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  • 1. Al-Naamani, Laila
    et al.
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Burgess, J. Grant
    Chitosan-zinc oxide nanocomposite coatings for the prevention of marine biofouling2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 168, p. 408-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine biofouling is a worldwide problem affecting maritime industries. Global concerns about the high toxicity of antifouling paints have highlighted the need to develop less toxic antifouling coatings. Chitosan is a natural polymer with antimicrobial, antifungal and antialgal properties that is obtained from partial deacetylation of crustacean waste. In the present study, nanocomposite chitosan-zinc oxide (chitosan-ZnO) nanoparticle hybrid coatings were developed and their antifouling activity was tested. Chitosan-ZnO nanoparticle coatings showed anti-diatom activity against Navicula sp. and antibacterial activity against the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens. Additional antifouling properties of the coatings were investigated in a mesocosm study using tanks containing natural sea water under controlled laboratory conditions. Each week for four weeks, biofilm was removed and analysed by flow cytometry to estimate total bacterial densities on the coated substrates. Chitosan-ZnO hybrid coatings led to better inhibition of bacterial growth in comparison to chitosan coatings alone, as determined by flow cytometry. This study demonstrates the antifouling potential of chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite hybrid coatings, which can be used for the prevention of biofouling. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Atasoy, Merve
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Bioaugmented mixed culture fermentation by Clostridium aceticum to enhance acetic acid dominant volatile fatty acids production from dairy industry wastewaterIn: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     By increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA) production efficiency via fermentation can lead to shifting from industrial wastewater treatment plants to biorefineries. In the current paper, acetic acid dominant VFA mixture production by bioaugmentation of mixed culture with Clostridium aceticum was aimed. The maximum acetic acid concentration was increased 10 times in the bioaugmented reactor (1170±18 mgCOD/L) than the control reactor (122±9 mgCOD/L). Additionally, the highest total VFA production was 5 times higher in bioaugmented reactor than the control reactor. Nevertheless, the bioaugmentation did not affect the propionic acid dominancy in the VFA mixture. The correlation analysis stated that the copy gene number of C. aceticum was highly correlated with acetic acid (p<0.05) and iso-valeric acid (p<0.01). The cycle analysis stated that 6 hours was adequate retention time to have the same acetic acid and total VFA production efficiency instead of 24 hours. 

  • 3. Beijer, K.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Shaik, S.
    Lindberg, R. H.
    Brunström, B.
    Brandt, I.
    Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 342-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Käppala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87–95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Käppala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O3/m3) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O3/m3) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Käppala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1As and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.

  • 4.
    Budnyak, Tetyana M.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Vag 16C, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Onwumere, Joy
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Vag 16C, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pylypchuk, Ievgen, V
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Jaworski, Aleksander
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Vag 16C, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chen, Jianhong
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Vag 16C, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rokicinska, Anna
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Vag 16C, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Kustrowski, Piotr
    Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Chem, Gronostajowa 2, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. Jagiellonian Univ, Fac Chem, Gronostajowa 2, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Slabon, Adam
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Svante Arrhenius Vag 16C, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    LignoPhot: Conversion of hydrolysis lignin into the photoactive hybrid lignin/Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr composite for simultaneous dyes oxidation and Co2+ and Ni2+ recycling2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 279, article id 130538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Valorization of lignin is still an open question and lignin has therefore remained an underutilized biomaterial. This situation is even more pronounced for hydrolysis lignin, which is characterized by a highly condensed and excessively cross-linked structure. We demonstrate the synthesis of photoactive lignin/Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr bio-inorganic composites consisting of a lignin substrate that is coated by semiconducting nanosheets. The XPS analysis reveals that growing these nanosheets on lignin instead on cellulose prevents the formation of Bi5+ ions at the surface region, yielding thus a modified hetero-junction Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr. The material contains 18.9% of Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr and is effective for the photocatalytic degradation of cationic methylene blue (MB) and zwitterionic rhodamine B (RhB) dyes under light irradiation. Lignin/Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr decreases the dye concentration from 80 mg L-1 to 12.3 mg L-1 for RhB (85%) and from 80 mg L-1 to 4.4 mg L-1 for MB (95%). Complementary to the dye degradation, the lignin as a main component of the composite, was found to be efficient and rapid biosorbent for nickel, lead, and cobalt ions. The low cost, stability and ability to simultaneously photo-oxidize organic dyes and adsorb metal ions, make the photoactive lignin/Bi4O5Br2/BiOBr composite a prospective material for textile wastewaters remediation and metal ions recycling.

