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  • 1.
    Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Kuester, A.
    Bachmann, J.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Ebert, I.
    Rechenberg, B.
    Ruden, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Reporting and evaluation criteria as means towards a transparent use of ecotoxicity data for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 10, p. 2487-2492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotoxicity data with high reliability and relevance are needed to guarantee the scientific quality of environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. The main advantages of a more structured approach to data evaluation include increased transparency and predictability of the risk assessment process, and the possibility to use non-standard data. In this collaboration, between the research project MistraPharma and the German Federal Environment Agency, a new set of reporting and evaluation criteria is presented and discussed. The new criteria are based on the approaches in the literature and the OECD reporting requirements, and have been further developed to include both reliability and relevance of test data. Intended users are risk assessors and researchers performing ecotoxicological experiments, but the criteria can also be used for education purposes and in the peer-review process for scientific papers. This approach intends to bridge the gap between the regulator and the scientist's needs and way of work.

  • 2.
    Cucarella, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mazurek, Ryszard
    Zaleski, Tomasz
    Kopec, Michal
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Effect of Polonite used for phosphorus removal from wastewater on soil properties and fertility of a mountain meadow2009In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, no 7, p. 2147-2152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive filter materials used for phosphorus (P) removal from wastewater can be disposed of as soil amendments after treatment, thus recycling P and other macro- and micro-nutrients to plants. In addition, materials with a high pH and Ca content, such as Polonite, are potential soil conditioners which, can be particularly beneficial for acid soils. Polonite previously used for on-site wastewater treatment was applied as a soil amendment to a mountain meadow. The amendment significantly increased soil pH and decreased the hydrolytic acidity, thus reducing Al toxicity risks. The effects were comparable to those of liming. No difference in yield and P uptake by meadow plants was observed. The uptake of metals was lower for amended soils, especially the uptake of Mn. Using Polonite after wastewater treatment as a soil amendment is thus a viable disposal alternative that can replace liming, when necessary, being capable of recycling P and other nutrients to meadow plants.

  • 3.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    Dalian Maritime University, Environmental Science and Engineering College, Institution of Philosophy.
    Wang, Z.
    Ma, X.
    Na, G.
    Lin, Z.
    Yao, Z.
    Correlations between physicochemical properties of PAHs and their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic2009In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, no 11, p. 3132-3136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, moss and reindeer dung collected at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic were measured to investigate their accumulation trends and distribution in the three compartments. Compared with the other regions, the proportions of 2 + 3 ring PAHs to the total PAHs were higher, whereas the proportions of 5 + 6 ring PAHs were lower in the three compartments at Ny-Alesund. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (p) and the soil/moss quotient (Q(SM)). The relation was similar to the relationship between the gas/particle partition coefficient (K(P)) and p(L)degrees of PAHs, implying Q(SM) would be a "mirror image" of K(P). Excellent log/log-linear relationships were observed between Q(SM) and K(OA) as well as between the moss/dung quotient (Q(MD)) and K(OW). The results presented here indicate the physicochemical properties are suitable for characterizing the distribution of PAHs in soil, moss and reindeer dung.

  • 4.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Isaksson, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Mei, Nanxuan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Wold, S.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Nanoparticles of WC-Co, WC, Co and Cu of relevance for traffic wear particles – Particle stability and reactivity in synthetic surface water and influence of humic matter2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 224, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tyres made of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) are in the Northern countries commonly used during the winter time. Tungsten (W)-containing nano- and micron-sized particles have been detected close to busy roads in several European countries. Other typical traffic wear particles consist of copper (Cu). The aims of this study were to investigate particle stability and transformation/dissolution properties of nanoparticles (NPs) of WC-Co compared with NPs of tungsten carbide (WC), cobalt (Co), and Cu. Their physicochemical characteristics (primarily surface oxide and charge) are compared with their extent of sedimentation and metal release in synthetic surface water (SW) with and without two different model organic molecules, 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) mimicking certain sorption sites of humic substances, for time periods up to 22 days. The WC-Co NPs possessed a higher electrochemical and chemical reactivity in SW with and without DHBA molecules as compared with NPs of WC, Co, and Cu. Co was completely released from the WC-Co NPs within a few hours of exposure, although it remained adsorbed/bonded to the particle surface and enabled the adsorption of negatively charged DHBA molecules, in contrast with the WC NPs (no adsorption of DHBA). The DHBA molecules were found to rapidly adsorb on the Co and Cu NPs. The sedimentation of the WC and WC-Co NPs was not influenced by the presence of the 2,3- or 3,4-DHBA molecules. A slight influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Co NPs, and a strong influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Cu NPs in SW with 2,3-DHBA compared with SW alone. The extent of metal release increased in the order: WC < Cu < Co < WC-Co NPs. All NPs released more than 1 wt-% of their metal total mass. The release from the Cu NPs was most influenced by the presence of DHBA molecules.

