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  • 1. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Destouni, G.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, 1420-1431 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 2. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammaren, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Ostman, Marcus
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resisitance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, 697-712 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as hotspots for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted. 

  • 3.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Berggren, Kleja D.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Occurrence and fate of corrosion-induced zinc in runoff water from external structures2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, 908-923 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comprises data from an extensive cross-disciplinary research project aiming to elucidate the environmental fate of corrosion-induced zinc release from external structures. It includes an exposure assessment that provide long-term runoff rates, concentrations and chemical speciation of zinc, from 14 zinc-based materials exposed during 5 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and an effect assessment including bioavailability and ecotoxicity measurements, both at the immediate release situation and after soil interaction.Runoff rates of total zinc ranged from 0.07 to 2.5g Znm(-2) yr(-1) with zinc primarily released as the free ion for all materials investigated. The average effect concentration, causing a 50% growth reduction after 72h to the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, was at the immediate release situation 69 mu g ZnL-1. Upon interaction of runoff water with soil, which simulated 18 to 34years of exposure, the total zinc concentration was significantly reduced, from milligram per litre to microgram per litre levels. Simultaneously, the most bioavailable fraction of zinc in runoff, the hydrated zinc(II)-ion, decreased from more than 95% to about 30%. The major fraction, 98-99%, of the introduced total zinc concentration in the runoff water was retained within the soil. As long as the soil retention capacity was not reached, this resulted in zinc concentrations in the percolate water transported through the soil layer, close to background values and below growth inhibition concentrations for the green algae investigated. Zinc retained in soil was to a large extent (85-99.9%) extractable with EDTA, and available for plant uptake after 5 to 7months of ageing.

  • 4.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Claesson, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Sracek, O.
    Fagerberg, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Martin, R. A.
    Storniolo, A. D.
    Thir, J. M.
    Distribution and mobility of arsenic in the Rio Dulce alluvial aquifers in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 358, no 1-3, 97-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors controlling arsenic (As) mobilization in the aquifers of the Rio Dulce alluvial cone were investigated. Groundwater analyses show severe As contamination (average concentration of 743 mu g/L) from geogenic sources, but spatial variability of As concentration is considerable. Sequential leaching of sediment samples from unsaturated zone using de-ionised water, bicarbonate, acetate, and oxalate extracted As to different extents. Sediment oxalate extraction showed that Al and Mn oxide and hydroxides are more abundant than Fe oxides and hydroxides, in spite of similar total Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations in the sediment. Speciation calculations performed for saturated zone samples indicated that Fe and Al oxides and hydroxides are stable in groundwater, suggesting that As adsorption processes may be to some extent controlled by the presence of Fe and Al mineral phases. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that As is related to F, V, Mo, B, Si, most likely due to their common origin in volcanic ash. This suggests the volcanic ash as the probable source of groundwater As. Locally, elevated pH values linked to carbonate dissolution, cation exchange, and dissolution of silicates promote release of adsorbed As. Another factor contributing to the release of As locally may be the input of organic matter from excessive irrigation. The conceptual model of As release includes: i) As influx from dissolution of volcanic glass in volcanic ash, ii) adsorption of As on the surface of Fe and Al mineral phases in relatively low pH zones, and iii) high mobility of As in high pH zones. Future work should be focused on the determination of mineralogical forms of As in volcanic ash and on detailed investigation on factors controlling As mobility.

  • 5.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mukherjee, A. B.
    Jacks, G.
    Nordqvist, S.
    Metal contamination at a wood preservation site: characterisation and experimental studies on remediation2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 290, no 03-jan, 165-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the occurrence of As, Cu, Cr and Zn in the soil at an abandoned wood preservation unit and to examine some possible extractants for the contaminants in the soil. The mean As content of the contaminated surface soils (0-10 cm) was 186 mg kg(-1), where as the mean concentrations of Cu, Cr and Zn in soils from the contaminated area were 26, 29 and 91 mg kg(-1), respectively. The elevated As content in the mineral soils is related to adsorption of inorganic As phases in the fine grained fractions, which are characterised by large surface area and high positive surface charge under the current acidic conditions. Cu and Cr were found to be rather mobile, which is reflected in their lower abundance in soils and significant accumulation in sediments in the drainage leaving the area. The fine fraction of the soil (<0.125 mm) has an average metal content increased by nearly 34% as compared to the <2-mm fraction conventionally used for the analysis and assessment of soil contamination. The <2-mm fraction constitutes approximately 65% of the total weight while the fine fraction (< 0.125 mm) constitutes approximately 10%. These facts, taken together, are essential for the choice of remediation measures. Oxalate solutions have been tested as extractants for soil remediation. Dark acid oxalate extraction dissolves the amorphous Al- and Fe-oxides and hydroxides and mobilises the adsorbed inorganic As species. Oxalate also acts as a ligand for the cationic heavy metals, releasing them from exchangeable sites. With a three-step sequential leaching, up to 98-99% of the metals could be removed. At lower concentrations and higher pH, the leaching decreased to approximately 70%.

  • 6.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Welch, Alan H.
    Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.
    McLaughlin, Mike J.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Panaullah, G.
    Arsenic in the environment: Biology and Chemistry2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 379, no 03-feb, 109-120 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) distribution and toxicology in the environment is a serious issue, with millions of individuals worldwide being affected by As toxicosis. Sources of As contamination are both natural and anthropogenic and the scale of contamination ranges from local to regional. There are many areas of research that are being actively pursued to address the As contamination problem. These include new methods of screening for As in the field, determining the epidemiology of As in humans, and identifying the risk of As uptake in agriculture. Remediation of As-affected water supplies is important and research includes assessing natural remediation potential as well as phytoremediation. Another area of active research is on the microbially mediated biogeochemical interactions of As in the environment. In 2005, a conference was convened to bring together scientists involved in many of the different areas of As research. In this paper, we present a synthesis of the As issues in the light of long-standing research and with regards to the new findings presented at this conference. This contribution provides a backdrop to the issues raised at the conference together with an overview of contemporary and historical issues of As contamination and health impacts. Crown

  • 7.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Nath, Bibhash
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: Implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485, 12-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (similar to 70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <951 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 mu g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84 x 10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65 x 10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 mu g/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8 x 10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  • 8.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: Consequences for sustainable drinking water supply2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 431, 402-412 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH4+, PO43-, Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dis-solution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO42- reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  • 9. Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Gros, Meritxell
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, 265-275 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, a-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p = 0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p = 0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. a-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000 ng L-1), galaxolide (1400 ng L-1), octocrylene (1200 ng L-1), and alpha-tocopheryl acetate (660 ng L-1).

