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  • 1. Farahbakhshazad, Neda
    A constructed vertical macrophyte system for the retention of nitrogen in agricultural runoff2000In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence for the importance of luxury rhizome accumulation of N by the common reed Phragmites australis opens the possibility for N retention in constructed vertical wetlands. The removal of nutrients (N and P) from agricultural runoff was investigated in columns planted with P. australis in a sand bed. Nitrate demonstrated a Linear removal with detention time (60-300 min) and was accounted for by membrane-Limited root uptake. Ammonia was effectively removed from agricultural runoff, with nitrate removed at longer detention times. Detention time based on a targeted nitrate removal therefore represents a suitable design parameter for a vertical macrophyte system. On the other hand, ammonia was more effectively removed at low concentrations, but ineffectively removed at higher concentrations. Nitrogen is effectively accumulated in rhizomes which could be mechanically ground, composted and returned to agriculture.

  • 2.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication2006In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 945-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants, This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg V. In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg l(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

  • 3.
    Kholoma, Ezekiel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Phosphorus removal from wastewater by field-scale fortified filter beds during a one-year study2016In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 37, no 23, p. 2953-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to low availability of alternative technologies, rural communities are unable to comply with national wastewater discharge limits. This study tested the effectiveness of filter bed fortification with biochar on phosphorus removal. Water-tight down-flow beds of sand and gas concrete, constructed alongside a reference sand bed (all 0.8 m deep and 0.75 m2 surface area), were topped with a 0.2 m biochar layer. Pre-treated domestic wastewater with mean concentrations of 6.4 mg/L PO3-4 and 142.6 NTU, was infiltrated at 4 cm/d hydraulic loading rate. Ultimately, the biochar-sand was relatively outstanding in turbidity reduction, achieving < 5 NTU. The biochargas concrete exhibited superior performance in PO3-4 removal, trapping 32.3 g (40.2%), compared with 20.5 g (25.6%) and 15.5 g (19.3%) by biochar-sand and reference bed respectively. However, statistical analysis revealed a weak correlation between pH and biochargas concrete removal efficiency (r2= 0.2). The relationship was stronger for biochar-sand PO3-4 (r2 = 0.5) than reference (r2 = 0.4) bed. Paired samples t-tests showed that incorporating biochar into the sand bed significantly (p =.04) improved its PO3-4 removal efficiency. In conclusion, sand bed fortification with biochar could be an important measure for improving P removal and wastewater clarification efficiency.

  • 4.
    Larsdotter, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Bioprocess Technology.
    Jansen, Jes La Cour
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Biologically mediated phosphorus precipitation in wastewater treatment with microalgae2007In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 953-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lab-scale continuous microalgal culture was grown on sterile-filtered wastewater in order to clarify the phosphorus removing mechanisms in a microalgal treatment step that treats residual phosphorus from a hydroponic wastewater treatment pilot plant. The phosphorus assimilation was dependent on algal biomass production, whereas the chemical precipitation was dependent on phosphorus load, i.e. an increase in average precipitation rate with decreased hydraulic retention time was observed. The chemical precipitation was mainly a result of the increased pH, which was biologically mediated by the photosynthesising algae. The precipitate was composed of a calcium phosphate with magnesium included, magnesium hydroxide and calcite. A significant nitrogen removal was also experienced, which implies that the microalgal wastewater treatment is appropriate both for phosphorus and nitrogen removal.