  • 5.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Risks of using membrane filtration for trace metal analysis and assessing the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media - A study on zinc, copper and nickel2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 5, p. 1144-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane filtration is commonly performed for solid liquid separation of aqueous solutions prior to trace metal analysis and when assessing "dissolved" metal fractions. Potential artifacts induced by filtration such as contamination and/or adsorption of metals within the membrane have been investigated for different membrane materials, metals, applied pressures and pre-cleaning steps. Measurements have been conducted on aqueous solutions including well-defined metal standards, ultrapure water, and on runoff water from corroded samples. Filtration using both non-cleaned and pre-cleaned filters revealed contamination and adsorption effects, in particular pronounced for zinc, evident for copper but non-significant for nickel. The results clearly show these artifacts to be non-systematic both for non-cleaned and pre-cleaned membranes. The applied pressure was of minor importance. Measurements of the labile fraction by means of stripping voltammetry clearly elucidate that membrane filtration followed by total metal analysis cannot accurately assess the labile or the dissolved metal fraction.

  • 6.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Surface rain interactions: Differences in copper runoff for copper sheet of different inclination, orientation, and atmospheric exposure conditions2015In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 196, p. 363-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions of the diffuse dispersion of metals from outdoor constructions such as roofs and facades are necessary for environmental risk assessment and management. An existing predictive model has been compared with measured data of copper runoff from copper sheets exposed at four different inclinations facing four orientations at two different urban sites (Stockholm, Sweden, and Milan, Italy) during a 4-year period. Its applicability has also been investigated for copper sheet exposed at two marine sites (Cadiz, Spain, for 5 years, and Brest, France, for 9 years). Generally the model can be used for all given conditions. However, vertical surfaces should be considered as surfaces inclined 60-80 degrees due to wind-driven effects. The most important parameters that influence copper runoff, and not already included in the model, are the wind and rain characteristics that influence the actual rainfall volume impinging the surface of interest. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  • 7. Karlen, C.
    et al.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Heijerick, D.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Runoff rates, chemical speciation and bioavailability of copper released from naturally patinated copper2002In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 120, no 3, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of copper, induced by atmospheric corrosion, from naturally patinated copper of varying age (0 and 30 years) has been investigated together with its potential ecotoxic effect. Results were generated in an interdisciplinary research effort in which corrosion science and ecotoxicology aspects were combined. The aim of the investigation was to elucidate the situation when copper-containing rainwater leaves a roof in terms of runoff rate, chemical speciation, bioavailability and ecotoxicity effects. Data have been collected during a three-year field exposure conducted in the urban environment of Stockholm, Sweden. The potential environmental effects have been evaluated using a combination of a copper specific biosensor test with the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus and the conventional 72-h growth inhibition test with the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. The results show annual runoff rates between 1.0 and 1.5 g/m(2) year for naturally patinated copper of varying age. The runoff rate increased slightly with patina age, which mainly is attributed to the enhanced first flush effect observed on thicker patina layers. The total copper concentration in investigated runoff samplings ranged from 0.9 to 9.7 mg/l. Both computer modeling and experimental studies revealed that the majority (60-100%) of released copper was present as the free hydrated cupric ion, Cu(H2O)(6)(2+), the most bioavailable copper species. However, other copper species in the runoff water, such as, e.g. Cu(OH)(+) and CU2(OH)(2)(2+), were also bioavailable. The copper-containing runoff water, sampled directly after release from the roof, caused significant reduction in growth rate of the green alga. It should be emphasized that the results describe the runoff situation immediately after release from the copper roof and not the real environmental ecotoxicity. Therefore the data should only be used as an initial assessment of the potential environmental effect of copper runoff from building applications. Future risk assessments should also consider dilution effects of copper, changes in its chemical speciation and bioavailability during environmental entry, and type and sensitivity of the receiving ecosystem.

