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  • 1. Campi, Roberta
    Fabrication of AlInGaAs BH-device by in situ etching using TBClIn: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2. Danielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Breitholtz, B.
    Linthicum, K.
    Thomson, D. B.
    Nam, O. -H
    Davis, R. F.
    Simulation and electrical characterization of GaN/SiC and AlGaN/SiC heterodiodes1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-62, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterojunctions on SiC is an area in rapid development, especially GaN/SiC and AlGaN/SiC heterojunctions. The heterojunction can improve the performance considerably for BJTs and FETs. In this work heterojunction diodes have been manufactured and characterized. The structure was a GaN or AlGaN n-type region on top of a 6H-SiC p-type substrate. Two different approaches of growing the n-type region were tested. The GaN was grown with the MBE technique using a polycrystalline GaN buffer, whereas the AlGaN was grown with CVD and an AlN buffer. The AlGaN had an aluminum mole fraction of around 0.1. Mesa structures were formed using Cl2 RIE of GaN/AlGaN, which showed good selectivity on 6H-SiC (about 1:6). A Ti metallization with subsequent RTA was used as contact to GaN and AlGaN, and the contact to 6H-SiC was liquid InGa. Both I-V and C-V measurements were performed on the heterojunction diode. The ideality factor of the diodes, doping concentration of the SiC, and the band alignment of the heterojunction were extracted. © 1999 Elsevier Science S.A.

  • 3. Derakhshandeh, J.
    et al.
    Abdi, Y.
    Mohajerzadeh, S.
    Hosseinzadegan, H.
    Soleimani, E. A.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Fabrication of 100 nm gate length MOSFET's using a novel carbon nanotube-based nano-lithography2005In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 124, p. 354-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PECVD-grown carbon nanotubes on (100)silicon substrates have been studied and exploited for electron emission applications. After the growth of vertical CNT's [Y. Abdi, J. Koohsorkhi, J. Derakhshandeh, S. Mohajerzadeh, H. Hosseinzadegan, M.D. Robertson, C. Benet, EMRS Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, France, May 2005] the grown nanotubes are encapsulated by means of an insulating TiO(2) layer, leading to beam-shape emission of electrons from the cathode towards the opposite anode electrode. The electron emission occurs using an anode-cathode voltage of 100 V with ability of direct writing on a photo-resist-coated substrates. Straight lines with widths between 50 and 200 nm have been successfully drawn. This technique has been applied on P-type (100)silicon substrates for the formation of the gate of N-MOSFET devices. The successful realization of MOSFET devices indicates its usefulness for applications in nano-electronic devices. This device has inversion Cox exceeding 0.7 mu F/cm(2), drive current equal to 3 10 mu A/mu m.

  • 4. Galeckas, A
    et al.
    Linnros, J
    Frischholz, M
    Rottner, K
    Nordell, N
    Karlsson, S
    Grivickas, V
    Investigation of surface recombination and carrier lifetime in 4H/6H-SiC1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 239-243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Galeckas, A.
    et al.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Lindstedt, M.
    Characterization of carrier lifetime and diffusivity in 4H-SiC using time-resolved imaging spectroscopy of electroluminescence2003In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 102, no 03-jan, p. 304-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on time- and spectrally resolved studies of recombination radiation in 4H-SiC by combining imaging spectroscopy and gated optical emission microscopy techniques. An insight into the basic characteristics of 3D carrier dynamics was attained by combining data of electroluminescence imaged from the backside and from the cross-sectional plane of a forward biased PN structures. We demonstrate the potential and efficiency of this method in mapping minority carrier lifetime and diffusivity parameters and also in locating and analysis of the structural defects in the active area. Finally, a detrimental impact of the intrinsic growth-related and long-term operation-induced defects on the carrier transport properties was directly revealed and quantified.