  • 5.
    Larsdotter, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Bioprocess Technology.
    Jansen, Jes la Cour
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Phosphorus removal from wastewater by microalgae in Sweden: a year-round perspective2010In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphorus and nitrogen removing capacity of a microalgal treatment step in Sweden was studied during an annual cycle. The treatment step had been constructed for extended phosphorus removal in a hydroponic wastewater treatment system, which had been built in a greenhouse. Two culture depths (17 and 33 cm) were compared as well as the effect of additional illumination during winter. The results showed large fluctuations in algal biomass production and phosphorus removal as a result of season. The phosphorus removal efficiency showed a clear correlation with pH, and the shallow cultures generally had higher phosphorus removal efficiencies than the deeper cultures. The efficiencies were between 60% and 100% during summer but mostly lower than 25% during winter, except in the shallow culture with extra illumination where efficiencies of 60-80% were recorded even during winter. A nitrogen removal efficiency of around 40% was reached for most parts of the year, and efficiencies of up to 60-80% were achieved during summer in the shallow cultures. In conclusion, the results showed that a large proportion of the phosphorus could be removed on a year-round basis, hence reducing the need for chemical precipitation, and also that significant nitrogen removal is possible.

  • 6.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. ] Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Dept Ind Ecol & Sustainable Environm Management, Ukraine.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Malovanyy, Myroslav
    Ammonium removal by partial nitritation and Anammox processes from wastewater with increased salinity2015In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 595-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is dedicated to the biological treatment of wastewater with increased salinity using a combination of partial nitritation and Anammox processes. Two one-stage deammonification moving bed biofilm reactors were operated with the increase in NaCl concentration every two weeks by 5 and 2.5 g/L. The strategy with a step of 5 g/L of salinity increase led to complete inhibition of the process at the salinity level of 15 g/L. The strategy with a step of 2.5 g/L gave possibility to adapt bacteria to the elevated salinity. After reaching the salinity level of 10 g NaCl/L, the reactor was operated during 92 days with a nitrogen removal rate of 0.39 +/- 0.19 g N/(m(2)center dot day) (0.078 +/- 0.038 kg N/m(3)center dot day) and an average nitrogen removal efficiency of 59%. It was shown that conductivity cannot be used for monitoring the process when a reactor is treating wastewater with increased salinity, whereas pH can be correlated to effluent ammonium concentration regardless of wastewater salinity.

  • 7.
    Marobhe, Nancy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Kuttuva, Gunaratna R.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Simple and rapid methods for purification and characterization of active coagulants from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata2007In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 671-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coagulating properties of aqueous crude extracts and purified proteins of Vigna unguicilata and Parkinsomia aculeata seeds, which are traditional water coagulants in rural areas of Tanzania, were studied. The coagulation activity assays were done using one millilitre (ml) of kaolin water samples. Coagulating proteins were purified in two-step ion exchange chromatography. The properties of coagulant protein were compared with Moringa oleifera. Coagulating components eluted by 0.6 M NaCl in both coagulants are cationic proteins that have the molecular mass of about 6 kDa, which is very similar to that of M. oleifera. The proteins of V. unguiculata and P. aculeata eluted by 0.3 M NaCl also harbour coagulation activity but proteins eluted with 0.6 M NaCl have higher activity. The dosage for coagulation using purified proteins of both coagulants is about 5 to 10 times lower than that of crude seed extracts. The optimum floc settling time of water treated by crude seed extracts and purified proteins ranged between two and two and half hours. Coagulating proteins of both coagulants elated by 0.6 M NaCl are thermoresistant and retained coagulation activity of 87% to 92% after boiling for two hours at 80 degrees C and one hour at 95 degrees C. Thermotolerant proteins of V. unguiculata eluted by 0.6 M NaCl and P. aculeata have wider pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 for coagulation activity than those of M. oleifera proteins. The present investigation reveals the possibility of using purified natural coagulants for water treatment to produce safe drinking water.

