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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University and Research (WUR), Wageningen, Netherlands.
    van der Wens, Patrick
    Brabant Water NV Breda, Breda, Netherlands..
    Baken, Kirsten
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    de Waal, Luuk
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Stuyfzand, Pieter
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Dept Geosci & Engn, Delft, Netherlands..
    Arsenic reduction to < 1 mu g/L in Dutch drinking water2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 134, article id 105253Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic element which naturally occurs in drinking water. In spite of substantial evidence on the association between many illnesses and chronic consumption of As, there is still a considerable uncertainty about the health risks due to low As concentrations in drinking water. In the Netherlands, drinking water companies aim to supply water with As concentration of < 1 mu g/L - a water quality goal which is tenfold more stringent than the current WHO guideline. This paper provides (i) an account on the assessed lung cancer risk for the Dutch population due to pertinent low-level As in drinking water and cost-comparison between health care provision and As removal from water, (ii) an overview of As occurrence and mobility in drinking water sources and water treatment systems in the Netherlands and (iii) insights into As removal methods that have been employed or under investigation to achieve As reduction to < 1 mu g/L at Dutch water treatment plants. Lowering of the average As concentration to < 1 mu g/L in the Netherlands is shown to result in an annual benefit of 7.2-14 M(sic). This study has a global significance for setting drinking water As limits and provision of safe drinking water.

  • 2. Kim, Kyoung-Woong
    et al.
    Bang, Sunbaek
    Zhu, Yongguan
    Meharg, Andrew A.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic geochemistry, transport mechanism in the soil-plant system, human and animal health issues2009In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 453-454Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Pennington, D. W.
    et al.
    Potting, J.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    Lindeijer, E.
    Jolliet, O.
    Rydberg, T.
    Rebitzer, G.
    Life cycle assessment Part 2: Current impact assessment practice2004In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 721-739Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA).

  • 4.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    The Swedish Environmental Classification and Information System for Pharmaceuticals: An empirical investigation of the motivations, intentions and expectations underlying its development and implementation2009In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 778-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry (LIF) initiated a national environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals. This investigation reports the results from a survey, conducted among the persons involved in the start-up process. The aim of this study is to generate knowledge contributing to the clarification of the motivations, expectations, and intentions underlying the development and implementation of the system. The decision to implement a classification and information system for pharmaceuticals was the result of a combination of several driving forces, mainly political pressure and a possibility to increase the industries' goodwill, while at the same time keeping the process under the industries' control. The expected possible effects of the system, other than increased goodwill, are according to this survey assumed to be low. The system offers little guidance for end-users in the substitution of one pharmaceutical for another. One possible reason for this could be that LIF needs to observe the interests of all its members' and should not affect competition. The affiliation of the involved actors correlates to how these actors view and value the system, but this has not hampered the collaborative process to develop and implement it.

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