  • 5. Campos Pereira, H.
    et al.
    Ullberg, M.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ahrens, L.
    Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to an organic soil horizon – Effect of cation composition and pH2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 207, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate prediction of the sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils is essential for environmental risk assessment. We investigated the effect of solution pH and calculated soil organic matter (SOM) net charge on the sorption of 14 PFASs onto an organic soil as a function of pH and added concentrations of Al3+, Ca2+ and Na+. Often, the organic C-normalized partitioning coefficients (KOC) showed a negative relationship to both pH (Δlog KOC/ΔpH = −0.32 ± 0.11 log units) and the SOM bulk net negative charge (Δlog KOC = −1.41 ± 0.40 per log unit molc g−1). Moreover, perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) sorbed more strongly than perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and the PFAS sorption increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length with 0.60 and 0.83 log KOC units per CF2 moiety for C3–C10 PFCAs and C4, C6, and C8 PFSAs, respectively. The effects of cation treatment and SOM bulk net charge were evident for many PFASs with low to moderate sorption (C5–C8 PFCAs and C6 PFSA). However for the most strongly sorbing and most long-chained PFASs (C9–C11 and C13 PFCAs, C8 PFSA and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)), smaller effects of cations were seen, and instead sorption was more strongly related to the pH value. This suggests that the most long-chained PFASs, similar to other hydrophobic organic compounds, are preferentially sorbed to the highly condensed domains of the humin fraction, while shorter-chained PFASs are bound to a larger extent to humic and fulvic acid, where cation effects are significant.

  • 6.
    Chernyshev, Alexander N.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Maier, Annika Carolin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Solubilization of Ni(II) and Eu(III) through complexation with a polyaryl ether based superplasticizer in alkaline media2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 263, article id 127686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solubilisation of Ni(II) and Eu(III) by complexation with a polyaryl ether based superplasticizer (PAE SP) in alkaline solutions was studied. The solubilization was investigated in two types of artificial cement pore waters simulating different stages of cement degradation at a pH of 12.4 and 13.3, respectively. The solubility of Ni(II) and Eu(III) increased as the concentration of superplasticizer was increased from 0.04 to 0.4 wt%. When the concentration of SP was increased from 0.4 to 4%, the solubility of Eu(III) and Ni(II) increased in the pore water with a pH of 12.4, while the concentrations decreased in the pore water with a pH of 13.3. This is explained by a more rapid degradation of the superplasticizer at higher pH leading to a release of phosphate groups and thereby precipitation of Eu(III) and Ni(II) as phosphates. Based on results of the solubilisation of Ni(II) and Eu(III) by model compounds (anisole and PEG 400) and 31P NMR spectroscopy it was confirmed that the complexation of the studied metals with the PAE polymer occurs via the phosphate group of the superplasticizer.

  • 7. Eriksson, M.
    et al.
    Faldt, J.
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Biotechnology.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemistry.
    Determination of hydrocarbons in old creosote contaminated soil using headspace solid phase microextraction and GC-MS2001In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 1641-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been used together with GC-MS to analyze organic substances directly in a soil, heavily contaminated with PAHs/creosote (similar to 300 mg/kg soil), from an old gaswork site in Stockholm, Sweden. The HS-SPME results, both qualitative and quantitative, were compared with traditional liquid extraction using ethyl acetate/hexane (20:80). It was shown that the concentrations determined with HS-SPME at 60 degreesC correlated well, for compounds containing up to two and three aromatic rings (naphthalenes, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorenes, while a lower concentration was obtained for phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The total concentrations for each compound determined with HS-SPME ranged from 2 to 25 mug/g soil. Quantification was done using standard addition of compounds directly to the soil samples. The bioavailable fraction of the compounds in the contaminated soil at 20 degreesC was analyzed using external calibration by spiking sterile uncontaminated sand (same texture and particle size as the contaminated soil but without a heavily sorbed organic fraction) with hydrocarbon standards in different concentrations. Storage of exposed fibers at 20 degreesC showed that analysis should be done within two days to make qualitative measurements and earlier (as soon as possible) for quantitative determinations.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Akram, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    Predicting sulphate adsorption/desorption in forest soils: Evaluation of an extended Freundlich equation2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulphate adsorption and desorption can delay the response in soil acidity against changes in acid input. Here we evaluate the use of an extended Freundlich equation for predictions of pH-dependent SO4 adsorption and desorption in low-ionic strength soil systems. Five B horizons from Spodosols were subjected to batch equilibrations at low ionic strength at different pHs and dissolved SO4 concentrations. The proton coadsorption stoichiometry (eta), i.e. the number of H+ ions co-adsorbed for every adsorbed SO42- ion, was close to 2 in four of five soils. This enabled the use of a Freundlich equation that involved only two adjustable parameters (the Freundlich coefficient K-F and the non-ideality parameter m). With this model a satisfactory fit was obtained when only two data points were used for calibration. The root-mean square errors of log adsorbed SO4 ranged from 0.006 to 0.052. The model improves the possibility to consider SO4 adsorption/desorption processes correctly in dynamic soil chemistry models.

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  • 9.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Regulating BFRs - From science to policy2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 144-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An adequate distribution of responsibilities between scientists and policy-makers requires that a distinction be made between theoretical rationality (what to believe) and practical rationality (what to do). In chemical risk management, it is often necessary to base decisions on indications of risk that do not amount to full scientific proof. Guidelines are offered for how this can be done without infringing upon the integrity of science. Furhtermore, it is shown that the application of standard decision theory to chemical risks yields conclusions very much in agreement with the precautionary principle.