  • 8.
    Owusu-Agyeman, Isaac
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Pre-concentration of ammonium to enhance treatment of wastewater using the partial nitritation/anammox process2015In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 1256-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is one of the most cost-effective technologies for removing excessive nitrogen compounds from effluents of wastewater treatment plants. The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using ion exchange (IE) and reverse osmosis (RO) methods to concentrate ammonium to support partial nitritation/anammox process, which so far has been used for treating only wastewater with high concentrations of ammonium. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluents with 40.40, 37.90 and 21.80 mg NH4N/L levels were concentrated with IE method to 367.20, 329.50 and 187.50 mg NH4N/L, respectively, which were about nine times the initial concentrations. RO method was also used to concentrate 41.0 mg NH4N/L of UASB effluent to 163 mg NH4N/L at volume reduction factor 5. The rates of nitrogen removal from respective RO pretreated concentrates by partial nitritation/anammox technology were 0.60, 1.10 and 0.50 g N/m(2)day. The rates were largely influenced by initial nitrogen concentration. However, rates of RO concentrates were 0.74, 0.92 and 0.81 g N/m(2)day even at lower initial NH4N concentration. It was found out from the study that higher salinity decreased the rate of nitrogen removal when using partial nitritation/anammox process. Dissolved oxygen concentration of similar to 1 mg/L was optimal for the operation of the partial nitritation/anammox process when treating IE and RO concentrates. The result shows that IE and RO methods can precede a partial nitritation/anammox process to enhance the treatment of wastewater with low ammonium loads.

  • 9. Pramanik, B. K.
    et al.
    Kajol, Annaduzzaman
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Suja, F.
    Md Zain, S.
    Effect of biological and coagulation pre-treatments to control organic and biofouling potential components of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of lake water2016In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological aerated filter (BAF), sand filtration (SF), alum and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic and biofouling potential component of an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the treatment of lake water. The carbohydrate content was mainly responsible for reversible fouling of the UF membrane compared to protein or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. All pre-treatment could effectively reduce these contents and led to improve the UF filterability. Both BAF and SF markedly led to improvement in flux than coagulation processes, and alum gave greater flux than M. oleifera. This was attributed to the effective removal and/or breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics by biofilters. BAF led to greater improvement in flux than SF, due to greater breakdown of high MW organics, and this was also confirmed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Coagulation processes were ineffective in removing biofouling potential components, whereas both biofilters were very effective as shown by the reduction of low MW organics, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents. This study demonstrated the potential of biological pre-treatments for reducing organic and biofouling potential component and thus improving flux for the UF of lake water treatment.

  • 10.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Kholoma, Ezekiel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Zhang, Wen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Leachability and plant -availability of phosphorus in post-sorption wastewater filters fortified with biochar2018In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sand and gravel are widely applied for filtering pre- or primary-treated wastewater in small-scale wastewater treatment (SWT) systems. However, ecological materials continue to attract increasing interest in use as retrofits for achieving better performance in removing dissolved contaminants and recovering nutrients from wastewater. In this study, we assessed the plant availability and leachability of phosphorus (P) from sand (Sa) and gas concrete (GC) media previously fortified with biochar (BC) and used for phosphorus (P) removal in laboratory-scale packed bed reactors and field-scale constructed filter beds. Batch and leaching experiments were conducted, with distilled water and ammonium lactate (AL) solutions (1:20 solid–liquid (w/v) ratio) applied as extractants. In the findings, reference (Sa) and fortified (Sa-BC) sand filters leached 11.2 and 20.5 mg P kg−1 respectively, to percolating water while the P seemed less likely to leach from GC systems. Extraction with AL showed that P retained in GC was plant-available and that GC could release up to 90 mg kg−1 of the bound mass. These findings highlight the need to evaluate risks of nutrient leaching from filter media for SWT systems especially where groundwater and surface water are final recipients of such effluents. For greater sustainability of use of the media, the weakly bound P in media such as Sa and BC and strongly bound in media such as GC types of materials may be recovered by recycling the spent material to agriculture. However, this may require re-design of the treatment system especially with respect to particle size to make recycling technically feasible.