  • 10. Bozkurt, S.
    et al.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Long-term processes in waste deposits2000In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 250, no 03-jan, 101-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual model, which is a unitary and continuous description of the overall processes in waste deposits, has been developed. In the model the most important processes governing the long-term fate of organic matter in landfills and the transport and retention of toxic metals are included. With the model as a base, a number of scenarios with different levels of complexity have been defined and studied in order to carry out long-term assessments of the chemical evolution in waste deposits for industrial and municipal solid waste containing much organic matter and the leaching of toxic metals. The focus of the modelling has been to quantify the important processes occurring after the methane production phase has ceased, i.e. during the humic phase. The scenarios include the main mechanisms based on various transport processes as well as different landfill constructions, e.g. binding capacities of sulfides and humic substances. They also include transport mechanisms by which the reactant oxygen can intrude into a deposit, sorption capacities of hydrous ferric oxides, and pH-buffering reactions, etc. Scoping calculations have shown that the binding capacity of humic substances is sufficient to bind all toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn and Hg). In addition, the humics could also bind a smaller part of Ca, Fe and Al, provided much of the organic waste remain as humic substances. Sulfides on the other hand can bind approximately twice the amount of all toxic metals. The binding capacity of hydrous ferric oxides, which can be formed by oxidation reactions during the humic phase, is estimated to be three times the total content of metals that can sorb on hydrous ferric oxides. In the studied landfill the pi-I-buffering capacity, primarily represented by calcite, is estimated to be 1 mol/kg dry waste. Quantifications indicate that the alkalinity of the wastes is high enough to buffer the acidity produced by the oxidation of sulfides and by the degradation of organic matter, as well as that added by acid precipitation. Therefore, the main conclusion is that higher remobilisation rates of heavy metals due to lowering of pH are not expected for many thousands of years.

  • 11. Bozkurt, S.
    et al.
    Sifvert, M.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    The long-term evolution of and transport processes in a self-sustained final cover on waste deposits2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 271, no 03-jan, 145-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new principle for confinement of waste based on a self-sustained seal is presented. The top cover is considered to consist of two main layers; an organic carbon rich surface layer that is able to support vegetation and an inorganic layer beneath it. The function of the cover is to mitigate oxidation and acidification of landfilled waste and hence the release of toxic metals. It is suggested that forest soil formation and soil development could prove to be valuable information sources for the study of the long-term behaviour of a final cover on waste deposits. Since the cover is expected to develop in northern temperate climate the focus is on Spodosol soil. A number of simulations of the long-term behaviour of the final self-sustained landfill cover are made, including the rates of influx of oxygen into the cover. A cover having a large portion of organic matter compared with a cover with no organics can considerably decrease the oxygen concentration and thus the influx of oxygen into a landfill. The calculated oxygen intrusion rate for the former case is of the order of 0.05 kg m(-2) year(-1). Degradation of the organics produces acids. Our simulations indicate that the pH-buffering capacity of the mineral layer, represented by calcite and primary rock minerals, will last for many thousands of years.

  • 12.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Litter, Marta I.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic in Latin America, an unrevealed continent: Occurrence, health effects and mitigation2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, 1-1 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Litter, Marta I.
    Parvez, Faruque
    Roman-Ross, Gabriela
    Nicolli, Hugo B.
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Liu, Chen-Wuing
    Lopez, Dina
    Armienta, Maria A.
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Gomez Cuevas, Alina
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Cumbal, Luis
    Toujaguez, Regla
    One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: A review of history and occurrence from 14 countries2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, 2-35 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 1 0 mu g/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Cordoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rimac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V. Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem.

  • 14. Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Vithanage, Meththika
    Seneweera, Saman
    Schneider, Jerusa
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Khan, Nasreen Islam
    Hamawand, Ihsan
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Reardon-Smith, Kathryn
    Parvez, Faruque
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    Ghaze, Sara
    Pudmenzky, Christa
    Kouadio, Louis
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Medical geology in the framework of the sustainable development goals2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581, 87-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized. Global population explosion and economic growth and the associated increase in demand for water, energy, food, and mineral resources result in accelerated release of GCs globally. The emerging science of "medical geology" assesses the complex relationships between geo-environmental factors and their impacts on humans and environments and is related to the majority of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we identify multiple lines of evidence for the role of GCs in the incidence of diseases with as yet unknown etiology (causation). Integrated medical geology promises a more holistic understanding of the occurrence, mobility, bioavailability, bio-accessibility, exposure and transfer mechanisms of GCs to the food-chain and humans, and the related ecotoxicological impacts and health effects. Scientific evidence based on this approach will support adaptive solutions for prevention, preparedness and response regarding human and environmental health impacts originating from exposure to GCs.

  • 15.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Liu, Chen-Wuing
    Aurora Armienta, Maria
    Moreno Lopez, Myriam V.
    Lopez, Dina L.
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Lauer Macedo, Luciene Fagundes
    Tenuta Filho, Alfredo
    Arsenic in the human food chain: the Latin American perspective2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, 92-106 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater and surface water due to a combination of geological processes and/or anthropogenic activities. In this paper, we review the available literature (both in English and Spanish languages) to delineate human As exposure pathways through the food chain. Numerous studies show that As accumulations in edible plants and crops are mainly associated with the presence of high As in soils and irrigation waters. However, factors such as As speciation, type and composition of soil, and plant species have a major control on the amount of As uptake. Areas of high As concentrations in surface water and groundwater show high As accumulations in plants, fish/shellfish, livestock meat, milk and cheese. Such elevated As concentrations in food may result in widespread health risks to local inhabitants, including health of indigenous populations and residents living close to mining industries. Some studies show that As can be transferred from the water to prepared meals, thereby magnifying the As content in the human diet. Arsenic speciation might also change during food preparation, especially during high temperature cooking, such as grilling and frying. Finally, the review of the available literature demonstrates the necessity of more rigorous studies in evaluating pathways of As exposure through the human food chain in Latin America.

