turnover time, T, rather than the buoyancy time scale N-1, as suggested in previous studies. The simulation results are also consistent with the prediction of Lindborg & Brethouwer (2008) that the nearly flat plateau Of observed at t similar to T should scale as 4E(P)/N-2, where E-P is the mean turbulent potential energy.

  • 45.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics, Turbulence.
    Much faster heat/mass than momentum transport in rotating Couette flows2021In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 912, article id A31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat and mass transport are generally closely correlated to momentum transport in shear flows. This so-called Reynolds analogy between advective heat or mass transport and momentum transport hinders efficiency improvements in engineering heat and mass transfer applications. I show through direct numerical simulations that in plane Couette and Taylor-Couette flow, rotation can strongly influence wall-to-wall passive tracer transport and make it much faster than momentum transport, clearly in violation of the Reynolds analogy. This difference between passive tracer transport, representative of heat/mass transport, and momentum transport is observed in steady flows with large counter-rotating vortices at low Reynolds numbers as well as in fully turbulent flows at higher Reynolds numbers. It is especially large near the neutral (Rayleigh's) stability limit. The rotation-induced Coriolis force strongly damps the streamwise/azimuthal velocity fluctuations when this limit is approached, while tracer fluctuations are much less affected. Accordingly, momentum transport is much more reduced than tracer transport, showing that the Coriolis force breaks the Reynolds analogy. At higher Reynolds numbers, this strong advective transport dissimilarity is accompanied by approximate limit cycle dynamics with intense low-frequency bursts of turbulence when approaching the neutral stability limit. The study demonstrates that simple body forces can cause clear dissimilarities between heat/mass and momentum transport in shear flows.

  • 46.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Passive scalar transport in rotating turbulent channel flow2018In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 844, p. 297-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive scalar transport in turbulent channel flow subject to spanwise system rotation is studied by direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number R-e= U(b)h/nu is fixed at 20 000 and the rotation number R-o= 2 Omega h/U-b is varied from 0 to 1.2, where U-b is the bulk mean velocity, h the half channel gap width and Omega the rotation rate. The scalar is constant but different at the two walls, leading to steady scalar transport across the channel. The rotation causes an unstable channel side with relatively strong turbulence and turbulent scalar transport, and a stable channel side with relatively weak turbulence or laminar-like flow, weak turbulent scalar transport but large scalar fluctuations and steep mean scalar gradients. The distinct turbulent-laminar patterns observed at certain Ro on the stable channel side induce similar patterns in the scalar field. The main conclusions of the study are that rotation reduces the similarity between the scalar and velocity field and that the Reynolds analogy for scalar-momentum transport does not hold for rotating turbulent channel flow. This is shown by a reduced correlation between velocity and scalar fluctuations, and a strongly reduced turbulent Prandtl number of less than 0.2 on the unstable channel side away from the wall at higher Ro. On the unstable channel side, scalar scales become larger than turbulence scales according to spectra and the turbulent scalar flux vector becomes more aligned with the mean scalar gradient owing to rotation. Budgets in the governing equations of the scalar energy and scalar fluxes are presented and discussed as well as other statistics relevant for turbulence modelling.

  • 47.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Duguet, Y.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent-laminar coexistence in wall flows with Coriolis, buoyancy or Lorentz forces2012In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 704, p. 137-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations of subcritical rotating, stratified and magnetohydrodynamic wall-bounded flows are performed in large computational domains, focusing on parameters where laminar and turbulent flow can stably coexist. In most cases, a regime of large-scale oblique laminar-turbulent patterns is identified at the onset of transition, as in the case of pure shear flows. The current study indicates that this oblique regime can be shifted up to large values of the Reynolds number R e by increasing the damping by the Coriolis, buoyancy or Lorentz force. We show evidence for this phenomenon in three distinct flow cases: plane Couette flow with spanwise cyclonic rotation, plane magnetohydrodynamic channel flow with a spanwise or wall-normal magnetic field, and open channel flow under stable stratification. Near-wall turbulence structures inside the turbulent patterns are invariably found to scale in terms of viscous wall units as in the fully turbulent case, while the patterns themselves remain large-scale with a trend towards shorter wavelength for increasing Re. Two distinct regimes are identified: at low Reynolds numbers the patterns extend from one wall to the other, while at large Reynolds number they are confined to the near-wall regions and the patterns on both channel sides are uncorrelated, the core of the flow being highly turbulent without any dominant large-scale structure.