  • 6. Hemmingsson, C
    et al.
    Son, N T
    Kordina, O
    Janzen, E
    Lindstrom, J L
    Savage, S
    Nordell, N
    Capacitance transient studies of electron irradiated 4H-SiC1997In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 46, no 1-3, p. 336-339Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. HIMPSEL, FJ
    et al.
    KARLSSON, Ulf O
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    MCFEELY, FR
    MORAR, JF
    RIEGER, D
    TALEBIBRAHIMI, A
    YARMOFF, JA
    DIELECTRICS ON SEMICONDUCTORS1988In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 9-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Huang, Dan
    et al.
    Guangxi Univ, Guangxi Coll & Univ Key Lab Novel Energy Mat & Re, Guangxi Novel Battery Mat Res Ctr Engn Technol,Sc, Guangxi Key Lab Proc Non Ferrous Metall & Feature, Nanning 530004, Peoples R China.;Guilin Univ Elect Technol, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangxi Collaborat Innovat Ctr Struct & Property, Guilin, Peoples R China..
    Jiang, Jing-Wen
    Guangxi Univ, Guangxi Coll & Univ Key Lab Novel Energy Mat & Re, Guangxi Novel Battery Mat Res Ctr Engn Technol,Sc, Guangxi Key Lab Proc Non Ferrous Metall & Feature, Nanning 530004, Peoples R China..
    Guo, Jin
    Guangxi Univ, Guangxi Coll & Univ Key Lab Novel Energy Mat & Re, Guangxi Novel Battery Mat Res Ctr Engn Technol,Sc, Guangxi Key Lab Proc Non Ferrous Metall & Feature, Nanning 530004, Peoples R China.;Guilin Univ Elect Technol, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Guangxi Collaborat Innovat Ctr Struct & Property, Guilin, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Yu-Jun
    South China Univ Technol, Dept Phys, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, Peoples R China.;South China Univ Technol, Key Lab Adv Energy Storage Mat Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Rongzhen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Persson, Clas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    General rules of the sub-band gaps in group-IV (Si, Ge, and Sn)-doped I-III-VI2-type chalcopyrite compounds for intermediate band solar cell: A first-principles study2018In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 236, p. 147-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we have investigated Si, Ge and Sn doped at III-site(Ga or Al) in CuGaSe2, CuAlSe2, AgGaSe2, and AgAlSe2 as the candidates for intermediate band solar cell (IBSC), and demonstrated that the absolute energy levels of the intermediate band from a given group IV dopant in various Se-based chalcopyrite hosts do not show remarkable changes. This is resulted from the fact that the intermediate band originates from the same anti-bonding state of IV-s and Se-p states. The intermediate bands sequence of Ge* < Sn* < Si* from the different dopants in the same chalcopyrite host is explained by a simple model based on the atomic orbital energy and bond interaction. Furthermore, Sn-doped CuAlSe2 with the suitable main-gap and sub-gaps has been selected out as a potential candidate for IBSC, and alloying with isovalent cations to adjust to proper sub-band gaps has been demonstrated in Ge-doped (Ag,Cu)AlSe2 and Ag(Ga,Al)Se-2.( )

  • 9. Hummelgård, Christine
    et al.
    Karlsson, Rasmus K. S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Rahman, Seikh M. H.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Eriksson, Sten
    Olin, Håkan
    Physical and electrochemical properties of cobalt doped (Ti,Ru)O-2 electrode coatings2013In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 178, no 20, p. 1515-1522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The physical and electrochemical properties of ternary oxides Ti0.7Ru0.3-xCoxO2 (x = 0.093 and x = 0) have been investigated and compared. Samples of three different thicknesses were prepared by spin-coating onto polished titanium to achieve uniform and well-defined coatings. The resulting electrodes were characterized with a variety of methods, including both physical and electrochemical methods. Doping with cobalt led to a larger number of micrometer-sized cracks in the coating, and coating grains half the size compared to the undoped samples (10 instead of 20 nm across). This is in agreement with a voltammetric charge twice as high, as estimated from cyclic voltammetry. There is no evidence of a Co3O4 spinel phase, suggesting that the cobalt is mainly incorporated in the overall rutile structure of the (Ti,Ru)O-2. The doped electrodes exhibited a higher activity for cathodic hydrogen evolution compared to the undoped electrodes, despite the fact that one third of the active ruthenium was substituted with cobalt. For anodic chlorine evolution, the activity was similar for both electrode types.

