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  • 1.
    Adem Esmail, Blal
    et al.
    Univ Trento, Dept Civil Environm & Mech Eng.
    Geneletti, Davide
    Univ Trento, Dept Civil Environm & Mech Eng.
    Albert, Christian
    Leibniz Univ Hannover, Inst Environm Planning, Herrenhauser Str 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany; UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Dept Environm Polit, Permoserstr 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany.
    Boundary work for implementing adaptive management: A water sector application2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 593-594, s. 274-285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary work, defined as effort to mediate between knowledge and action, is a promising approach for facilitating knowledge co-production for sustainable development. Here, we investigate a case study of knowledge co-production, to assess the applicability of boundary work as a conceptual framework to support implementing adaptive management in the water sector. We refer to a boundary work classification recently proposed by Clark et al., (2016), based on three types of knowledge uses, i.e. enlightenment, decision-, and negotiation-support, and three types of sources, i.e. personal expertise, single, and multiple communities of expertise. Our empirical results confirm boundary work has been crucial for the three types of knowledge use. For enlightenment and decision support, effective interaction among knowledge producers and users was achieved through diverse boundary work practices, including joint agenda setting, and sharing of data and expertise. This initial boundary work eased subsequent knowledge co-production for decision-support and negotiations, in combination with stepping up of cooperation between relevant actors, suitable legislation and pressure for problem solving. Our analysis highlighted the temporal dimension matters-building trust around enlightenment first, and then using this as a basis for managing knowledge co-production for decision-, and negotiation support. We reconfirmed that boundary work is not a single time achievement, rather is a dynamic process, and we emphasized the importance of key actors driving the process, such as water utilities. Our results provide a rich case study of how strategic boundary work can facilitate knowledge co-production for adaptive management in the water sector. The boundary work practices employed here could also be transferred to other cases. Water utilities, as intermediaries between providers and beneficiaries of the important water-related ecosystem service of clean water provision, can indeed serve as key actors for initiating such boundary work practices. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Firoz
    et al.
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Islam, Md Aminul
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Kumar, Manish
    Indian Inst Technol, Discipline Earth Sci, Gandhinagar 382355, Gujarat, India..
    Hossain, Maqsud
    North South Univ, NSU Genome Res Inst NGRI, Dept Biochem & Microbiol, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Islam, MD Tahmidul
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hossen, Foysal
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Microbiol, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Hossain, Md Shahadat
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Biotechnol & Genet Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Islam, Md Sydul
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Appl Chem & Chem Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Uddin, Md Main
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Biotechnol & Genet Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Islam, Md Nur
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Biotechnol & Genet Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Bahadur, Newaz Mohammed
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Dept Appl Chem & Chem Engn, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Didar-Ul-Alam, Md
    Noakhali Sci & Technol Univ, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh..
    Reza, Hasan Mahmud
    North South Univ, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh..
    Jakariya, Md
    North South Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Management, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh..
    First detection of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in the vicinity of COVID-19 isolation Centre in Bangladesh: Variation along the sewer network2021Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 776, artikkel-id 145724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We made the first and successful attempt to detect SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in the vicinity wastewaters of an isolation centre i.e. Shaheed Bhulu Stadium, situated at Noakhali, Southeastern Bangladesh. Owing to the fact that isolation centre, in general, always contained a constant number of 200 COVID-19 patients, the prime objective of the study was to check if several drains carrying RNA of coronavirus are actually getting diluted or accumulated along with the sewage network. Our finding suggested that while the temporal variation of the genetic load decreased in small drains over the span of 50 days, the main sewer exhibited accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Other interesting finding displays that probably distance of sampling location in meters is not likely to have a significant impact on the detected gene concentration, although the quantity of the RNA extracted in the downstream of the drain was higher. These findings are of immense value from the perspective of wastewater surveillance of COVID-19, as they largely imply that we do not need to monitor every wastewater system, and probably major drains monitoring may illustrate the city health. Perhaps, we are reporting the accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material along with the sewer network i.e. from primary to tertiary drains. The study sought further data collection in this line to simulate conditions prevailed in most of the developing countries and to shed further light on decay/accumulation processes of the genetic load of the SARS-COV-2.