  • 8. Manna, A. K.
    et al.
    Sen, M.
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Pal, P.
    Removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater by solar-driven membrane distillation2010In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 805-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental investigations were carried out on removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater by employing a new flat-sheet cross flow membrane module fitted with a hydrophobic polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane The new design of the solar-driven membrane module in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configuration successfully produced almost 100 per cent arsenic-free water from contaminated groundwater in a largely fouling-free operation while permitting high fluxes under reduced temperature polarization For a feed flow rate of 0120 m(3)/h, the 013 mu m PVDF membrane yielded a high flux of 74 kg/(m(2) h) at a feed water temperature of 40 degrees C and, 95 kg/m(2) h at a feed water temperature of 60 degrees C. The encouraging results show that the design could be effectively exploited in the vast arsenic-affected rural areas of South-East Asian countries blessed with abundant sunlight particularly during the critical dry season.

  • 9.
    Midander, Klara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christoher
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    In-vitro studies of copper release from powder particles in synthetic biological media2007In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 145, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to provide quantitative data on copper release from powder particles of different copper materials, including artificial copper patina, Cu2O and metallic Cu, when exposed to different synthetic biological media to simulate an inhalation scenario and/or skin contact. Generated data may contribute in risk assessment of potential health effects following exposure to and handling of various copper materials. All tests were performed in vitro to determine total copper concentrations, release rates of total copper, and to elucidate its time-dependence. The copper release process was interpreted in terms of specific surface area, surface morphology-, and composition. All powder materials show a time-dependent release process with total copper release rates less than 3 μg/cm2 per hour at steady state conditions, for all media investigated. The importance of using relevant test media when simulating different interstitial lung conditions and difficulties encountered when comparing powder particles of essentially different properties are thoroughly discussed.

  • 10.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    RETENTION AND CHEMISTRY OF ALUMINIUM INGROUNDWATER DISCHARGE AREAS1993In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 81, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Sandhi, Arifin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Greger, Maria
    Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As)-contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts.

    Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0–100 μM arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 μM arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts.

    Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 μM arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 μM As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W. fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

  • 12. Schneider, J.
    et al.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Rangel, W. D. M.
    Guilherme, L. R. G.
    Potential of different AM fungi (native from As-contaminated and uncontaminated soils) for supporting Leucaena leucocephala growth in As-contaminated soil2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 224, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation is considered a potential biotechnological tool for an eco-friendly remediation of hazardous contaminants. However, the mechanisms explaining how AM fungi attenuate the phytotoxicity of metal(oid)s, in particular arsenic (As), are still not fully understood. The influence of As on plant growth and the antioxidant system was studied in Leucaena leucocephala plants inoculated with different isolates of AM fungi and exposed to increasing concentrations of As (0, 35, and 75 mg dm−3) in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions using isolates of AM fungi selected from uncontaminated soils (Acaulospora morrowiae, Rhizophagus clarus, Gigaspora albida; and a mixed inoculum derived from combining these isolates, named AMF Mix) as well as a mix of three isolates from an As-contaminated soil (A. morrowiae, R. clarus, and Paraglomus occultum). After 21 weeks, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined in the shoots in addition to measuring plant height and mineral contents. In general, AM fungi have shown multiple beneficial effects on L. leucocephala growth. Although the activity of most of the stress-related enzymes increased in plants associated with AM fungi, the percentage increase caused by adding As to the soil was even greater for non-mycorrhizal plants when compared to AM-fungi inoculated ones, which highlights the phytoprotective effect provided by the AM symbiosis. The highest P/As ratio observed in AM-fungi plants, compared to non-mycorrhizal ones, can be considered a good indicator that the AM fungi alter the pattern of As(V) uptake from As-contaminated soil. Our results underline the role of AM fungi in increasing the tolerance of L. leucocephala to As stress and emphasize the potential of the symbiosis L. leucocephala-R. clarus for As-phytostabilization at moderately As-contaminated soils.

  • 13.
    Syrovetnik, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Accumulation of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: Determination of binding processes by means of sequential leaching.2007In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 147, no 1, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Oostriku peat bog (central Estonia) has been exposed to metal-rich groundwater discharge over a long period of time and has accumulated high concentrations of Fe (up to 40 wt-%), heavy metals (e.g. Ph, Zn, Mn, Cu), and As. In this study, the peat was characterised with respect to composition and metal content with depth. The peat pore water was analysed and compared to a spring water emerging at the site. Sequential extraction, using a Tessier scheme optimised for iron-rich sediments, was used to understand the relative roles of binding mechanisms involved in the retention of different metals in the peat. Significant difference in depth distribution was found between different metals bound in the peat, which was partly attributed to varying compositions of the peat with depth and different dominant binding mechanisms for different metals.

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