  • 10.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Isheden, Christian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Baubinas, R.
    Matukas, J.
    Palenskis, V.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Application of selective epitaxy for formation of ultra shallow SiGe-based junctions2004In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 114-115, no SPEC. ISS, p. 180-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-, P- and As-doped Si1-xGex (0.12 < x < 0.26) layers on patterned substrates, aimed for source/drain ultra shallow junctions was investigated. The SiGe layers were deposited selectively on Si surface that is either unprocessed or previously in situ etched by HCl in the same run in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor. In these investigations selectivity mode, pattern dependency (loading effect), defect generation and dopant incorporation in SiGe layers have been discussed. It was demonstrated that the growth rate increased in presence of B in SiGe while it decreased for P- and As-doped layers. The amount of Ge was constant for B-doped samples while it increased for As- and P-doped SiGe layers. The epitaxial quality was dependent on the Ge amount, growth rate and dopant concentration. The selectivity mode of the growth was dependent on B partial pressure, however, no effect was observed for P- or As-doping in SiGe layers. A resistivity value of similar to10(-3) Omega cm was obtained for B- and P-doped SiGe layers with optimized growth parameters.

  • 11.
    Hållstedt, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Suvar, Erdal
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Menon, Cyril
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Methods to reduce the loading effect in selective and non-selective epitaxial growth of sigec layers2004In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 109, no 03-jan, p. 122-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various methods to reduce both global and local loading effect during non-selective and selective epitaxial growth of Si1-x-yGexCy (0.09 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.28 and 0 less than or equal to y less than or equal to 0.01) layers have been proposed. Evaluation of the proposed solutions for issues such as defect generation and the possibility for integration in device structures have been performed. The key point in these methods is based on reduction of surface diffusion of the adsorbed species on the oxide. In non-selective epitaxy, this was achieved by introducing a thin silicon polycrystalline seed layer on the oxide prior to Si1-x-yGexCy deposition. The thickness of this seed layer had a crucial role on both the global and local loading effect, and also on the epitaxial quality. Higher carbon content (y greater than or equal to 0.006) in Si1-x-yGexCy layers had no noticeable influence on the loading effect, however, the defect density was clearly increased in these layers. In selective epitaxy case, introducing square polycrystalline Si stripes around the oxide openings acting as diffusion barriers have reduced the loading effect effectively. Meanwhile, using Si nitride stripes showed no visible effect on Si1-x-yGexCy layer profile. Further decrease in loading effect can be performed by increasing the HCl partial pressure during epitaxy. Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) was performed to remove the polycrystalline stripe on the oxide.

  • 12. Kalinina, E.
    et al.
    Kossov, V.
    Shchukarev, A.
    Bratus, V.
    Pensl, G.
    Rendakova, S.
    Dmitriev, V.
    Hallén, Anders.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Material quality improvements for high voltage 4H-SiC diodes2001In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 80, no 03-jan, p. 337-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of thin 4H-SiC buffer layers grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on structural quality of 4H-SiC low-doped epitaxial layers, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was investigated in detail. A dramatic defect density reduction in CVD epitaxial layers grown on commercial wafers with buffer LPE layer was detected. P(+)n junctions were formed on these CVD layers by high dose Al ion implantation followed by rapid thermal anneal. It was shown that both the increase of diffusion lengths of minority carriers (Lp) in CVD lavers and the forming of p(+)-layers after Al ion implantation and high temperature anneal lead to superior device characteristics.