  • 3.
    Amin, Nuhu
    et al.
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Infect Dis Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;Univ Technol Sydney, Inst Sustainable Futures, 235 Jones St, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia..
    Haque, Rehnuma
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Infect Dis Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Stanford, CA USA..
    Rahman, Md. Ziaur
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Infect Dis Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Infect Dis Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Mahmud, Zahid Hayat
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Infect Dis Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Hasan, Rezaul
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Infect Dis Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Islam, MD Tahmidul
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. WaterAid, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sarker, Protim
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Infect Dis Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sarker, Supriya
    Directorate Gen Hlth Serv DGHS, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Adnan, Shaikh Daud
    Directorate Gen Hlth Serv DGHS, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Akter, Nargis
    UNICEF, Water Sanitat & Hyg WASH Sect, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Johnston, Dara
    UNICEF, Water Sanitat & Hyg WASH Sect, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Infect Dis Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;Inst Epidemiol Dis Control & Res IEDCR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Liu, Pengbo
    Emory Univ, Ctr Global Safe Water Sanitat & Hyg, Atlanta, GA USA..
    Wang, Yuke
    Emory Univ, Ctr Global Safe Water Sanitat & Hyg, Atlanta, GA USA..
    Shirin, Tahmina
    Inst Epidemiol Dis Control & Res IEDCR, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Dependency of sanitation infrastructure on the discharge of faecal coliform and SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in wastewater from COVID and non-COVID hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh2023Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 867, artikkel-id 161424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in wastewater can be used as an indicator of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in specific catchment areas. We conducted a hospital-based study to explore wastewater management in healthcare facilities and analyzed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the hospital wastewater in Dhaka city during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak between September 2020-January 2021. We selected three COVID-hospitals, two non-COVID-hospitals, and one non-COVID-hospital with COVID wards, conducted spot-checks of the sanitation systems (i.e., toilets, drainage, and septic-tank), and collected 90 untreated wastewater effluent samples (68 from COVID and 22 from non-COVID hospitals). E. coli was detected using a membrane filtration technique and reported as colony forming unit (CFU). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using the iTaq Universal Probes One-Step kit for RT-qPCR amplification of the SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab and N gene targets and quantified for SARS-CoV-2 genome equivalent copies (GEC) per mL of sample. None of the six hospitals had a primary wastewater treatment facility; two COVID hospitals had functional septic tanks, and the rest of the hospitals had either broken onsite systems or no containment of wastewater. Overall, 100 % of wastewater samples were positive with a high concentration of E.coli (mean = 7.0 log10 CFU/100 mL). Overall, 67 % (60/90) samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The highest SARS-CoV-2 concentrations (median: 141 GEC/mL; range: 13-18,214) were detected in wastewater from COVID-hospitals, and in non-COVID-hospitals, the median SARS-CoV-2 concentration was 108 GEC/mL (range: 30-1829). Our results indicate that high concentrations of E. coli and SARS-CoV-2 were discharged through the hospital wastewa-ter (both COVID and non-COVID) without treatment into the ambient water bodies. Although there is no evidence for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via wastewater, this study highlights the significant risk posed by wastewater from health care facilities in Dhaka for the many other diseases that are spread via faecal oral route. Hospitals in low-income settings could function as sentinel sites to monitor outbreaks through wastewater-based epidemiological surveillance systems. Hospitals should aim to adopt the appropriate wastewater treatment technologies to reduce the discharge of pathogens into the environment and mitigate environmental exposures.