  • 11.
    Rodriguez-Gomez, Raul
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. WSP Sverige, Sweden.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Phosphorus removal from UASB reactor effluent by reactive media filtration2017In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 38, no 16, p. 2024-2031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphorus (P) and BOD7 removal performance of an upflow packed bed reactor (PBR) filled with two reactive filter media was studied over 50 weeks. The lower one-fifth of the reactor was filled with calcium-silicate-hydrate (Sorbulite (R)) and the upper four-fifth with calcium-silicate (Polonite (R)). A laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) delivered wastewater to the PBR. A model was developed to describe the gradient in P concentration change in the reactor, based on reaction kinetics. The reaction terms were assumed to follow the Langmuir isotherm, based on the results obtained in a batch test. First, a comparison was made between experimental and simulated results. The capability of the model to forecast P removal capacity was then tested for three hypothetical cases: (i) reactor filled with Sorbulite and Polonite, (ii) reactor filled with only Sorbulite, and (iii) reactor filled with only Polonite. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed for the main parameters in the model. The average removal of P and BOD7 from the UASB effluent was 98% and 90%, respectively. The starting pH of the dual-medium effluent was 12.2 and decreased gradually over time to 11.1. The simulation both overestimated and underestimated mean measured P removal but was within the range of maximum and minimum measured values. The hypothetical cases revealed that most P was removed by Polonite due to calcium phosphate precipitation. The removal capacity of the two filter materials and their layer height in the reactor were the most sensitive parameters in the simulation.

  • 12.
    Trojanowicz, K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. St Pigon Krosno State Coll, Dept Environm Engn, Rynek 1, PL-38400 Krosno, Poland..
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Swedish Environm Inst, IVL, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Model extension, calibration and validation of partial nitritation-anammox process in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for reject and mainstream wastewater2019In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 1079-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper, the extension of mathematical model of partial nitritation-anammox process in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is presented. The model was calibrated with a set of kinetic, stoichiometric and biofilm parameters, whose values were taken from the literature and batch tests. The model was validated with data obtained from: laboratory batch experiments, pilot-scale MBBR for a reject water deammonification operated at Himmerfjarden wastewater treatment and pilot-scale MBBR for mainstream wastewater deammonification at Hammarby Sjostadsverk research facility, Sweden. Simulations were conducted in AQUASIM software. The proposed, extended model proved to be useful for simulating of partial nitritation/anammox process in biofilm reactor both for reject water and mainstream wastewater at variable substrate concentrations (influent total ammonium-nitrogen concentration of 530 +/- 68; 45 +/- 2.6 and 38 +/- 3 gN/m(3) - for reject water - and two cases of mainstream wastewater treatment, respectively), temperature (24 +/- 2.8; 15 +/- 1.1 and 18 +/- 0.5 degrees C), pH (7.8 +/- 0.2; 7.3 +/- 0.1 and 7.4 +/- 0.1) and aeration patterns (continuous aeration and intermittent aeration with variable dissolved oxygen concentrations and length of aerated and anoxic phases). The model can be utilized for optimizing and testing different operational strategies of deammonification process in biofilm systems. [GRAPHICS] .

  • 13.
    Trojanowicz, Karol
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. St Pigon Krosno State Coll, Dept Environm Engn, Rynek 1, PL-38400 Krosno, Poland.Dev Environm Sci & Engn, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Possible mechanism of efficient mainstream partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) in hybrid bioreactors (IFAS)2019In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An explanation of possible mechanism of efficient PN/A in hybrid bioreactors was presented. The bottleneck process is nitritation. Surplus nitrite production by ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is required for assuring the activity of anammox bacteria and eliminating nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). It will be possible if nitrogen removal rate by AOB (r(N_AOB)) is higher than NOB (r(N_NOB)). It was shown that in biofilm AnAOB bacteria should out-compete NOB, whereas nitrogen transformation rates by AOB are usually lower than NOB. However, the growth of r-AOB in activated sludge allows out-selecting NOB. Impact of ammonium-, nitrite-nitrogen and suspended biomass concentration in hybrid PN/A systems on nitrogen removal rates in the temperature ranges from 10 degrees C to 25 degrees C was presented and discussed. Because bulk liquid ammonium nitrogen concentration can be higher in SBR bioreactors (after certain period of time after aeration starts) or in the initial zones of plug-flow systems than in fully mixed systems, conditions for running efficient PN/A are more favourable in intermittently aerated 'IFAS-SBR' or 'IFAS-plug flow' bioreactors.

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