  • 10. Heijerick, D. G.
    et al.
    Janssen, C. R.
    Karlen, C.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Bioavailability of zinc in runoff water from roofing materials2002In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 47, no 10, p. 1073-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion and runoff from zinc-coated materials and outdoor structures is an important source for the dispersion of zinc in the environment. Being part of a large inter-disciplinary research project, this study presents the bioavailability of zinc in runoff water immediately after release from the surface of 15 different commercially available zinc-based materials exposed to the urban environment of Stockholm, Sweden. Runoff water was analysed chemically and evaluated for its possible environmental impact, using both a biosensor test with the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus (Biomet(R)) and the conventional 72 h growth inhibition test with the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. Chemical speciation modelling revealed that most zinc (94.3-99.9%) was present as the free Zn ion, the most bioavailable speciation form. These findings were confirmed by the results of the biosensor test (Biomet(R)) which indicated that all zinc was indeed bioavailable. Analysis of the ecotoxicity data also suggested that the observed toxic effects were due to the presence of Zn2+ ions. Finally, regression analysis showed that, for this type of runoff samples, the rapid screening biosensor was capable of predicting (a) the total amount of zinc present in the runoff samples (R-2 of 0.93-0.98; p < 0.05) and (b) the observed 72 h-EbC(50)s (R-2 of 0.69-0.97; p < 0.05).

  • 11. Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Borg, Hans
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Can natural levels of Al influence Cu speciation and toxicity to Daphnia magna in a Swedish soft water lake?2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 138, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that chemical parameters, such as natural organic matter (NOM), cation content and pH may influence speciation and toxicity of metals in freshwaters. Advanced bioavailability models, e.g. Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs), can use these and other chemical parameters to calculate site specific recommendations for metals in the aquatic environment. However, since Al is not an input parameter in the BLM v.2.2.3, used in this study, there could be a discrepancy between calculated and measured results in Al rich waters. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the presence of Al in a circumneutral (pH 6) soft humic freshwater, Lake St. Envättern, will affect the Cu speciation and thereby the toxicity to the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The results show a statistically significant increase in the free Cu2+ concentration with Al additions and that measured levels of Cu2+ significantly differed from BLM calculated levels of Cu2+. Furthermore, there was also a statistically significant elevated acute toxic response to D. magna at low additions of Al (10μg/L). However, since the large difference between calculated and measured Cu2+ resulted in a significant but minor (factor of 2.3) difference between calculated and measured toxicity, further studies should be conducted in Al rich soft waters to evaluate the importance of adding Al as an input parameter into the BLM software.

  • 12. Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    et al.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Caporale, Antonio Giandonato
    Adamo, Paola
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Removal of metal(oid)s from contaminated water using iron-coated peat sorbent2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 198, p. 290-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at combining iron and peat to produce a sorbent suitable for a simultaneous removal of cations and anions from a solution. Peat powder, an industrial residue, was coated with iron by immersing peat into iron salt solutions. The adsorption efficiency of the newly produced sorbent towards As, Cr, Cu and Zn was tested by means of batch adsorption experiments at a constant pH value of 5. Coating of Fe on peat significantly increased the adsorption of As (from <5% to 80%) and Cr (from <3% to 25%) in comparison to uncoated peat. Removal of cations on coated peat slightly decreased (by 10-15%), yet remained within acceptable range. Electron Microscopy combined with X-Ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy revealed that iron coating on the peat was rather homogenous and As and Cr were abundantly adsorbed on the surface. By contrast, Cu and Zn displayed a sparing distribution on the surface of the iron coated peat. These results indicate that iron-peat simultaneously target sufficient amounts of both cations and anions and can be used for a one-step treatment of contaminated groundwater.

  • 13.
    Kendir Cakmak, Ece
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Industrial Biotechnology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. Department of Environmental Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 06800, Turkey.
    Chen, Chen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. UCAM-SENS, Universidad Catolica San Antonio de Murcia, UCAM HiTech, Avda. Andres Hernandez Ros 1, 30107, Murcia, Spain, Avda. Andres Hernandez Ros 1.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Industrial Biotechnology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    How to develop a bio-based phosphorus mining strategy for eutrophic marine sediments: Unlocking native microbial processes for anaerobic phosphorus release2024In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 358, article id 142188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the anaerobic release of phosphorus (P) from two different Baltic Sea sediments (B and F), focusing on the impact of initial concentration of externally introduced waste-derived volatile fatty acids (VFA) as the carbon source, temperature, pH, and mixing conditions. The first batch bioreactor set was operated to demonstrate the effect of VFA on anaerobic P release at different concentrations (1000–10000 mg/L as COD) at 20 °C. A notable P release of up to 15.85 mg/L PO4–P was observed for Sediment B at an initial carbon concentration of 10000 mg COD/L. However, VFA consumption in the bioreactors was minimal or no subsequent. The second batch bioreactor set was carried out to investigate the effect of temperature (20 °C-35 °C), pH (5.5, 7.0 and 8.5) and mixing conditions on P release by introducing lower initial carbon concentration (1000 mg COD/L) considering the potential risk for VFA accumulation in the bioreactors. Maximum P releases of 4.4 mg/L and 3.5 mg/L were for Sediment B and Sediment F, respectively. Two-way ANOVA tests revealed that the operation time and pH and their interactions were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for both sediments while the effect of mixing was not statistically significant. Most of the sulfate was reduced during batch bioreactor operation and Desulfomicobiaceae became dominant among other sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) possibly shows the importance of SRB in terms of anaerobic P release. This study gives an insight into future implementations of phosphorus mining from eutrophic environment under anaerobic conditions.

