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  • 1. Granlund, Nils
    et al.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Feiccabrino, James
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Laboratory test of snow wetness influence on electrical conductivity measured with ground penetrating radar2009Inngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 33-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground penetrating radar operated from helicopters or snowmobiles is used to determine snow water equivalent (SWE) for annual snowpacks from radar wave two-way travel time. However, presence of liquid water in a snowpack is known to decrease the radar wave velocity, which for a typical snowpack with 5% (by volume) liquid water can lead to an overestimation of SWE by about 20%. It would therefore be beneficial if radar measurements could also be used to determine snow wetness. Our approach is to use radar wave attenuation in the snowpack, which depends on electrical properties of snow (permittivity and conductivity) which in turn depend on snow wetness. The relationship between radar wave attenuation and these electrical properties can be derived theoretically, while the relationship between electrical permittivity and snow wetness follows a known empirical formula, which also includes snow density. Snow wetness can therefore be determined from radar wave attenuation if the relationship between electrical conductivity and snow wetness is also known. In a laboratory test, three sets of measurements were made on initially dry 1m thick snowpacks. Snow wetness was controlled by stepwise addition of water between radar measurements, and a linear relationship between electrical conductivity and snow wetness was established.

  • 2.
    Lindström, Riitta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    A system for modelling groundwater contamination in water supply areas - chloride contamination from road de-icing as an example2006Inngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 41-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A system for modelling groundwater contamination in water supply areas is presented, consisting of the flow and transport models, MACRO for the unsaturated zone and MOC for the groundwater zone, coupled to the geographical information system, IDRISI. A graphical user interface links the different parts of the system. The system was applied to a water supply area located close to a major road south of Stockholm. Chloride was used as an indicator in determining the risk for groundwater contamination from the road. The future chloride concentration in the aquifer was predicted and the effects of different pumping rates on the chemistry of the water supply well were tested. Modelling results showed that the chloride concentration in the aquifer will increase substantially due to road de-icing and that it will take decades to lower the chloride concentration down to the original background values after an end to the use of de-icing salt. The system may serve as a valuable tool in a planning context. Potential groundwater contamination scenarios can be simulated, and alternative groundwater management strategies can be evaluated.

  • 3.
    Lundmark, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Transfer of de-icing salt by road runoff and aerial dispersal under the influence of snow ploughingInngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Madani, Erik MirHadi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jansson, Per Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Babelon, Ian
    Northumbria Univ, Dept Architecture & Built Environm, Ellison Pl, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Differences in water balance between grassland and forest watersheds using long-term data, derived using the CoupModel2018Inngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 72-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To quantify the role of land cover during a period of climate change, the runoff response is studied for Plynlimon in Wales, UK. The main objective was two-fold: (i) to create a protocol for modeling water balance on a daily basis; and (ii) to describe the extent to which the impact of land-use changes can be identified and supported by the long-term monitoring data of runoff from two neighboring watersheds with different land covers. The process-oriented CoupModel platform was used to set up the model with a well-defined uncertainty for selected parameters. The behavioral ensembles were applied to simulated daily discharge data for the period of 1992-2010 using subjective criteria to reduce the prior 35,000 candidates with a random uniform distribution of 40 parameters. The accepted ensemble was reduced to 100 candidates by accepting the best root-mean-square error (RMSE) on the accumulated residuals during the simulation period. Similar good performance for the entire period and both watersheds was obtained. The differences in interception evaporation accounted for the most important differences between forest and grassland. The obtained residual demonstrated that changes in the forest cover had an impact on the water balance during the first part of the simulation period.

  • 5.
    Rehbinder, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Vertical motion of ground water in bed rock induced by earth tide and its influence on a repository for burnt nuclear fuel: a theoretical calculation2005Inngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 137-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth tide induced by the Moon and the Sun makes the volume of pores or the apertures of fractures of the bed rock vary, which in turn makes the ground water move. The flow equation of ground water, complete with the tide effect, and its solution, shows that the diffusive propagation of pore pressure is decisive for the response of the perturbation of gravity. Moreover the solution shows that diffusive flow dominates in the Fennoscandian Precambrian rock. The analysis shows that a constitutive coefficient relating the varying perturbation gravity and porosity of bed rock can be determined by field measurements of the level of water in boreholes. Water in a cavity in the bed rock is exposed to an oscillatory interaction with the surrounding pore water. If the cavity is a repository for nuclear waste, this interaction deserves attention. The analysis shows that the magnitude of the oscillatory motion of water between a repository for nuclear waste and its. surrounding groundwater is much less than the vertical motion of the phreatic surface.

  • 6.
    Sokrut, Nikolay
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Motovilov, Juri
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Skotte, G.
    Simulation of nitrate transport in the Vemmenhög catchment using the distributed hydrological model ECOMAG2005Inngår i: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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