  • 16.
    Cui, Qing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Copper content in lake sediments as a tracer of urban emissions: evaluation through a source-transport-storage model2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 13, 2714-2725 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A coupled source-transport-storage model was developed to determine the origin and path of copper from materials/goods in use in the urban drainage area and the fate of copper in local recipient lakes The model was applied and tested using five small lakes in Stockholm, Sweden. In the case of the polluted lakes Racksta Trask, Trekanten and Langsjon, the source strengths of copper identified by the model were found to be well linked with independently observed copper contents in the lake sediments through the model. The model results also showed that traffic emissions, especially from brake linings, dominated the total load in all five cases Sequential sedimentation and burial proved to be the most important fate processes of copper in all lakes, except Racksta Trask, where outflow dominated The model indicated that the sediment copper content can be used as a tracer of the urban diffuse copper source strength, but that the response to changes in source strength is fairly slow (decades) Major uncertainties in the source model were related to management of stormwater in the urban area, the rate of wear of brake linings and weathering of copper roofs The uncertainty of the coupled model is in addition affected mainly by parameters quantifying the sedimentation and bury processes, such as particulate fraction, settling velocity of particles, and sedimentation rate As a demonstration example, we used the model to predict the response of the sediment copper level to a decrease in the copper load from the urban catchment in one of the case study lakes (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved

  • 17.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Gaily, Tarig
    Mangold, Mikael
    Prevalence of microbiological contaminants in groundwater sources and risk factor assessment in Juba, South Sudan2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 515-516, 181-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In low-income regions, drinking water is often derived from groundwater sources, which might spread diarrheal disease if they are microbiologically polluted. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of fecal contamination in 147 improved groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan and to assess potential contributing risk factors, based on bivariate statistical analysis. Thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) were detected in 66% of the investigated sources, including 95 boreholes, breaching the health-based recommendations for drinking water. A significant association (p<. 0.05) was determined between the presence of TTCs and the depth of cumulative, long-term prior precipitation (both within the previous five days and within the past month). No such link was found to short-term rainfall, the presence of latrines or damages in the borehole apron. However, the risk factor analysis further suggested, to a lesser degree, that the local topography and on-site hygiene were additionally significant. In summary, the analysis indicated that an important contamination mechanism was fecal pollution of the contributing groundwater, which was unlikely due to the presence of latrines; instead, infiltration from contaminated surface water was more probable. The reduction in fecal sources in the environment in Juba is thus recommended, for example, through constructing latrines or designating protection areas near water sources. The study results contribute to the understanding of microbiological contamination of groundwater sources in areas with low incomes and high population densities, tropical climates and weathered basement complex environments, which are common in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 18. Eriksson, Ann Kristin
    et al.
    Hesterberg, Dean
    Klysubun, Wantana
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. SLU, Sweden.
    Phosphorus dynamics in Swedish agricultural soils as influenced by fertilization and mineralogical properties: Insights gained from batch experiments and XANES spectroscopy2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, 1410-1419 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The soil chemistry of phosphorus (P) is important for understanding the processes governing plant availability as well as the risk of environmental losses of P. The objective of this research was to investigate both the speciation and the pH-dependent solubility patterns of P in clayey agricultural soils in relation to soil mineralogy and fertilization history. The study focused on soil samples from six fields that were subjected to different P fertilization regimes for periods of 45 to 57 years. Soil P speciation was analyzed by P K-edge XANES spectroscopy and chemical fractionation, sorption isotherms were constructed, and dissolved P was measured as a function of pH. The XANES fitting results showed that organic P and P adsorbed to Fe and Al (hydr) oxides were common P constituents in all soils. Calciumphosphateswere identified in five of six soil samples. The XANES results also indicated an increase in P adsorbed to Al and to a lesser extent Fe (hydr) oxides as a result of fertilization. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity from the P K-edge XANES analysis was most strongly correlated with HCl-digestible P (r = 0.81***). Consistent with the XANES analysis, laboratory sorption isotherm models showed that the Freundlich sorption coefficient (K-F) was most closely related to oxalate-extractable Al. Greater proportions of Ca phosphate in two of the heavily fertilized soils in combination with enhanced PO4 solubilization upon sample acidification indicated neoformation of Ca-phosphate precipitates. The results for the unfertilized soil samples generally showed a minimum in dissolved PO4 between pH 6.5 and 7.5, with increases particularly at lower pH. This behavior can be explained either by the dissolution of Al-hydroxide-type sorbents or Ca phosphates at lower pH. In fertilized soils, there was no consistent trend in pH-dependent solubilization of P, with a complex relationship to solid-phase speciation. To conclude, inorganic P species changed most dynamically in agricultural clay soils over a period of several decades, and the role of pH in the solubilization of P depended mainly on P fertilization history and the content of reactive Ca phosphates.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-06-14 09:37
  • 19. Goidanich, S.
    et al.
    Brunk, Jon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Arenas, M. A.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Atmospheric corrosion of brass in outdoor applications Patina evolution, metal release and aesthetic appearance at urban exposure conditions2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, 46-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincification in relation to detailed bulk and surface characteristics prior to exposure. This has been accomplished by using a multitude of surface and bulk analytical tools, chemical analysis and colorimetric investigations. Small differences in surface finish and local variations in nobility observed for the non-exposed brass alloys resulted in slight differences in corrosion initiation. Despite different kinetic behaviour and relative surface distributions of zinc- and copper-rich patina constituents, similar phases were identified with copper-rich phases rapidly dominating the outermost patina layer in Milan, compared to Madrid and Stockholm showing both copper- and zinc-rich phases. As a consequence of differences in surface coverage of copper- and zinc-rich corrosion products at the different sites, the release ratios of copper to zinc varied concordantly. The released amount of zinc to copper (Zn/Cu) was for both alloys and test sites always higher compared to the bulk composition showing a preferential release of zinc. The amount of released copper from the brass alloys was on an average 30-40% lower compared to copper sheet at all test sites investigated. Significantly lower annual total release rates of copper and zinc compared with annual corrosion rates were evident for both brass alloys at all sites.

  • 20. Goldenberg, Romain
    et al.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Deal, Brian
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Distinction, quantification and mapping of potential and realized supply-demand of flow-dependent ecosystem services2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 593, 599-609 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses and conceptualizes the possible dependence of ecosystem services on prevailing air and/or water flow processes and conditions, and particularly on the trajectories and associated spatial reach of these flows in carrying services from supply to demand areas in the landscape. The present conceptualization considers and accounts for such flow-dependence in terms of potential and actually realized service supply and demand, which may generally differ and must therefore be distinguished due to and accounting for the prevailing conditions of service carrier flows. We here concretize and quantify such flow-dependence for a specific landscape case (the Stockholm region, Sweden) and for two examples of regulating ecosystem services: local climate regulation and storm water regulation. For these service and landscape examples, we identify, quantify and map key areas of potential and realized service supply and demand, based for the former (potential) on prevailing relatively static types of landscape conditions (such as land-cover/use, soil type and demographics), and for the latter (realized) on relevant carrier air and water flows. These first-order quantification examples constitute first steps towards further development of generally needed such flow-dependence assessments for various types of ecosystem services in different landscapes over the world.