  • 14. Khai, Nguyen Manh
    et al.
    Oborn, Ingrid
    Hillier, Steve
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Modeling of metal binding in tropical Fluvisols and Acrisols treated with biosolids and wastewater2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 1338-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing concern about the accumulation of metals in tropical agricultural soils. In this study, experimental results from batch studies were used to test whether multi-surface geochemical models could describe metal binding in selected Vietnamese soils. The multi-surface models considered metal binding to iron hydroxides (using the diffuse layer model), organic matter (Stockholm Humic model and NICA-Donnan model), and phyllosilicate clay (Gaines-Thomas equation) as well as complexation to dissolved organic and inorganic ligands in the solution phase. We found that for total dissolved Cd, Cu and Zn the two multi-surface models being tested provided very good model fits for all soils, as evidenced by low root-mean square errors between model predictions and observations. These results suggest that organic matter is an important sorbent for many metals in these soils. However, poor fits were obtained for Cr(III), Mn and Pb for all soils. The study also suggests that the pH is the main factor that controls the solubility of metals in tropical Fluvisols and Acrisols subjected to application of biosolids and wastewater, and that advanced multi-surface models can be used to simulate the binding and release of many trace metals.

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  • 15.
    Khatami, Kasra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Atasoy, Merve
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Ludtke, Maximilian
    Baresel, Christian
    Eyice, Özge
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Bioconversion of food waste to volatile fatty acids: impact of microbial community, pH and retention time2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, p. 129981-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based production of materials from waste streams is a pivotal aspect in a circular economy. This study aimed to investigate the influence of inoculum (three different sludge taken from anaerobic digestors), pH (5 & 10) and retention time on production of total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), VFA composition as well as the microbial community during anaerobic digestion of food waste. The highest VFA production was ∼22000 ± 1036 mg COD/L and 12927 ± 1029 mg COD/L on day 15 using the inoculum acclimated to food waste at pH 10 and pH 5, respectively. Acetic acid was the dominant VFA in the batch reactors with initial alkaline conditions, whereas both propionic and acetic acids were the dominant products in the acidic condition. Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes had the highest relative abundance in the reactors. VFA generation was positively correlated to the relative abundance of Firmicutes.

  • 16.
    Kietlinska, Agnieszka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    An evaluation of reactive filter media for treating landfill leachate2005In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 933-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A laboratory bench-scale column study was conducted to evaluate permeable reactive filter materials as a new method for removal of heavy metals and inorganic nitrogen from landfill leachate. Mixtures of sand and peat, blast-furnace slag (BFS) and peat, and Polonite (R) and peat were tested by loading columns with leachate collected from a pond at Tvetaverket Landfill, Sweden. Sand, peat and Polonite (R) represent natural materials. BFS is a by-product from steel-works. The metal treatment efficiencies of the media were assessed and Polonite (R) was found to perform best, where Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations were removed by 99%, 93%, 86% and 67%, respectively. This material was also able to reduce inorganic N by 18%. The BFS showed good removal efficiency for Cu (66%), Zn (62%), Ni (19%) and Mo (16%). The sand-peat mixture did not demonstrate a promising removal capacity for any of the elements studied with the exception of Cu (25%). The removal of different elements was suggested to be a combination of several factors, i.e. precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption. Prior to full-scale application of reactive filters at a landfill site, matrix selection, filter design and operational procedures must be developed.

  • 17. Kumar, M.
    et al.
    Ramanatahn, A. L.
    Tripathi, R.
    Farswan, S.
    Kumar, D.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    A study of trace element contamination using multivariate statistical techniques and health risk assessment in groundwater of Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 166, p. 135-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an investigation on spatio-chemical, contamination sources (using multivariate statistics), and health risk assessment arising from the consumption of groundwater contaminated with trace and toxic elements in the Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. In this study 33 tubewell water samples were analyzed for 28 elements using ICP-OES. Concentration of some trace and toxic elements such as Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U exceeded their corresponding WHO (2011) guidelines and BIS (2012) standards while the other analyzed elements remain below than those values. Background γ and β radiation levels were observed and found to be within their acceptable limits. Multivariate statistics PCA (explains 82.07 cumulative percent for total 6 of factors) and CA indicated (mixed origin) that natural and anthropogenic activities like industrial effluent and agricultural runoff are responsible for the degrading of groundwater quality in the research area. In this study area, an adult consumes 3.0 L (median value) of water therefore consuming 39, 1.94, 1461, 0.14, 11.1, 292.6, 13.6, 23.5 μg of Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U from drinking water per day respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) value exceeded the safe limit of 1 which for As, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb and U at few locations while hazard index (HI) > 5 was observed in about 30% of the samples which indicated potential health risk from these tubewells for the local population if the groundwater is consumed.