  • 13. Karlsson, S.
    et al.
    Nordell, Nils
    Industrial Microelectronic Center (IMC), Sweden.
    Spadafora, F.
    Linnarsson, Margareta
    KTH.
    Epitaxial growth of SiC in a new multi-wafer VPE reactor1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-62, p. 143-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SiC epitaxial layers have been grown in a commercial multi-wafer reactor. Results from the initial growth runs are presented. The reactor is vertical and has a high speed rotating susceptor that can support up to six 50 mm diameter wafers. The surface morphology of the grown layers are specular and show no indication of step-bunching. The unintentional background doping is p-type in the low 10(15) cm(-3) range, consisting mainly of Al. Both N and Al have been used for doped layers showing wide doping range capability and sharp transients. The best uniformity in thickness and doping achieved so far on the same 35 mm wafer are +/- 7% and +/- 10%, respectively. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Kassamakova, L
    et al.
    Kakanakov, R
    Nordell, N
    Savage, S
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, A
    Marinova, T
    Study of the electrical, thermal and chemical properties of Pd ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC: dependence on annealing conditions1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 291-295Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Kaushik, Neelam
    et al.
    Sharma, Parmanand
    Nagar, Sandeep
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics.
    Rao, K. V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics.
    Kimura, Hisamichi
    Makino, Akihiro
    Inoue, Akihisa
    Exchange-coupled FePtB nano-composite hard magnets produced by pulsed laser deposition2010In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 171, no 1-3, p. 62-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-composite FePtB thin films were deposited on naturally oxidized (1 0 0) silicon (Si) and glass (SiO2) substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLO) technique. Effects of processing conditions on structural, surface and magnetic properties of the films were examined. Growth temperature (T-s) and the type of substrate (Si or SiO2) are shown to affect crystal structure and magnetic properties of FePtB thin films significantly. Under optimized processing conditions, a similar to 1.7 mu m thick FePtB film deposited on a glass substrate exhibits high coercivity (similar to 7.7 kOe), high reduced remanence [(M-r/M-s) similar to 0.9] and high energy product (BH)(max) = 71 kJ/m(3). The films exhibiting good hard magnetic properties are mainly made-up of nano-sized hard (L1(0)-FePt) and soft (iron-boride) magnetic phases, which are shown to be exchange coupled. Fabrication of hard magnetic thin films by a simple and fast technique such as PLD is very promising for the production of micro magnets for MEMS applications.

  • 16. Kleimann, P.
    et al.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Petersson, C. Sture
    Formation of wide and deep pores in silicon by electrochemical etching2000In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 69, p. 29-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical etching of n-type silicon in hydrofluoric acid electrolyte is now well known as a technique for micro- or macroporous silicon formation. It is commonly admitted that the width of pores can extend over four orders of magnitude, from 2 nm to 20 mu m. In this study the feasibility of using this technique to form larger pores is demonstrated. The use of a water-ethanol solvent mixture (1:1) is shown to modify the electrochemistry of silicon dissolution and pore formation. The formation of stable wide pores requires adjustment of the etching current during the pore formation as a function of the evolution of the current-voltage curve with etching time. An array of 42-mu m wide pores with 2-mu m wall thickness and 200-mu m depth were etched using this method. The feasibility to etch pores up to 100 mu m in width is also presented. The results enable to conclude that the electrochemical etching of n-type silicon could be used to form vertical structures, without restrictions concerning the wall spacing. This provides a useful tool for micro-machining.

  • 17.
    Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    High performance infra-red detectors based on Si/SiGe multilayers quantum structure2012In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 177, no 17, p. 1563-1566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, single crystalline (Sc) Si/SiGe multi quantum structure has been recognized as a new low-cost thermistor material for IR detection. Higher signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) than existing thermistor materials have converted it to a candidate for infrared (IR) detection in night vision applications. In this study, the effects of Ge content, C doping and the Ni silicidation of the contacts on the performance of SiGe/Si thermistor material have been investigated. Finally, an uncooled thermistor material with TCR of -4.5%/K for 100 μm × 100 μm pixel sizes and low noise constant (K 1/f) value of 4.4 × 10 -15 is presented. The outstanding performance of the devices is due to Ni silicide contacts, smooth interfaces, and high quality multi quantum wells (MQWs) containing high Ge content.

  • 18. Kolahdouz, Z.
    et al.
    Kolahdouz, M.
    Ghanbari, H.
    Mohajerzadeh, S.
    Naureen, Shagufta
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Substrate engineering for Ni-assisted growth of carbon nano-tubes2012In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 177, no 17, p. 1542-1546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of carbon multi-walled nano-tubes (MWCNTs) using metal catalyst (e.g. Ni, Co, and Fe) has been extensively investigated during the last decade. In general, the physical properties of CNTs depend on the type, quality and diameter of the tubes. One of the parameters which affects the diameter of a MWCNT is the size of the catalyst metal islands. Considering Ni as the metal catalyst, the formed silicide layer agglomerates (island formation) after a thermal treatment. One way to decrease the size of Ni islands is to apply SiGe as the base for the growth. In this study, different methods based on substrate engineering are proposed to change/control the MWCNT diameters. These include (i) well-controlled oxide openings containing Ni to miniaturize the metal island size, and (ii) growth on strained or partially relaxed SiGe layers for smaller Ni silicide islands.