  • 21.
    Grünfeld, Katrin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Integrating spatio-temporal information in environmental monitoring data: a visualization approach applied to moss data2005In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 347, no 1-3, 1-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale environmental monitoring data being sparse and collected on irregular grids, which may differ from year to year, are difficult to analyse and present. The traditional techniques from statistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may not be useful given the often relatively small sample size combined with varying sampling density. In this study, the freeware visualization package XmdvTool was used for integration and exploration of monitoring data from three surveys of terrestrial mosses. Data on contents of Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mosses within an area of 300×300 km in southern Sweden, sampled in 1985 (177 samples), 1990 (156 samples) and 1995 (188 samples), were integrated and visualized using parallel coordinate and scatterplot display techniques. Several interesting findings about multi-element composition of samples, as well as changing temporal trends in the relations of five metals were made during interactive visual discovery. Visualization techniques for high-dimensional data may have limitations considering, for example, number of variables, ranges of data values, and spatial scales. Nevertheless, interactive data manipulation tools encourage the process of visual exploration, and the unique way of integrating spatial, temporal and multi-element components of moss data provided visual insights that are not possible to gain with traditional analysis tools.

  • 22. Gunnarsson, L.
    et al.
    Adolfsson-Erici, M.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Co..
    Rutgersson, C.
    Förlin, L.
    Larsson, D.G.J.
    Comparison of six different sewage treatment processes-Reduction of estrogenic substances and effects on gene expression in exposed male fish2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 19, 5235-5242 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated sewage effluents often contain a mixture of estrogenic compounds in low concentrations. The total combined activity of these, however, may be sufficiently high to affect the reproduction of aquatic vertebrates. The introduction of advanced treatment technologies has been suggested as a way to remove micro-contaminants, including estrogenic substances. In this study, one municipal influent was treated with six different processes in parallel on a semi-large scale in order to assess their potential to reduce substances that could contribute to estrogenic effects in male fish. The effluent from a conventional, activated sludge treatment line was compared to a similarly treated effluent with a final sand-filtering step. The addition of ozonation (15 g O3/m3), a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) or both in combination was also evaluated. There was also a separate treatment line that was based on a membrane bioreactor. A small battery of hepatic estrogen-responsive genes was measured in the exposed fish using quantitative PCR. Concentrations of steroid estrogens and estrogenic phenols in the effluents were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. The ozonated effluents were the only tested effluents for which all measured biological effects in exposed fish were removed. Chemical data suggested that the MBBR technology was equally effective in removing the analyzed estrogens; however, elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes suggested that some estrogenic substances were still present in the effluent. The membrane bioreactor removed most of the measured estrogens and it reduced the induction of the estrogen-responsive genes. However, fish exposed to this effluent had significantly enlarged livers. Given that the same influent was treated in parallel with a broad set of technologies and that the chemical analyses were combined with an in vivo assessment of estrogenic responses, this study provides valuable input into the assessment of advanced treatment processes for removing estrogenic substances.

  • 23.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Slejkovec, Zdenka
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 497, 200-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (<10 mu g L-1) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population.

  • 24.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, 615-625 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 mu g/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 mu g/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5 m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments.

  • 25.
    Höglund, Paul G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    Parking, energy consumption and air pollution2004In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 334, 39-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above.

  • 26.
    Jakariya, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Vahter, M.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Rahman, M.
    ICDDR, B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka.
    Wahed, M. A.
    ICDDR, B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka.
    Hore, S. K.
    ICDDR, B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Persson, L. Å.
    ICDDR, B: Centre for Health and Population Research, Dhaka.
    Screening of arsenic in tubewell water with field test kits: Evaluation of the method from public health perspective2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 379, no 2-3, 167-175 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need for Bangladesh to identify the arsenic (As) contaminated tubewells (TWs) in order to assess the health risks and initiate appropriate mitigation measures. This will involve testing water in millions of TWs and raising community awareness about the health problems related to chronic As exposure from drinking water. Field test kits offer the only practical tool within the time frame and financial resources available for screening and assessment of the As contaminated TWs as well as their monitoring than that of the laboratory measurement. A comparison of field test kit and laboratory measurements by AAS as "gold standard" for As in water of 12,532 TWs in Matlab Upazila in Bangladesh, indicates that the field kit correctly determined the status of 91% of the As levels compared to the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard (BDWS) of 50 mu g/L, and 87% of the WHO guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Nevertheless, due to analytical and human errors during the deten-nination of As by the field test kits, some misclassification of wells is inevitable. Cross-checking of the field test kit results, both by Field Supervisor and by the laboratory analyses reveal considerable discrepancies in the correct screening mainly at As concentration ranges of 10-24.9 mu g/L and 50-99.9 mu g/L, critical from a public health point of view. The uncertainties of misclassification of these two groups of TWs have severe public health implications due to As exposure from drinking water sources. This can be reduced through proper training of the field personnel, cross verification of the field test kit results with laboratory analyses and further development of the field test kits to determine As at low concentrations.

  • 27. Johansson, H.
    et al.
    Jonsson, K.
    Forsman, K. J.
    Wörman, Anders
    Retention of conservative and sorptive solutes in streams - simultaneous tracer experiments2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 266, no 03-jan, 229-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective transport velocity of solutes in rivers and streams is governed by transient storage in hyporheic zones in which the longitudinal advection velocity is small relative to the main stream flow velocity. Results from a simultaneous tracer experiment using a non-reactive (tritium, (H2O)-H-3) and a sorptive tracer [chromium, Cr-51(III)] have formed the basis of a more accurate interpretation of the retention characteristics of solutes in streams than previously has been possible. By using a simultaneous injection of these two tracers, it was possible to distinguish between their different behaviours. Based on estimations of fluxes, the retained mass of chromium in the storage zones along the 30-km-long study-reach was 76% after 150 h. Independent observations in the bed sediment indicated that the loss of chromium observed in the water was mainly a result of uptake into the bed sediment. To describe the transport in the stream, a model concept including solute sorption kinetics in the bed sediment was proposed. Evaluation of parameters in the model, indicated that the uptake of chromium in the bed sediment is controlled by sorption kinetics.