  • 18. Kumar, Manish
    et al.
    Das, Nilotpal
    Goswami, Ritusmita
    Sarma, Kali Prasad
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ramanathan, A. L.
    Coupling fractionation and batch desorption to understand arsenic and fluoride co-contamination in the aquifer system2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 164, p. 657-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is an attempt to study As and F+ coevality using laboratory based assays which couples fractionation and batch dissolution experiments. Sequential extraction procedure (SEP) resulting into five "operationally defined phases", was performed on sediment and soil samples collected from the Brahmaputra flood plains, Assam, India. High correlation between the Fe (hydr)oxide fraction and total As content of the soil/sediment sample indicates the involvement of Fe (hydr)oxides as the principal source of As. F- being an anion has high potential to be sorbed onto positively charged surfaces. Findings of the SEP were used to design the batch desorption experiments by controlling the Fe (hydr)oxide content of the soil/sediment. Desorption of As and F- was observed under acidic, neutral and alkaline pH from untreated and Fe (hydr)oxide removed samples. Highest amount of As and F- were found to be released from untreated samples under alkaline pH, while the amount leached from samples with no Fe (hydr) oxide was low. The study showed that the Fe (hydr)oxide fraction commonly found in the soils and sediments, had high affinity for negatively charged species like F- oxyanions of As, AsO43- (arsenate) and AsO33- (arsenite). Fe (hydr)oxide fraction was found to play the major role in co-evolution of As and F-. Two sorption coefficients were proposed based on easily leachable fraction and As present in the groundwater of sampling location for understanding of contamination vulnerability from the leaching.

  • 19.
    Kumar, Rakesh
    et al.
    Nalanda Univ, Sch Ecol & Environm Studies, Rajgir 803116, Bihar, India..
    Manna, Camelia
    West Bengal Univ Anim & Fishery Sci, Fac Vet & Anim Sci, Kolkata 700037, W Bengal, India..
    Padha, Shaveta
    Cent Univ Jammu, Dept Zool, Jammu 181143, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Verma, Anurag
    Nalanda Univ, Sch Ecol & Environm Studies, Rajgir 803116, Bihar, India..
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Nalanda Univ, Sch Ecol & Environm Studies, Rajgir 803116, Bihar, India..
    Dhar, Anjali
    Cent Univ Jammu, Dept Zool, Jammu 181143, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Ghosh, Ashok
    Mahavir Canc Sansthan & Res Ctr, Patna 801505, Bihar, India.;Bihar Pollut Control Board, Patna 800010, Bihar, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Micro(nano)plastics pollution and human health: How plastics can induce carcinogenesis to humans?2022In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 298, p. 134267-, article id 134267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) are key indicators of the plasticine era, widely spread across different ecosystems. MPs and NPs become global stressors due to their inherent physicochemical characteristics and potential impact on ecosystems and humans. MPs and NPs have been exposed to humans via various pathways, such as tap water, bottled water, seafood, beverages, milk, fish, salts, fruits, and vegetables. This paper highlights MPs and NPs pathways to the food chains and how these plastic particles can cause risks to human health. MPs have been evident in vivo and vitro and have been at health risks, such as respiratory, immune, reproductive, and digestive systems. The present work emphasizes how various MPs and NPs, and associated toxic chemicals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), impact human health. Polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are common MPs and NPs, reported in human implants via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure, which can cause carcinogenesis, according to Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) reports. Inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure-response cause genotoxicity, cell division and viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress induction, metabolism disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and immunological responses in humans. Lastly, this review work concluded with

  • 20. Larsson, Maja A.
    et al.
    Hadialhejazi, Golshid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vanadium sorption by mineral soils: Development of a predictive model2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 168, p. 925-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of vanadium in soils depends on its sorption to soil components. Here we studied the vanadate(V) sorption properties of 26 mineral soils. The data were used to optimise parameters for a Freundlich equation with a pH term. Vanadium K-edge XANES spectroscopy for three selected soils confirmed that the added vanadate(V) had accumulated mostly as adsorbed vanadate(V) on Fe and Al hydrous oxides, with only minor contributions from organically complexed vanadium(IV). Data on pH-dependent V solubility for seven soils showed that on average 0.36 H+ accompanied each V during adsorption and desorption. The resulting model provided reasonable fits to the V sorption data, with r2 &gt; 0.99 for 20 of 26 soils. The observed KdS value, i.e. the ratio of total to dissolved V, was strongly dependent on V addition and soil; it varied between 3 and 4 orders of magnitude. The model was used to calculate the Freundlich sorption strength (FSS), i.e. the amount of V sorbed at [V] = 2.5 mg L−1, in the concentration range of observed plant toxicities. A close relationship between FSS and oxalate-extractable Fe and Al was found (r2 = 0.85) when one acidic soil was removed from the regression. The FSS varied between 27 and 8718 mg V kg−1, showing that the current environmental guidelines can be both under- and overprotective for vanadium.