  • 19. Li, Z. C.
    et al.
    Zhang, H.
    Zou, X. D.
    Bergman, Bill
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Ceramics.
    Synthesis of Sm-doped BaTiO3 ceramics and characterization of a secondary phase2005In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 116, no 1, p. 34-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sm2O3-doped barium titanate ceramics with a positive temperature coefficient of resistivity (PTCR) were synthesized by solid-state reaction sintering. The electrical properties are related to the dopant content. The grain size decreases with increasing dopant content. Electron diffraction analysis revealed that a secondary phase with a space group of P6(3)22 and lattice parameters a = 10.6 Angstrom and c = 20.2 Angstrom formed in the ceramics.

  • 20.
    Linnarsson, M K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Janson, M S
    Karlsson, S
    Schoner, A
    Nordell, N
    Svensson, B G
    Diffusion of light elements in 4H-and 6H-SiC1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deuterium and lithium were introduced in p-type SiC by implantation of 20 keV H-2(+) or 30 keV Li-7(+) ions in order to form a diffusion source. The samples were subsequently annealed in vacuum in the temperature range 400-700 degrees C for 0.25 to 16 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to measure the deuterium and the lithium distribution after heat treatments. Both deuterium and lithium readily decorate the bombardment-induced defects in the vicinity of the ion implantation profile and they are also trapped, most likely by residual boron impurities, during diffusion into the bulk. An effective diffusion coefficient, reflecting the dissociation of trapped lithium, with an activation energy of 2.1 eV is extracted for lithium diffusion in p-type 6H SIG. Furthermore, a capture radius for trapping (most likely by boron) of deuterium is estimated as 10 Angstrom. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  • 21. Monakhov, E.
    et al.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    La Magna, A.
    Privitera, V.
    Fortunato, G.
    Mariucci, L.
    Boron-enhanced diffusion in excimer laser annealed Si2004In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 114-15, p. 114-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of excimer laser annealing (ELA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on B redistribution in B-implanted Si has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and spreading resistance probe (SRP). B has been implanted with an energy of 1 keV and a dose of 10(16) cm(-2) forming a distribution with a width of 20-30nm and a peak concentration of similar to5 x 10(21) cm(-3). It has been found that ELA with 10 pulses of the energy density of 850 mJ/cm(2) results in a uniform B distribution over the ELA-molten region with an abrupt profile edge. SRP measurements demonstrate good activation of the implanted B after ELA, with the concentration of the activated fraction (similar to10(21) cm(-3)) exceeding the solid solubility level. RTA (30 s at 1100degreesC) of the as-implanted and ELA-treated samples leads to a diffusion of B with diffusivities exceeding the equilibrium one and the enhancement is similar for both of the samples. It is also found that RTA decreases the activated B in the ELA-treated sample to the solid solubility limit (2 x 10(20) cm(-3)). The similarity of the B diffusivity for the as-implanted and ELA-treated samples suggests that the enhancement of the B diffusivity is due to the so-called boron-enhanced diffusion (BED). Possible mechanisms of BED are discussed.

  • 22. Monakhov, E. V.
    et al.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    La Magna, A.
    Italia, M.
    Privitera, V.
    Fortunato, G.
    Cuscuna, M.
    Mariucci, L.
    Boron distribution in silicon after excimer laser annealing with multiple pulses2005In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 124, p. 228-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied B re-distribution in Si after excimer laser annealing (ELA) with multiple laser pulses. B was implanted using both B and BF2 ions with energies from 1 to 20 keV and doses of 1 x 10(14) and 1 x 10(15) cm(-2). ELA with the number of pulses from 1 to 100 was performed in vacuum with the sample kept at room temperature and 450 degrees C. Independently of the implantation parameters and the ELA conditions used, a peak in the B concentration is observed near the maximum melting depth after 10 pulses of ELA. A detailed study has revealed that B accumulates at the maximum melt depth gradually with the number of ELA pulses. An increase in the carrier concentration at the maximum melt depth is observed after ELA with 100 pulses. No structural defects have been detected by transmission electron microscopy in the region of the B accumulation.