  • 28.
    Johansson Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Airborne spreading and deposition of de-icing salt: A case study1999In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 235, no 1-3, 161-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study it was concluded that between 20 and 63% of the de-icing salt applied on the road was transported by air and deposited on the ground 2-40 m from the road. The reason for the higher percentages is suggested to be intense snowfall, which leads to more splash generation and ploughing. Ninety percent or more of the total deposition occurs within 20 m at all transects. For all periods and both localities the deposition was greater on the east side of the road, which reflects the prevailing westerly winds in relation to the de-icing action occasions.

  • 29. Jonsson, K.
    et al.
    Wörman, Anders
    Effect of sorption kinetics on the transport of solutes in streams2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 266, no 03-jan, 239-247 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide an appropriate description of the transport of a reactive substance in a stream, it is important to include a kinetic description of sorption in a transport model. In this study, first-order sorption kinetics was taken into account in both the transient storage zone and the stream water, and analytical expressions for relative error in statistical moments of the residence time PDF, resulting from disregarding sorption kinetics, were derived. The sorption rate coefficient in the water was found to influence the error in the expected value, and the error was found to approach infinity as the travel distance or sorption rate coefficient approaches zero. The sorption rate coefficient in the storage zone influences only higher-order moments. For sufficiently long distances, the error in the variance was found to be more pronounced when sorption kinetics in the storage zone was disregarded, than when sorption kinetics in the stream water was disregarded. Parameter values from a tracer experiment with Cr-51 revealed that the relative error in the variance could be more than 100%, if sorption kinetics in the storage zone is disregarded.

  • 30.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Briel, Annemarie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    On the utilization of hydrological modelling for road drainage design under climate and land use change2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 475, no 15, 97-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road drainage structures are often designed using methods that do not consider process-based representations of a landscape's hydrological response. This may create inadequately sized structures as coupled land cover and climate changes can lead to an amplified hydrological response. This study aims to quantify potential increases of runoff in response to future extreme rain events in a 61 km2 catchment (40% forested) in southwest Sweden using a physically-based hydrological modelling approach. We simulate peak discharge and water level (stage) at two types of pipe bridges and one culvert, both of which are commonly used at Swedish road/stream intersections, under combined forest clear-cutting and future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2100. The frequency of changes in peak flow and water level varies with time (seasonality) and storm size. These changes indicate that the magnitude of peak flow and the runoff response are highly correlated to season rather than storm size. In all scenarios considered, the dimensions of the current culvert are insufficient to handle the increase in water level estimated using a physically-based modelling approach. It also appears that the water level at the pipe bridges changes differently depending on the size and timing of the storm events. The findings of the present study and the approach put forward should be considered when planning investigations on and maintenance for areas at risk of high water flows. In addition, the research highlights the utility of physically-based hydrological models to identify the appropriateness of road drainage structure dimensioning.

  • 31.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Stve W.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    French, Helen K.
    Stolte, Jannes
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sassner, Mona
    Quantifying the hydrological impact of simulated changes in land use on peak discharge in a small catchment2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 466-467, 741-754 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physically-based, distributed hydrological model (MIKE SHE) was used to quantify overland runoff in response to four extreme rain events and four types of simulated land use measure in a catchment in Norway. The current land use in the catchment comprises arable lands, forest, urban areas and a stream that passes under a motorway at the catchment outlet. This model simulation study demonstrates how the composition and configuration of land use measures affect discharge at the catchment outlet differently in response to storms of different sizes. For example, clear-cutting on 30% of the catchment area produced a 60% increase in peak discharge and a 10% increase in total runoff resulting from a 50-year storm event in summer, but the effects on peak discharge were less pronounced during smaller storms. Reforestation of 60% of the catchment area was the most effective measure in reducing peak flows for smaller (2-, 5- and 10-year) storms. Introducing grassed waterways reduced water velocity in the stream and resulted in a 28% reduction in peak flow at the catchment outlet for the 50-year storm event. Overall, the results indicate that the specific effect of land use measures on catchment discharge depends on their spatial distribution and on the size and timing of storm events.

  • 32.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Lyon, Stve W.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Stolte, Jannes
    French, Helen K.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sassner, Mona
    Modeller subjectivity and calibration impacts on hydrological model applications: An event-based comparison for a road-adjacent catchment in south-east Norway2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 502, 315-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying a 'best' performing hydrologic model in a practical sense is difficult due to the potential influences of modeller subjectivity on, for example, calibration procedure and parameter selection. This is especially true for model applications at the event scale where the prevailing catchment conditions can have a strong impact on apparent model performance and suitability. In this study, two lumped models (CoupModel and HBV) and two physically-based distributed models (LISEM and MIKE SHE) were applied to a small catchment upstream of a road in south-eastern Norway. All models were calibrated to a single event representing typical winter conditions in the region and then applied to various other winter events to investigate the potential impact of calibration period and methodology on model performance. Peak flow and event-based hydrographs were simulated differently by all models leading to differences in apparent model performance under this application. In this case study, the lumped models appeared to be better suited for hydrological events that differed from the calibration event (i.e., events when runoff was generated from rain on non-frozen soils rather than from rain and snowmelt on frozen soil) while the more physical-based approaches appeared better suited during snowmelt and frozen soil conditions more consistent with the event-specific calibration. This was due to the combination of variations in subsurface conditions over the eight events considered, the subsequent ability of the models to represent the impact of the conditions (particularly when subsurface conditions varied greatly from the calibration event), and the different approaches adopted to calibrate the models. These results indicate that hydrologic models may not only need to be selected on a case-by-case basis but also have their performance evaluated on an application-by-application basis since how a model is applied can be equally important as inherent model structure.