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  • 21.
    Ligate, Fanuel Josephat
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, DAFWAT Res Grp, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Univ Dar Es Salaam, Mkwawa Univ, Dept Chem, Coll Educ, Dar Es Salaam 2513, Iringa, Tanzania..
    Lucca, Enrico
    Univ Florence, Dept Agr Food Environm & Forestry Sci & Technol, I-1850144 Florence, Italy..
    Ijumulana, Julian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, DAFWAT Res Grp, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Irunde, Regina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, DAFWAT Res Grp, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Kimambo, Vivian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, DAFWAT Res Grp, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Univ Dodoma, Coll Nat & Math Sci, Dept Chem, Dodoma, Tanzania..
    Mtamba, Joseph
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, DAFWAT Res Grp, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;SIBELCO Ankerpoort NV, Op Bos 300, NL-6223 EP Maastricht, Netherlands.;Wageningen Univ & Res WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Hamisi, Rajabu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    KIIT Deemed Be Univ, Sch Appl Sci, Dept Chem, Bhubaneswar 751024, Orissa, India..
    Mtalo, Felix
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Coll Engn & Technol, Dept Water Resources Engn, DAFWAT Res Grp, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    Geogenic contaminants and groundwater quality around Lake Victoria goldfields in northwestern Tanzania2022In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 307, p. 135732-, article id 135732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geogenic contamination of groundwater is frequently associated with gold mining activities and related to drinking water quality problems worldwide. In Tanzania, elevated levels of trace elements (TEs) have been reported in drinking water sources within the Lake Victoria Basin, posing a serious health risk to communities. The present study aims to assess the groundwater quality with a focus on the concentration levels of geogenic contaminants in groundwater around the Lake Victoria goldfields in Geita and Mara districts. The water samples were collected from community drinking water sources and were analysed for physiochemical parameters (pH, EC, Eh), major ions, and trace elements. The analysed major ions included Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, HCO3- and Cl- whereas the trace elements were As, Al, Li, Ba, B, Ti, V, U, Zr, Sr, Si, Mn Mo, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and V. The present study revealed that the concentration levels of the major ions were mostly within the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards in the following order of their relative abundance; for cations, Ca2+-Na+ >Mg2+ >K+ and for anions was HCO3- > SO42- > NO3-, Cl- > PO43-. Statistical and geochemical modelling software such as 31 Studio', IBM SPSS, geochemical workbench, visual MINTEQ were used to understand the groundwater chemistry and evaluate its suitability for drinking purpose. The concentration of As in groundwater sources varies between below detection limit (bdl) and 300 mu g/L, with highest levels in streams followed by shallow wells and boreholes. In approximately 48% of the analysed samples, As concentration exceeded the WHO drinking water guideline and Tanzania Bureau of Standards (TBS) guideline for drinking water value of 10 mu g/L. The concentration of the analyzed TEs and mean values of physicochemical parameters were below the guideline limits based on WHO and TBS standards. The Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) shows that the overall water quality is acceptable with minimum threats of deviation from natural conditions. We recommend further geochemical exploration and the periodic risk assessment of groundwater in mining areas where high levels of As were recorded.

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  • 22. Mohamed, Alaa
    et al.
    Osman, T. A.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Uheida, Abdusalam
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Surface functionalized composite nanofibers for efficient removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 180, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel composites nanofiber was synthesized based on PAN-CNT/TiO2-NH2 nanofibers using electrospinning technique followed by chemical modification of TiO2 NPs. PAN-CNT/TiO2-NH2 nanofiber were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM. The effects of various experimental parameters such as initial concentration, contact time, and solution pH on As removal were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity at pH 2 for As(III) and As(V) is 251 mg/g and 249 mg/g, respectively, which is much higher than most of the reported adsorbents. The adsorption equilibrium reached within 20 and 60 min as the initial solution concentration increased from 10 to 100 mg/L, and the data fitted well using the linear and nonlinear pseudo first and second order model. Isotherm data fitted well to the linear and nonlinear Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm adsorption model. Desorption results showed that the adsorption capacity can remain up to 70% after 5 times usage. This work provides a simple and an efficient method for removing arsenic from aqueous solution.

  • 23.
    Raji, Mahdieh
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Mirbagheri, Seyed Ahmed
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Fei, Ye
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics.
    Nano zero-valent iron on activated carbon cloth support as Fenton-like catalyst for efficient color and COD removal from melanoidin wastewater2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 263, article id 127945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce undesired iron leaching in Fenton reaction and to realize reusability of catalyst, chitosan-coated activated carbon cloth support loaded with nano zero-valent iron (ACC–CH–nZVI) was applied as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst to treat melanoidin wastewater. Chitosan coating on ACC by chemical crosslinking results in 6% chitosan on ACC subsequently loading 3.5% iron. At optimum conditions, ACC–CH–nZVI leads to 88.4% and 76.2% of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, respectively, upon treating synthetic melanoidin wastewater of 8000 mg/l COD. The corresponding weight ratio of consumed H2O2 to COD is 1.02, far below the stoichiometric ratio 2.125, indicating the economic value of this catalyst. Reusability of ACC–CH–nZVI is demonstrated for five cycles of treatment with minimal iron leaching (&lt;2%). The high removal efficiency and very low levels of iron leaching suggests that ACC–CH–nZVI is a highly efficient and cost-effective catalyst for Fenton-like oxidation of non-biodegradable organic wastes in water.