  • 23. Monakhov, E. V.
    et al.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    La Magna, A.
    Italia, M.
    Privitera, V.
    Fortunato, G.
    Cuscuna, M.
    Mariucci, L.
    Excimer laser annealing of B and BF2 implanted Si2005In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 124, p. 232-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed a comparative study of B re-distribution and electrical activation after excimer laser annealing (ELA) of B and BF2 implanted Si. Chemical B concentration and electrical activation profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and spreading resistance profiling (SRP), respectively. SIMS data demonstrate that the presence of F does not influence significantly the re-distribution of B during ELA. A dramatic contrast, however, can be observed in the electrical activation of the dopant in the B and BF2 implanted samples. While almost 100% electrical activation of B occurs in the B implanted samples, only 20-50% of the dopant can be activated by ELA in the BF2 implanted sample. Possible mechanisms causing the deactivation of B in the BF2 implanted samples after ELA are discussed.

  • 24. Monakhov, E. V.
    et al.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    La Magna, A.
    Privitera, V.
    Camalleri, M.
    Fortunato, G.
    Mariucci, L.
    Excimer laser annealing of shallow As and B doped layers2004In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 114-15, p. 352-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) of As-, B- and BF2-implanted Si has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), spreading resistance probe (SRP) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The implantations have been performed in the energy range from I to 30 keV with doses of 10(15)-10(16) cm(-2). ELA has been carried out with the energy densities in the range of 600-1200 mJ/cm(2) and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 10. It is shown that ELA results in a more uniform dopant distribution over the doped region with a more abrupt profile edge as compared to those after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Besides, in contrast to RTA, ELA demonstrates a highly confined annealing effect, where the distribution of dopants below the melting region is not affected. SRP measurements demonstrate almost complete activation of the implanted dopants after ELA, and TEM does not reveal extended defects in the ELA-treated samples. The depth of the doped layers, abruptness of the profiles and the total doping dose as a function of ELA energy density and number of laser pulses are investigated. Computer simulations of ELA show a good agreement with the experimental data.

  • 25. Nordell, N
    et al.
    Karlsson, S
    Konstantinov, A O
    Equilibrium crystal shapes for 6H AND 4H SiC grown on non-planar substrates1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 130-134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Osterman, J.
    et al.
    Abtin, L.
    Zimmermann, U.
    Janson, M. S.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hallin, C.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Scanning spreading resistance microscopy of aluminum implanted 4H-SiC2003In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 102, no 03-jan, p. 128-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the application of scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) for characterization of aluminum implanted 4H-SiC are presented. The implanted profiles are investigated electrically and morphologically as a function of post-implantation anneal conditions. The method is shown to be advantageous for measuring and optimizing the activation in many aspects with respect to existing alternative techniques: it provides information of the entire depth and Al concentration range, it is unaffected by annealing induced re-growth and/or surface roughening, and requires little sample preparation. The results indicate that the apparent activation and surface roughness do not saturate in the investigated temperature range of 1500-1650 degreesC. Finally, an apparent activation energy for the process of 3 eV is estimated.

  • 27.
    Radamson, Henry
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    European Materials Research Society (EMRS) Symposium on Transport and Photonics in Si-based Nanomaterials and Nanodevices - May 9-13, 2-112012In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 177, no 17, p. 1523-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Ghandi, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    High strain amount in recessed junctions induced by selectively deposited boron-doped SiGe layers2008In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 154, p. 106-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of Si1-xGex (x=0.15-0.315) layers with high amount of boron (1 x 10(20)-1 x 10(21) cm(-3)) in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been Studied. The influence of the growth rate and strain on boron incorporation has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and boron incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  • 29. Schoner, A
    et al.
    Karlsson, S
    Schmitt, T
    Nordell, N
    Linnarsson, M
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Hall effect investigations of 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on semi-insulating and conducting substrates1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen- and aluminum-doped 4H silicon carbide epitaxial layers were grown simultaneously on semi-insulating and conducting substrates. The layers were investigated by conventional van der Pauw Hall effect measurements and for comparison also with secondary ion mass spectrometry and capacitance voltage measurements. It was found, that the carrier concentration in the layers grown on conducting substrates were overestimated by the Hall effect measurement, which leads to an underestimation of the ionization energy of the main dopant, as compared to the layer grown on semi-insulating substrates. The difference can be explained by a two-layer Hall effect model. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  • 30. Suomalainen, S.
    et al.
    Guina, M.
    Hakulinen, T.
    Koskinen, R.
    Paajaste, J.
    Karjalainen, M.
    Saarinen, M.
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Okhotnikov, O. G.
    Semiconductor saturable absorbers with recovery time controlled by lattice mismatch and band-gap engineering2008In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 147, no 2-3, p. 156-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recovery time of absorption in semiconductor quantum-well structures is one of the key parameters that determines the performance of pulsed lasers mode-locked or Q-switched by semiconductor saturable absorbers. In this paper we discuss new methods to control the recovery time of absorption. The first method is based on controlling the crystalline quality of the absorbing material and thus the density of non-radiative recombination centers that are responsible for the fast recovery of the absorption. With this technique, we were able to fabricate semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) with recovery times of about 4.5 ps at 1 mu m and 40 ps at 1.55 mu m. Another approach that we propose and demonstrate in this paper is based on band-gap engineering that enables short recovery times to be achieved through fast relaxation of excited photocarriers via intraband scattering. A 24 ps carrier decay time was achieved by placing deep quantum-wells next to the shallow quantum-wells responsible for the nonlinear absorption. We demonstrated that the recovery time can be changed by modifying the thickness of the deep and shallow quantum-wells.