  • 4.
    Anamaghi, Sara
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Behboudian, Massoud
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik. School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Mahjouri, Najmeh
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Kerachian, Reza
    School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    A resilience-based framework for evaluating the carrying capacity of water and environmental resources under the climate change2023Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 902, artikkel-id 165986Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new framework for evaluating water and environmental resources carrying capacity (WERCC) based on the concept of resilience under uncertainty. First, several quantitative and qualitative criteria based on the seven principles of resilience and the Pressure-Support-State (PSS) framework are defined to incorporate the positive and negative impacts of human interventions and natural factors on water resources and the environment. The resilience principles include redundancy and diversity, managing connectivity, managing slow variables and their feedbacks, fostering complex adaptive system (CAS) thinking, encouraging learning, broadening participation, and promoting polycentric governance. After evaluating the values of the criteria and sub-criteria using a two-point evidential reasoning (TPER) approach and considering the existing uncertainties, the monthly time series of WERCC with uncertainty bands are calculated. The proposed methodology is then used to evaluate the WERCC in the Zarrinehrud river basin in Iran for a given historical period (1991–2012), and the period of 2020 to 2049 under different climate change scenarios. The results of this analysis demonstrate the inadequacy of the WERCC during the historical period and indicate that the continuation of the existing trend (base scenario, MSC0) will cause many environmental issues. Hence, several water and environmental resources management (WERM) scenarios are proposed to enhance the WERCC. These scenarios are evaluated using a multi-agent-multi-criteria decision-making method to identify the preferable WERM scenario (MSC12356). This scenario, which encompasses various projects (e.g., development and enhancement of water transfer networks and upgrading cultivation methods), improves the average value of the WERCC by 26 %. The results of the proposed methodology are compared with those of a traditional decision-making method, which considers three criteria of average WERCC, the pressure-support index, and the implementation cost. The results demonstrate that the multi-agent-multi-criteria decision-making approach provides a more cost-effective management scenario, with 30 % less cost, leading to only 3 % less carrying capacity.

  • 5. Arabameri, A.
    et al.
    Rezaei, K.
    Cerdà, A.
    Conoscenti, C.
    Kalantari, Z.
    A comparison of statistical methods and multi-criteria decision making to map flood hazard susceptibility in Northern Iran2019Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 660, s. 443-458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6. Augustsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Uddh T.
    Jarsjö, J.
    Åström, M.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Destouni, G.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, s. 1420-1431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption.

  • 7.
    Aullón Alcaine, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Schulz, Carlos
    Univ Nacl La Pampa UNLPam, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Av Uruguay 151,L6300, Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina..
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Univ Southern Queensland, UNESCO Chair Groundwater Arsen Agenda Sustainable, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol & Geochem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sracek, Ondra
    Palacky Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Geol, 17 Listopadu 12, Olomouc 777146, Czech Republic..
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hydrogeochemical controls on the mobility of arsenic, fluoride and other geogenic co-contaminants in the shallow aquifers of northeastern La Pampa Province in Argentina2020Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 715, artikkel-id 136671Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated Arsenic (As) and Fluoride (F) concentrations in groundwater have been studied in the shallow aquifers of northeastern of La Pampa province, in the Chaco-Pampean plain, Argentina. The source of As and co-contaminants is mainly geogenic, from the weathering of volcanic ash and loess (rhyolitic glass) that erupted from the Andean volcanic range. In this study we have assessed the groundwater quality in two semi-arid areas of La Pampa. We have also identified the spatial distribution of As and co-contaminants in groundwater and determined the major factors controlling the mobilization of As in the shallow aquifers. The groundwater samples were circum-neutral to alkaline (7.4 to 92), oxidizing (Eh similar to 0.24 V) and characterized by high salinity (EC = 456-11,400 mu S/cm) and Na+-HCO3- water types in recharge areas. Carbonate concretions ("tosca") were abundant in the upper layers of the shallow aquifer. The concentration of total As (5.6 to 535 mu g/L) and F (0.5 to 14.2 mg/L) were heterogeneous and exceeded the recommended WHO Guidelines and the Argentine Standards for drinking water. The predominant As species were arsenate As(V) oxyanions, determined by thermodynamic calculations. Arsenic was positively correlated with bicarbonate (HCO3-), fluoride (F), boron (B) and vanadium (V), but negatively correlated with iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn), which were present in low concentrations. The highest amount of As in sediments was from the surface of the dry lake. The mechanisms for As mobilization are associated with multiple factors: geochemical reactions, hydrogeological characteristics of the local aquifer and climatic factors. Desorption of As(V) at high pH, and ion competition for adsorption sites are considered the principal mechanisms for As mobilization in the shallow aquifers. In addition, the long-term consumption of the groundwater could pose a threat for the health of the local community and low cost remediation techniques are required to improve the drinking water quality.

  • 8. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammaren, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Ostman, Marcus
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resisitance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, s. 697-712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as hotspots for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted. 