  • 24.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Long-term phosphate removal by the calcium-silicate material Polonite in wastewater filtration systems2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 659-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mineral-based filter material Polonite was tested for its PO4 removal capacity in column and full-scale systems using synthetic and domestic wastewater. Three long-term experiments (67, 68 and 92 wk), operated under different hydrological conditions, were compared. The best PO4 removal capacity (97%) was observed in an intermittent saturated column fed with a synthetic solution (530 L m(-2) d(-1)) without organic matter during 68 wk. An unsaturated column system using municipal wastewater (76.7 L m(-2) d(-1)) showed no tendency for PO4 breakthrough and effluent PO4 concentration was still low (0.2 mg L-1) after 67 wk. For a compact bed filter containing 560 kg of Polonite and fed with 70 m(3) of wastewater from a single house, the average PO4 removal was 89% after 92 wk of operation. The column experiments revealed that a design volume of 1-2 kg of material of a particle size of 2-5 mm was required amount for treating 1 m(3) of wastewater in on-site systems operating at target 90% P mass removal. Poor pre-treatment of the wastewater was suggested to reduce the phosphate removal capacity of Polonite in the bed filter trial, where 8 kg were required per m(3). To measure pH of the treated effluent water proved not to be a simple tool for determining when the filter material is exhausted and should be replaced. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Shukla, Saurabh
    et al.
    Shri Ramswaroop Mem Univ, Fac Civil Engn, Inst Technol, Barabanki, India..
    Khan, Ramsha
    Shri Ramswaroop Mem Univ, Fac Civil Engn, Inst Technol, Barabanki, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Devanesan, Sandhanasamy
    King Saud Univ, Coll Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, POB 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia..
    AlSalhi, Mohamad S.
    King Saud Univ, Coll Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, POB 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia..
    Concentration, source apportionment and potential carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roadside soils*2022In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 292, article id 133413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PAHs are organic pollutants that have carcinogenic and mutagenic impacts on human health and are a subject of great concern. The soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban areas can be very lethal to human health. The concentrations, sources, and possible cancer risks of 15 PAHs were analysed by collecting roadside soil samples in Lucknow, India. The range of ∑15PAHs was found to be 478.94 ng/g to 8164.07 ng/g with a mean concentration of 3748.23 ng/g. The highest contribution (32.5%) was found to be from four-ring PAHs, followed by six-ring (24.5%) and five-ring (16.7%) PAHs. The source apportionment through diagnostic ratios ANT/(ANT + PHE) against FL-2/(FL-2+PYR) highlighted the dominance of petroleum, wood, coal, and grass combustion as sources of PAHs in the study area. Source apportionment was also done through positive matrix factorization, confirming the dominance of ‘vehicular emissions’ (49%), followed by ‘coal and biomass combustion’ (∼39%), and ‘leakages, volatilization and petroleum combustion’ (∼12%) as potential sources. The results from lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) varied in the range of 7.5 × 10−4 and 1.3 × 10 × −2 illustrating ‘high cancer risk’. The total cancer risk susceptibility of children was found to be 31% more than that of adults. The highest risk associated with toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) was found at site S8 highlighting the impact of the presence of an international airport, and huge traffic load. The present study will prove to be useful for information related to human exposure to PAHs content in soil in the study area and as baseline study for policy makers, stakeholders, and researchers.

  • 26.
    Stark, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Levlin, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge treated with supercritical water oxidation or incineration2005In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Stark, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Phosphorus release from ash, dried sludge and sludge residue from supercritical water oxidation by acid or base2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 827-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching of ash and dried sewage sludge were investigated and compared with the leaching results of sludge residue from supercritical water oxidation (SCWO). This article focuses on how the composition of ash and sludge residues influences the extraction of phosphate and heavy metals and if different treatment temperatures of the sludge effect the leachability. Results showed that acid leaching gave a higher release of phosphate than alkaline leaching for all ash and sludge residue samples. Also, alkaline leaching dissolved phosphate with a lower metal contamination than acid leaching. Furthermore, it was found that iron had a low release at both alkaline and acid leaching from ash and from SCWO residue.

    The difference in composition of ash and sludge residue samples had no significant influence on release of phosphate at high concentrations of acid. Phosphate release from ash, dried sludge at 300 degrees C and SCWO residue showed similar results at I M acid leaching. However, it seems to be easier to release phosphate from the SCWO residue than from the ash at low acid concentrations. SCWO residue showed higher release than the other ashes at 0.5 M HCl. Results for alkaline leaching showed higher release from ash at I M NaOH than from SCWO residue or from dried sludge at 300 degrees C. The leaching of phosphate from dried sludge seems to be temperature dependent, as the dried sludge treated at higher temperature showed less release of phosphate. It was found that the pre-treatment of the ash may be important for better release of phosphate.