  • 33.
    Karlén, Camilla
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Heijerick, D.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Janssen, C. R.
    Runoff rates and ecotoxicity of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 277, no 1-3, 169-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiated by regulatory restrictions on the use of zinc for various building and construction applications, together with a lack of knowledge related to the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion, a major interdisciplinary research project was implemented to generate data to be used in future risk assessment. Runoff rates from a large number of commercially available zinc-based materials have been determined on panels inclined 45 degrees from the horizon, facing south, during a 1-year atmospheric exposure in an urban environment in Sweden. Possible environmental effects of runoff water immediately after leaving the surface of the various materials have been evaluated during two different sampling periods of varying season and zinc concentration, using the standard growth inhibition test with algae, Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Selenastnim capricornutum), Zinc-specific biosensors with the bacterial strain of Alcaligenes cutrophus. and computer modeling using the water-ligand model MINTEQA2 and the humic aquatic model WHAM, have been used to assess the bioavailability and chemical speciation of zinc in the runoff water. An excellent consistency between the different methods was observed. The results show considerably lower runoff rates of zinc (0.07-3.5 gm(-2) year(-1)) than previously being used for regulatory restrictions, and the concentration of zinc to be predominantly responsible for the observed toxicity of the runoff water towards the green algae. The majority of the released zinc quantity was found to be present as free hydrated zinc ions and, hence, bioavailable. The data do not consider changes in bioavailability and chemical speciation or dilution effects during entry into the environment. and should therefore only be used as an initial assessment of the potential environmental effect of zinc runoff from building applications. This interdisciplinary approach has the potential for studies on the environmental fate of zinc in soil or aquatic systems.

  • 34.
    Kulabako, N. R.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Nalubega, M.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Study of the impact of land use and hydrogeological settings on the shallow groundwater quality in a peri-urban area of Kampala, Uganda2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 381, no 03-jan, 180-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study to assess the impacts of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the shallow groundwater in one of Kampala's peri-urban areas (Bwaise III Parish) was undertaken for a period of 19 months. Water quality monitoring was carried out for 16 installed wells and one operational protected spring to ascertain the seasonal variation. The aspects of hydrogeological setting investigated in the study were the subsurface unconsolidated material characteristics (stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulic conductivity, porosity and chemical content), seasonal groundwater depths and spring discharge, topography and rainfall of the area. Both laboratory and field measurements were carried out to determine the soil and water characteristics. Field surveys were also undertaken to identify and locate the various land use activities that may potentially pollute. The results demonstrate that the water table in the area responds rapidly to short rains (48 h) due to the pervious (10(-5)-10(-3) ms(-1)) and shallow (< 1 mbgl) vadose zone, which consists of foreign material (due to reclamation). This anthropogenically influenced vadose zone has a limited contaminant attenuation capacity resulting in water quality deterioration following the rains. There is widespread contamination of the groundwater with high organic (up to 370 mgTKN/l and 779 mgNO(3)(-)/l), thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) and faecal streptococci (FS) (median values as high as 126E3 cfu/100 ml and 154E3 cfu/100 ml respectively) and total phosphorus (up to 13 mg/l) levels originating from multiple sources of contamination. These include animal rearing, solid waste dumping, pit latrine construction and greywater/stormwater disposal in unlined channels leading to increased localised microbial (faecal) and organic (TKNNO3-) contamination during the rains. The spring discharge (range 1.22-1.48 m(3)/h) with high nitrate levels (median values of 117 and 129 mg/l in the wet and dry seasons) did not vary significantly with season (p=0.087) suggesting that this source is fed by regional base flow. However, the microbial quality deterioration observed in the spring discharge after a rain event (median values of 815TTCs cftr/100ml and 433 FS cfa/100ml) was attributed to the poor maintenance of the protection structure. Identification and selection of appropriate management solutions for the protection of shallow groundwater in informal settlements should not only be based on water quality problems and the causal physical characteristics as demonstrated by this study, but also institutional and socio-economic factors.

  • 35.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Applied Hydraulics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
    Cvetkovic, V.
    Destouni, G.
    Data-driven analysis of nutrient inputs and transfers through nested catchments2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 610-611, 482-494 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A data-driven screening methodology is developed for estimating nutrient input and retention-delivery in catchments with measured water discharges and nutrient concentrations along the river network. The methodology is applied to the Sava River Catchment (SRC), a major transboundary catchment in southeast Europe, with seven monitoring stations along the main river, defining seven nested catchments and seven incremental subcatchments that are analysed and compared in this study. For the relatively large nested catchments (&gt; 40,000 km2), characteristic regional values emerge for nutrient input per unit area of around 30 T/yr/km2 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 2 T/yr/km2 for total phosphorus (TP). For the smaller nested catchments and incremental subcatchments, corresponding values fluctuate and indicate hotspot areas with total nutrient inputs of 158 T/yr/km2 for DIN and 13 T/yr/km2 for TP. The delivered fraction of total nutrient input mass (termed delivery factor) and associated nutrient loads per area are scale-dependent, exhibiting power-law decay with increasing catchment area, with exponents of around 0.2–0.3 for DIN and 0.3–0.5 for TP. For the largest of the nested catchments in the SRC, the delivery factor is around 0.08 for DIN and 0.03 for TP. Overall, the nutrient data for nested catchments within the SRC show consistency with previously reported data for multiple nested catchments within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin, identifying close nutrient relationships to driving hydro-climatic conditions (runoff for nutrient loads) and socio-economic conditions (population density and farmland share for nutrient concentrations). 

  • 36.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Data-driven analysis of nutrient inputs and transfers through nested catchments2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 610, 482-494 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Ljung, K.
    et al.
    Torin, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Lung Institute of Western Australia, Australia.
    Smirk, M.
    Maley, F.
    Cook, A.
    Weinstein, P.
    Extracting dust from soil: A simple solution to a tricky task2008In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 1, 589-593 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air quality is commonly assessed by the ambient concentration of airborne particles sized smaller than 10 μm (PM10). However, in addition to concentration, particle shape as well as the type and bioaccessibility of elements adsorbed to this particulate fraction are likely to be related to subsequent respiratory health effects. In order to investigate this relationship, a relatively large mass of the relevant size fraction is needed since sample preparation is necessary prior to analysis. Most existing methods for sampling dust have been developed for analysing the dust directly, without prior handling or digestion. In order to provide sufficient material to be used for subsequent bioaccessibility analysis, these methods require repetitive and time consuming sampling as well as special equipment and procedures which are high in both cost and maintenance. This paper describes an inexpensive and relatively simple procedure for extracting the PM10 fraction from soil to be used for lung bioaccessibility studies. The method described involves dry and wet sieving in order to exclude larger size fractions as far as possible. Vacuum filtering of the wet-sieved soil solution through a 10 μm mesh was then employed to extract the required fraction. In order to avoid frequent blocking of the mesh, Stokes's law was applied in the construction of a tube which enables separation of the solution holding the smallest fraction.