  • 9.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Berggren, Kleja D.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Occurrence and fate of corrosion-induced zinc in runoff water from external structures2006Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, nr 2-3, s. 908-923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comprises data from an extensive cross-disciplinary research project aiming to elucidate the environmental fate of corrosion-induced zinc release from external structures. It includes an exposure assessment that provide long-term runoff rates, concentrations and chemical speciation of zinc, from 14 zinc-based materials exposed during 5 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and an effect assessment including bioavailability and ecotoxicity measurements, both at the immediate release situation and after soil interaction.Runoff rates of total zinc ranged from 0.07 to 2.5g Znm(-2) yr(-1) with zinc primarily released as the free ion for all materials investigated. The average effect concentration, causing a 50% growth reduction after 72h to the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, was at the immediate release situation 69 mu g ZnL-1. Upon interaction of runoff water with soil, which simulated 18 to 34years of exposure, the total zinc concentration was significantly reduced, from milligram per litre to microgram per litre levels. Simultaneously, the most bioavailable fraction of zinc in runoff, the hydrated zinc(II)-ion, decreased from more than 95% to about 30%. The major fraction, 98-99%, of the introduced total zinc concentration in the runoff water was retained within the soil. As long as the soil retention capacity was not reached, this resulted in zinc concentrations in the percolate water transported through the soil layer, close to background values and below growth inhibition concentrations for the green algae investigated. Zinc retained in soil was to a large extent (85-99.9%) extractable with EDTA, and available for plant uptake after 5 to 7months of ageing.

  • 10.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Claesson, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bundschuh, J.
    Sracek, O.
    Fagerberg, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Martin, R. A.
    Storniolo, A. D.
    Thir, J. M.
    Distribution and mobility of arsenic in the Rio Dulce alluvial aquifers in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina2006Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 358, nr 1-3, s. 97-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors controlling arsenic (As) mobilization in the aquifers of the Rio Dulce alluvial cone were investigated. Groundwater analyses show severe As contamination (average concentration of 743 mu g/L) from geogenic sources, but spatial variability of As concentration is considerable. Sequential leaching of sediment samples from unsaturated zone using de-ionised water, bicarbonate, acetate, and oxalate extracted As to different extents. Sediment oxalate extraction showed that Al and Mn oxide and hydroxides are more abundant than Fe oxides and hydroxides, in spite of similar total Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations in the sediment. Speciation calculations performed for saturated zone samples indicated that Fe and Al oxides and hydroxides are stable in groundwater, suggesting that As adsorption processes may be to some extent controlled by the presence of Fe and Al mineral phases. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that As is related to F, V, Mo, B, Si, most likely due to their common origin in volcanic ash. This suggests the volcanic ash as the probable source of groundwater As. Locally, elevated pH values linked to carbonate dissolution, cation exchange, and dissolution of silicates promote release of adsorbed As. Another factor contributing to the release of As locally may be the input of organic matter from excessive irrigation. The conceptual model of As release includes: i) As influx from dissolution of volcanic glass in volcanic ash, ii) adsorption of As on the surface of Fe and Al mineral phases in relatively low pH zones, and iii) high mobility of As in high pH zones. Future work should be focused on the determination of mineralogical forms of As in volcanic ash and on detailed investigation on factors controlling As mobility.

  • 11.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mukherjee, A. B.
    Jacks, G.
    Nordqvist, S.
    Metal contamination at a wood preservation site: characterisation and experimental studies on remediation2002Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 290, nr 03-jan, s. 165-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the occurrence of As, Cu, Cr and Zn in the soil at an abandoned wood preservation unit and to examine some possible extractants for the contaminants in the soil. The mean As content of the contaminated surface soils (0-10 cm) was 186 mg kg(-1), where as the mean concentrations of Cu, Cr and Zn in soils from the contaminated area were 26, 29 and 91 mg kg(-1), respectively. The elevated As content in the mineral soils is related to adsorption of inorganic As phases in the fine grained fractions, which are characterised by large surface area and high positive surface charge under the current acidic conditions. Cu and Cr were found to be rather mobile, which is reflected in their lower abundance in soils and significant accumulation in sediments in the drainage leaving the area. The fine fraction of the soil (<0.125 mm) has an average metal content increased by nearly 34% as compared to the <2-mm fraction conventionally used for the analysis and assessment of soil contamination. The <2-mm fraction constitutes approximately 65% of the total weight while the fine fraction (< 0.125 mm) constitutes approximately 10%. These facts, taken together, are essential for the choice of remediation measures. Oxalate solutions have been tested as extractants for soil remediation. Dark acid oxalate extraction dissolves the amorphous Al- and Fe-oxides and hydroxides and mobilises the adsorbed inorganic As species. Oxalate also acts as a ligand for the cationic heavy metals, releasing them from exchangeable sites. With a three-step sequential leaching, up to 98-99% of the metals could be removed. At lower concentrations and higher pH, the leaching decreased to approximately 70%.