  • 28. Tiberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Sjostedt, Carin
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Box 7014, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Metal sorption to Spodosol Bs horizons: Organic matter complexes predominate2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 196, p. 556-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While metal sorption mechanisms have been studied extensively for soil surface horizons, little information exists for subsoils, for example Spodosol Bs horizons. Here the sorption of cadmium(10, copper(II) and lead(II) to seven Bs horizons from five sites was studied. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that cadmium(II) and lead(II) were bound as inner-sphere complexes to organic matter. Addition of o-phosphate (to 1 mu mol l(-1)) did not result in any significant enhancement of metal sorption, nor did it influence EXAFS speciation. An assemblage model using the SHM and CD-MUSIC models overestimated metal sorption for six out of seven soil samples. To agree with experimental results, substantial decreases (up to 8-fold) had to be made for the fraction 'active organic matter', f(Hs), while the point-of-zero charge (PZC) of ferrihydrite had to be increased. The largest decreases of f(HS) were found for the soils with the lowest ratio of pyrophosphate-to oxalate-extractable Al (Al-pyp/Al-ox), suggesting that in these soils, humic and fulvic acids were to a large extent inaccessible for metal sorption. The low reactivity of ferrihydrite towards lead(II) can be explained by potential spillover effects from co-existing allophane, but other factors such as ferrihydrite crystallisation could not be ruled out. In conclusion, organic matter was the predominant sorbent for cadmium(II), copper(II) and lead(II). However, for lead(II) the optimised model suggests additional, but minor, contributions from Fe (hydr) oxide surface complexes. These results will be important to correctly model metal sorption in spodic materials. 

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  • 29.
    Vivekanand, Aashlesha Chekkala
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Mohapatra, Sanjeeb
    Natl Univ Singapore, NUS Environm Res Inst, 1 Create Way,15-02 Create Tower, Singapore 138602, Singapore..
    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar
    Indian Inst Technol Roorkee, Dept Civil Engn, Environm Biotechnol Grp EBiTG, Roorkee 247667, Uttarakhand, India..
    Microplastics in aquatic environment: Challenges and perspectives2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 282, article id 131151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of microplastics in the aquatic environment has become a growing concern globally. Microplastics pose a hazard to the ecological system, and their presence, particularly in the water, has an adverse impact on human health and the ecosystem. Microplastics are released into the environment directly from everyday used plastic items, degradation of plastics, industries, and wastewater treatment plants. Once these contaminants enter the water, aquatic life feeds on them, and microplastics enter the food chain and cause severe health hazards. An assessment of microplastics' ecological risks is essential; however, it is challenging in the present scenario due to limited information available. To fill these knowledge gaps, this paper comprehensively reviews the sources and transport of microplastics in the water environment and their environmental and health effects, global policy frameworks, analytical techniques for microplastic detection, and control strategies to prevent microplastics release in the aquatic environment.

  • 30.
    Wen, Yuming
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Zheng, Zhaoran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. BGRIMM Technol Grp, Beijing 100160, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Shule
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Han, Tong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Magnetic bio-activated carbons production using different process parameters for phosphorus removal from artificially prepared phosphorus-rich and domestic wastewater2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 271, article id 129561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of magnetic bio-activated carbon (MBAC) has been produced from lignin and ferrous salts following to the process including impregnation, carbonization, and steam activation. The influence of the impregnation methods and the steam flow rate on the quality and the maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity of the produced MBACs has been investigated. The phosphorus adsorption performance in real domestic wastewater of the MBAC with the highest maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity has been investigated. The results show that all of the produced MBACs have a relatively rich porous structure, and all surface iron species exist as magnetite (Fe3O4). Compared with the MBACs that are produced via the dry impregnation method using a lower steam flow rate, the MBACs that are produced via the wet impregnation method using a higher steam flow rate are believed to have a higher iron content and better iron species dispersion. The highest maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity of all the produced MBACs is estimated to be as high as 69.80 mg-P/g according to the best-fitting Langmuir model. The MBAC that shows the highest maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity could also remove 84.65% and 96.97% of the total phosphorus from the filtered raw domestic wastewater (FRDW) and treated domestic wastewater (TDW), respectively, which indicates a good potential for using MBACs for domestic wastewater treatment.

  • 31. Yadav, Nisha
    et al.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Degradable or not?: Cellulose acetate as a model for complicated interplay between structure, environment and degradation2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 265, article id 128731Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradable and/or biobased plastics are advocated as possible solution to plastic waste problem. Although mechanical and chemical recycling or energy recovery are in many cases a preferred option to regain the material value, for some applications composting is ideal. However, to more generally ensure complete degradation of plastics within a relatively short time-frame in all-natural environments would be extremely challenging, if not impossible. It is also important to keep in mind that it is the chemical structure and composition in combination with degradation environment that determines whether the plastic will degrade and within what timeframe. Biobased materials can be as stable as the petroleum-based counterparts and face the same waste-management problems. One interesting group of biobased materials are the modified biopolymer-based plastics, such as cellulose acetate (CA). How different modifications affect the inherent degradability of biopolymers is still poorly understood, which is reflected in the contradictory literature. This mirrors the complex interplay between structure-environment-degradability, where structural changes such as degree of substitution in the case of CA and changes in selected degradation environment can lead to totally different end-results and conclusions. Understanding these interactions is a fascinating scientific question. The deposition of CA based products as common surface litter makes it also question of societal and environmental interest. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge on degradation of CA and in larger perspective highlight the complicated nature of plastic and bioplastic degradation in natural environments and the interplay between different environmental parameters and material modifications on this process.

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