  • 48.
    Brynjell-Rahkola, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    On the stability of a Blasius boundary layer subject to localised suction2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 871, p. 717-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the origins of premature transition due to oversuction in boundary layers are studied. An infinite row of circular suction pipes that are mounted at right angles to a flat plate subject to a Blasius boundary layer is considered. The interaction between the flow originating from neighbouring holes is weak and for the parameters investigated, the pipe is always found to be unsteady regardless of the state of the flow in the boundary layer. A stability analysis reveals that the appearance of boundary layer transition can be associated with a linear instability in the form of two unstable eigenmodes inside the pipe that have weak tails, which extend into the boundary layer. Through an energy budget and a structural sensitivity analysis, the origin of this flow instability is traced to the structures developing inside the pipe near the pipe junction. Although the amplitudes of the modes in the boundary layer are orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding amplitudes inside the pipe, a Koopman analysis of the data gathered from a nonlinear direct numerical simulation confirms that it is precisely these disturbances that are responsible for transition to turbulence in the boundary layer due to oversuction.

  • 49.
    Brynjell-Rahkola, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Shahriari, Nima
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Stability and sensitivity of a cross-flow-dominated Falkner-Skan-Cooke boundary layer with discrete surface roughness2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 826, p. 830-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the motivation of determining the critical roughness size, a global stability and sensitivity analysis of a three-dimensional Falkner-Skan-Cooke (FSC) boundary layer with a cylindrical surface roughness is performed. The roughness size is chosen such that breakdown to turbulence is initiated by a global version of traditional secondary instabilities of the cross-flow (CF) vortices instead of an immediate flow tripping at the roughness. The resulting global eigenvalue spectra of the systems are found to be very sensitive to numerical parameters and domain size. This sensitivity to numerical parameters is quantified using the epsilon-pseudospectrum, and the dependency on the domain is analysed through an impulse response, structural sensitivity analysis and an energy budget. It is shown that while the frequencies remain relatively unchanged, the growth rates increase with domain size, which originates from the inclusion of stronger CF vortices in the baseflow. This is reflected in a change in the rate of advective energy transport by the baseflow. It is concluded that the onset of global instability in a FSC boundary layer as the roughness height is increased does not correspond to an immediate flow tripping behind the roughness, but occurs for lower roughness heights if sufficiently long domains are considered. However, the great sensitivity results in an inability to accurately pinpoint the exact parameter values for the bifurcation, and the large spatial growth of the disturbances in the long domains eventually becomes larger than can be resolved using finite-precision arithmetic.

  • 50.
    Brynjell-Rahkola, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Shahriari, Nima
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Stability and sensitivity of a crossflow-dominated Falkner–Skan–Cooke boundary layer with discrete surface roughness2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the motivation of determining the critical roughness size, a global stability and sensitivity analysis of a three-dimensional Falkner–Skan–Cooke (FSC) boundary layer with a cylindrical surface roughness is performed. The roughness size is chosen such that breakdown to turbulence is initiated by a global version of traditional secondary instabilities of the crossflow (CF) vortices, instead of an immediate flow tripping at the roughness. The resulting global eigenvalue spectra of the systems are found to be very sensitive to numerical parameters and domain size. This sensitivity to numerical parameters is quantified using the "-pseudospectrum, and the dependency on the domain is analysed through an impulse response and an energy budget. It is shown that the growth rates increase with domain size, which originates from the inclusion of stronger CF vortices in the baseflow. This is reflected in a change in the rate of advective energy transport by the baseflow. It is concluded that the onset of global instability in a FSC boundary layer as the roughness height is increased does not correspond to an immediate flow tripping behind the roughness, but occurs for lower roughness heights if su ciently long domains are considered. However, the great sensitivity results in an inability to accurately pinpoint the exact parameter values for the bifurcation, and the large spatial growth of the disturbances in the long domains eventually becomes larger than what can be resolved using finite precision arithmetics. 

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