  • 38. Lopez, Dina L.
    et al.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Birkle, Peter
    Aurora Armienta, Maria
    Cumbal, Luis
    Sracek, Ondra
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Ormachea, Mauricio
    Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, 57-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Ma-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L-1 (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L-1 to tens of mg L-1. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few mu g L-1. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L-1). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.

  • 39. Löfgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bringmark, Lage
    Decreasing DOC trends in soil solution along the hillslopes at two IM sites in southern Sweden: Geochemical modeling of organic matter solubility during acidification recovery2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 1, 201-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies report increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during the last two decades in boreal lakes and streams in Europe and North America Recently a hypothesis was presented on how various spatial and temporal factors affect the DOC dynamics It was concluded that declining sulphur deposition and thereby increased DOC solubility is the most important driver for the long-term DOC concentration trends in surface waters If this recovery hypothesis is correct the DOC levels should increase both in the soil solution as well as in the surrounding surface waters as soil pH rises and the ionic strength declines due to the reduced input of SO42- ions In this project a geochemical model was set up to calculate the net humic charge and DOC solubility trends in soils during the period 1996-2007 at two integrated monitoring sites in southern Sweden showing clear signs of acidification recovery The Stockholm Humic Model was used to investigate whether the observed DOC solubility is related to the humic charge and to examine how pH and ionic strength influence it Soil water data from recharge and discharge areas covering both podzols and riparian soils were used The model exercise showed that the increased net charge following the pH increase was in many cases counteracted by a decreased ionic strength, which acted to decrease the net charge and hence the DOC solubility Thus the recovery from acidification does not necessarily have to generate increasing DOC trends in soil solution Depending on changes in pH ionic strength and soil Al pools the trends might be positive negative or indifferent Due to the high hydraulic connectivity with the streams the explanations to the DOC trends in surface waters should be searched for in discharge areas and peat lands.

  • 40. McClintock, Tyler R.
    et al.
    Chen, Yu
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Oliver, John T.
    Navoni, Julio
    Olmos, Valentina
    Lepori, Edda Villaamil
    Ahsan, Habibul
    Parvez, Faruque
    Arsenic exposure in Latin America: Biomarkers, risk assessments and related health effects2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, 76-91 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50 mu g/L), some to as high as 2000 mu g/L - 200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between the high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America - including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts.

  • 41.
    Midander, Klara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Elihn, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden .
    Wallén, A.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden .
    Belova, Liubov
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Material Physics.
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Characterisation of nano- and micron-sized airborne and collected subway particles, a multi-analytical approach2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 427, 390-400 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous daily measurements of airborne particles were conducted during specific periods at an underground platform within the subway system of the city center of Stockholm, Sweden. Main emphasis was placed on number concentration, particle size distribution, soot content (analyzed as elemental and black carbon) and surface area concentration. Conventional measurements of mass concentrations were conducted in parallel as well as analysis of particle morphology, bulk- and surface composition. In addition, the presence of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds within freshly collected particle fractions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were investigated and grouped according to functional groups. Similar periodic measurements were conducted at street level for comparison.The investigation clearly demonstrates a large dominance in number concentration of airborne nano-sized particles compared to coarse particles in the subway. Out of a mean particle number concentration of 12000 particles/cm 3 (7500 to 20000 particles/cm 3), only 190 particles/cm 3 were larger than 250nm. Soot particles from diesel exhaust, and metal-containing particles, primarily iron, were observed in the subway aerosol. Unique measurements on freshly collected subway particle size fractions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 identified several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, the presence of carcinogenic aromatic compounds and traces of flame retardants.This interdisciplinary and multi-analytical investigation aims to provide an improved understanding of reported adverse health effects induced by subway aerosols.

  • 42.
    Molander, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University.
    Rybacka, Aleksandra
    Umeå University.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals? - Missing links in EU chemical management2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 435, 280-289 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles.

  • 43. Nicolli, Hugo B.
    et al.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Blanco, Maria del C.
    Tujchneider, Ofelia C.
    Panarello, Hector O.
    Dapena, Cristina
    Rusansky, Jorge E.
    Arsenic and associated trace-elements in groundwater from the Chaco-Pampean plain, Argentina: Results from 100 years of research2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, 36-56 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Chaco-Pampean plain, Argentina, is a vast geographical unit (1,000,000 km(2)) affected by high arsenic (As) concentrations in universal oxidizing groundwater. The socio-economic development of the region is restricted by water availability and its low quality caused by high salinity and hardness. In addition, high As and associated trace-elements (F, U, V. B, Se, Sb, Mo) concentrations of geogenic origin turn waters unsuitable for human consumption. Shallow groundwater with high As and F concentrations (ranges: <10-5300 mu g As/L; 51-7,340 mu g F/L) exceeding the WHO guideline values (As: 10 mu g/L; F: 1,500 mu g/L) introduces a potential risk of hydroarsenicism disease in the entire region and fluorosis in some areas. The rural population is affected (2-8 million inhabitants). Calcareous loess-type sediments and/or intercalated volcanic ash layers in pedosedimentary sequences hosting the aquifers are the sources of contaminant trace-elements. Large intra and interbasin variabilities of trace-element concentrations, especially between shallow and deep aquifers have been observed. All areas of the Chaco-Pampean plain were affected in different grades: the Chaco-Saltena plain (in the NNE of the region) and the northern La Pampa plain (in the center-south) have been shown the highest concentrations. The ranges of As and F contents in loess-sediments are 6-25 and 534-3340 mg/kg, respectively in the Sali River basin. Three key processes render high As concentrations in shallow aquifers: i) volcanic glass dissolution and/or hydrolysis and leaching of silicates minerals hosted in loess; ii) desorption processes from the surface of Al-, Fe- and Mn-oxi-hydroxides (coating lithic fragments) at high pH and mobilization as complex oxyanions (As and trace elements)in Na-bicarbonate type groundwaters; and iii) evaporative concentration in areas with semiarid and arid climates. Local factors play also an important role in the control of high As concentrations, highly influenced by lithology-mineralogy, soils-geomorphology, actual climate and paleoclimates, hydraulic parameters, and residence time of groundwaters.