  • 31. Varzgar, John B.
    et al.
    Kanoun, Mehdi
    Uppal, Suresh
    Chattopadhyay, Sanatan
    Tsang, Yuk Lun
    Escobedo-Cousins, Enrique
    Olsen, Sarah H.
    O'Neill, Anthony
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Edholm, Jonas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lyutovich, Klara
    Oehme, Michael
    Kasper, Erich
    Reliability study of ultra-thin gate oxides on strained-Si/SiGe MOS structures2006In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 203-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability of gate oxides on bulk Si and strained Si (s-Si) has been evaluated using constant voltage stressing (CVS) to investigate their breakdown characteristics. The s-Si architectures exhibit a shorter life time compared to that of bulk Si, which is attributed to higher bulk oxide charges (Q(ox)) and increased surface roughness in the s-Si structures. The gate oxide in the s-Si structure exhibits a hard breakdown (HBD) at 1.9 x 10(4) s, whereas HBD is not observed in bulk Si up to a measurement period of 1.44 x 10(5) s. The shorter lifetime of the s-Si gate oxide is attributed to a larger injected charge (Q(inj)) compared to Q(inj) in bulk Si. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements for bulk Si samples at different stress intervals show an increase in stress induced leakage current (SILC) of two orders in the low voltage regime from zero stress time to up to 5 x 10(4) s. In contrast, superior performance enhancements in terms of drain current, maximum transconductance and effective channel mobility are observed in s-Si MOSFET devices compared to bulk Si. The results from this study indicate that further improvement in gate oxide reliability is needed to exploit the sustained performance enhancement of s-Si devices over bulk Si.

  • 32.
    Wang, Zhechao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Hu, Chen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101), Photonics (Closed 20120101).
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    III-Vs on Si for photonic applications-A monolithic approach2012In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 177, no 17, p. 1551-1557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology is demonstrated as a viable technology to realize monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon. As an alternative to wafer-to-wafer bonding and die-to-wafer bonding, ELOG provides an attractive platform for fabricating discrete and integrated components in high volume at low cost. A possible route for monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon for silicon photonics is exemplified by the case of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) by combining InP on Si/SiO2 through ELOG. Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. The structural design of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) and its thermal resistivity are established through simulations. Material studies to realize the above laser through ELOG are undertaken by studying appropriate ELOG pattern designs to achieve InP on narrow regions of silicon. We show that defect-free InP can be obtained on SiO2 as the first step which paves the way for realizing active photonic devices on Si/SiO2 waveguides, e.g. an MECSL.

  • 33. Zhang, J
    et al.
    Ellison, A
    Henry, A
    Linnarsson, M K
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Janzen, E
    Nitrogen impurity incorporation behavior in a chimney HTCVD process: pressure and temperature dependence1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 151-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results are presented for residual nitrogen incorporation in both Si and C face 4H SiC epilayers using the high temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) process in a chimney reactor. The influence of total pressure, process temperature and input C/Si ratio on the residual nitrogen doping is studied. The results are further confirmed by intentional nitrogen doping experiments. Activation energies of 200 kcal/mol for Si face and 108 kcal/mol for C face samples are obtained for nitrogen incorporation. Possible incorporation mechanisms related to both surface and gas phase kinetics are discussed. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

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