  • 12.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Welch, Alan H.
    Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.
    McLaughlin, Mike J.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Panaullah, G.
    Arsenic in the environment: Biology and Chemistry2007Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 379, nr 03-feb, s. 109-120Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) distribution and toxicology in the environment is a serious issue, with millions of individuals worldwide being affected by As toxicosis. Sources of As contamination are both natural and anthropogenic and the scale of contamination ranges from local to regional. There are many areas of research that are being actively pursued to address the As contamination problem. These include new methods of screening for As in the field, determining the epidemiology of As in humans, and identifying the risk of As uptake in agriculture. Remediation of As-affected water supplies is important and research includes assessing natural remediation potential as well as phytoremediation. Another area of active research is on the microbially mediated biogeochemical interactions of As in the environment. In 2005, a conference was convened to bring together scientists involved in many of the different areas of As research. In this paper, we present a synthesis of the As issues in the light of long-standing research and with regards to the new findings presented at this conference. This contribution provides a backdrop to the issues raised at the conference together with an overview of contemporary and historical issues of As contamination and health impacts. Crown

  • 13.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Nath, Bibhash
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: Implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485, s. 12-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (similar to 70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <951 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 mu g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84 x 10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65 x 10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 mu g/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8 x 10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  • 14.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: Consequences for sustainable drinking water supply2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 431, s. 402-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH4+, PO43-, Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dis-solution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO42- reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  • 15.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Ripszám, M.
    Haglund, P.
    Lindberg, R. H.
    Tysklind, M.
    Fick, J.
    Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters – Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 633, s. 1496-1509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57-3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10(-9) s(-1) based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 degrees C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.

  • 16. Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Gros, Meritxell
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, s. 265-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, a-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p = 0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p = 0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. a-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000 ng L-1), galaxolide (1400 ng L-1), octocrylene (1200 ng L-1), and alpha-tocopheryl acetate (660 ng L-1).

  • 17. Bozkurt, S.
    et al.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Kemiteknik.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Kemiteknik.
    Long-term processes in waste deposits2000Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 250, nr 03-jan, s. 101-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual model, which is a unitary and continuous description of the overall processes in waste deposits, has been developed. In the model the most important processes governing the long-term fate of organic matter in landfills and the transport and retention of toxic metals are included. With the model as a base, a number of scenarios with different levels of complexity have been defined and studied in order to carry out long-term assessments of the chemical evolution in waste deposits for industrial and municipal solid waste containing much organic matter and the leaching of toxic metals. The focus of the modelling has been to quantify the important processes occurring after the methane production phase has ceased, i.e. during the humic phase. The scenarios include the main mechanisms based on various transport processes as well as different landfill constructions, e.g. binding capacities of sulfides and humic substances. They also include transport mechanisms by which the reactant oxygen can intrude into a deposit, sorption capacities of hydrous ferric oxides, and pH-buffering reactions, etc. Scoping calculations have shown that the binding capacity of humic substances is sufficient to bind all toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn and Hg). In addition, the humics could also bind a smaller part of Ca, Fe and Al, provided much of the organic waste remain as humic substances. Sulfides on the other hand can bind approximately twice the amount of all toxic metals. The binding capacity of hydrous ferric oxides, which can be formed by oxidation reactions during the humic phase, is estimated to be three times the total content of metals that can sorb on hydrous ferric oxides. In the studied landfill the pi-I-buffering capacity, primarily represented by calcite, is estimated to be 1 mol/kg dry waste. Quantifications indicate that the alkalinity of the wastes is high enough to buffer the acidity produced by the oxidation of sulfides and by the degradation of organic matter, as well as that added by acid precipitation. Therefore, the main conclusion is that higher remobilisation rates of heavy metals due to lowering of pH are not expected for many thousands of years.