  • 44.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Concentration and fractionation of heavy metals inroadside soils receiving de-icing salts1998In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 218, 161-174 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil was sampled along two lines of a highway, 0.5 m and 2.5 m from the asphalt surface, and in an infiltration pond for highway runoff. The study area was located in the infiltration area of the reserve water supply for a community. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in soil samples from the highway 0.5 m. andror in the infiltration pond exceeded guideline values for less sensitive land-use with groundwater protection. The highest Pb concentration measured 542 mg kgy1. was 34 times the average Pb concentration in soils in Sweden, and exceeded the Swedish guideline value by a factor of almost two. Cadmium in the infiltration pond exceeded the guideline value almost three times. An increased concentration with soil depth for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and PAHs in the infiltration pond showed that downward transport had occurred. This was supported by a Pb concentration exceeding the limit for drinking water quality in the groundwater 4.5 m below the soil surface in the infiltration pond. The ESP exchangeable sodium percentage. in some samples was high enough 10]27%. for dispersion of soil colloids to occur. The Tessier’s sequential extraction scheme showed that Pb and Zn occurred mostly in association with the oxide bound fraction whereas Cu was mainly associated with the organic fraction, e.g. colloids. Another important fraction for Pb was the carbonate fraction. The study showed that a large part of the Pb, Cu and Zn in roadside soils is vulnerable to leaching when exposed to a high NaCl concentration, reducing conditions or to a lowering in pH. Regression analyses showed that a high concentration of Na predominately displaces Ca of the base cations from the exchange sites in the soil. The highly significant relationships observed between soil properties and chemical fractions of the metals make the result reliable for the fractions that predominate.

  • 45.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Zhang, Xian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, 681-694 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn > Cu sheet > Cu15Zn > Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn-5(OH)(6)(CO3)(2) (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O/Zn2Al(OH)(6)Cl center dot 2H(2)O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8 center dot H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties.

  • 46.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Thomas, Jean Baptiste E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Risén, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Currently at Sweco Environment AB, Sweden.
    Ribeiro, Mauricio S.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Nylund, G. M.
    Jansson, A.
    Welander, U.
    Pavia, H.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, 347-355 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultivation of seaweed as a feedstock for third generation biofuels is gathering interest in Europe, however, many questions remain unanswered in practise, notably regarding scales of operation, energy returns on investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, all of which are crucial to determine commercial viability. This study performed an energy and GHG emissions analysis, using EROI and GHG savings potential respectively, as indicators of commercial viability for two systems: the Swedish Seafarm project's seaweed cultivation (0.5 ha), biogas and fertilizer biorefinery, and an estimation of the same system scaled up and adjusted to a cultivation of 10 ha. Based on a conservative estimate of biogas yield, neither the 0.5 ha case nor the up-scaled 10 ha estimates met the (commercial viability) target EROI of 3, nor the European Union Renewable Energy Directive GHG savings target of 60% for biofuels, however the potential for commercial viability was substantially improved by scaling up operations: GHG emissions and energy demand, per unit of biogas, was almost halved by scaling operations up by a factor of twenty, thereby approaching the EROI and GHG savings targets set, under beneficial biogas production conditions. Further analysis identified processes whose optimisations would have a large impact on energy use and emissions (such as anaerobic digestion) as well as others embodying potential for further economies of scale (such as harvesting), both of which would be of interest for future developments of kelp to biogas and fertilizer biorefineries.

  • 47.
    Riml, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Hydraulic Engineering.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Hydraulic Engineering.
    Kunkel, Uwe
    Univeristy of Bayreuth.
    Radke, Michael
    Stockholm University.
    Evaluating the fate of six common pharmaceuticals using a reactive transport model: Insights from a stream tracer test2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 458, 344-354 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative information regarding the capacity of rivers to self-purify pharmaceutical residues is limited. To bridge this knowledge gap, we present a methodology for quantifying the governing processes affecting the fate of pharmaceuticals in streaming waters and, especially, to evaluate their relative significance for tracer observations. A tracer test in Sava Brook, Sweden was evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream, which are presumably important for the retention and attenuation of pharmaceuticals. To assess the key processes affecting the environmental fate of the compounds, we linked the uncertainty estimates of the reaction rate coefficients to the relative influence of transformation and sorption that occurred in different stream environments. The hydrological and biogeochemical contributions to the fate of the pharmaceuticals were decoupled, and the results indicate a moderate hydrological retention in the hyporheic zone as well as in the densely vegetated parts of the stream. Biogeochemical reactions in these transient storage zones further affected the fate of the pharmaceuticals, and we found that sorption was the key process for bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen, while primary transformation was the most important process for clofibric acid and ibuprofen. Conversely, diclofenac was not affected by sorption or transformation.

  • 48.
    Roos, Vendela
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Gunnarsson, L.
    Fick, J.
    Larsson, D. G. J.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 421, 102-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly: some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects.

  • 49. Sahle, A.
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 443, 163-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000. V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories. Production and use of greenhouse plastic are another important contributors, and just a bit less than the contribution of calcium nitrate to Abiotic Depletion (AD). The results of this study clearly indicate nutrient management and emissions from pesticide use, especially insecticides, as a focus point for environmental optimization of the rose cultivation sector in Ethiopia.

  • 50. Schneider, J.
    et al.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. University of Southern Queensland, West Street, Toowoomba, QLD, Australia.
    do Nascimento, C. W. A.
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-assisted phytoremediation of a lead-contaminated site2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, 86-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the behavior of plant species associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the ability of such plants to grow on metal-contaminated soils is important to phytoremediation. Here, we evaluate the occurrence and diversity of AMF and plant species as well as their interactions in soil contaminated with lead (Pb) from the recycling of automotive batteries. The experimental area was divided into three locations: a non-contaminated native area, a coarse rejects deposition area, and an area receiving particulate material from the chimneys during the Pb melting process. Thirty-nine AMF species from six families and 10 genera were identified. The Acaulospora and Glomus genera exhibited the highest occurrences both in the bulk (10 and 6) and in the rhizosphere soils (9 and 6). All of the herbaceous species presented mycorrhizal colonization. The highest Pb concentrations (mg kg− 1) in roots and shoots, respectively, were observed in Vetiveria zizanoides (15,433 and 934), Pteris vitata (9343 and 865), Pteridim aquilinun (1433 and 733), and Ricinus communis (1106 and 625). The diversity of AMF seems to be related to the area heterogeneity; the structure communities of AMF are correlated with the soil Pb concentration. We found that plant diversity was significantly correlated with AMF diversity (r = 0.645; P &gt; 0.05) in areas with high Pb soil concentrations. A better understanding of AMF communities in the presence of Pb stress may shed light on the interactions between fungi and metals taking place in contaminated sites. Such knowledge can aid in developing soil phytoremediation techniques such as phytostabilization.

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