  • 18. Bozkurt, S.
    et al.
    Sifvert, M.
    Moreno, Luis
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Kemiteknik.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Kemiteknik.
    The long-term evolution of and transport processes in a self-sustained final cover on waste deposits2001Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 271, nr 03-jan, s. 145-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new principle for confinement of waste based on a self-sustained seal is presented. The top cover is considered to consist of two main layers; an organic carbon rich surface layer that is able to support vegetation and an inorganic layer beneath it. The function of the cover is to mitigate oxidation and acidification of landfilled waste and hence the release of toxic metals. It is suggested that forest soil formation and soil development could prove to be valuable information sources for the study of the long-term behaviour of a final cover on waste deposits. Since the cover is expected to develop in northern temperate climate the focus is on Spodosol soil. A number of simulations of the long-term behaviour of the final self-sustained landfill cover are made, including the rates of influx of oxygen into the cover. A cover having a large portion of organic matter compared with a cover with no organics can considerably decrease the oxygen concentration and thus the influx of oxygen into a landfill. The calculated oxygen intrusion rate for the former case is of the order of 0.05 kg m(-2) year(-1). Degradation of the organics produces acids. Our simulations indicate that the pH-buffering capacity of the mineral layer, represented by calcite and primary rock minerals, will last for many thousands of years.

  • 19.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Litter, Marta I.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Arsenic in Latin America, an unrevealed continent: Occurrence, health effects and mitigation2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, s. 1-1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Litter, Marta I.
    Parvez, Faruque
    Roman-Ross, Gabriela
    Nicolli, Hugo B.
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Liu, Chen-Wuing
    Lopez, Dina
    Armienta, Maria A.
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Gomez Cuevas, Alina
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Cumbal, Luis
    Toujaguez, Regla
    One century of arsenic exposure in Latin America: A review of history and occurrence from 14 countries2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, s. 2-35Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The global impact on public health of elevated arsenic (As) in water supplies is highlighted by an increasing number of countries worldwide reporting high As concentrations in drinking water. In Latin America, the problem of As contamination in water is known in 14 out of 20 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Uruguay. Considering the 1 0 mu g/L limit for As in drinking water established by international and several national agencies, the number of exposed people is estimated to be about 14 million. Health effects of As exposure were identified for the first time already in the 1910s in Bellville (Cordoba province, Argentina). Nevertheless, contamination of As in waters has been detected in 10 Latin American countries only within the last 10 to 15 years. Arsenic is mobilized predominantly from young volcanic rocks and their weathering products. In alluvial aquifers, which are water sources frequently used for water supply, desorption of As from metal oxyhydroxides at high pH (>8) is the predominant mobility control; redox conditions are moderate reducing to oxidizing and As(V) is the predominant species. In the Andes, the Middle American cordillera and the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, oxidation of sulfide minerals is the primary As mobilization process. Rivers that originate in the Andean mountains, transport As to more densely populated areas in the lowlands (e.g. Rimac river in Peru, Pilcomayo river in Bolivia/Argentina/Paraguay). In many parts of Latin America, As often occurs together with F and B; in the Chaco-Pampean plain As is found additionally with V. Mo and U whereas in areas with sulfide ore deposits As often occurs together with heavy metals. These co-occurrences and the anthropogenic activities in mining areas that enhance the mobilization of As and other pollutants make more dramatic the environmental problem.

  • 21. Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Vithanage, Meththika
    Seneweera, Saman
    Schneider, Jerusa
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Khan, Nasreen Islam
    Hamawand, Ihsan
    Guilherme, Luiz R. G.
    Reardon-Smith, Kathryn
    Parvez, Faruque
    Morales-Simfors, Nury
    Ghaze, Sara
    Pudmenzky, Christa
    Kouadio, Louis
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Medical geology in the framework of the sustainable development goals2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581, s. 87-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to geogenic contaminants (GCs) such as metal(loid)s, radioactive metals and isotopes as well as transuraniums occurring naturally in geogenic sources (rocks, minerals) can negatively impact on environmental and human health. The GCs are released into the environment by natural biogeochemical processes within the near-surface environments and/or by anthropogenic activities such as mining and hydrocarbon exploitation as well as exploitation of geothermal resources. They can contaminate soil, water, air and biota and subsequently enter the food chain with often serious health impacts which are mostly underestimated and poorly recognized. Global population explosion and economic growth and the associated increase in demand for water, energy, food, and mineral resources result in accelerated release of GCs globally. The emerging science of "medical geology" assesses the complex relationships between geo-environmental factors and their impacts on humans and environments and is related to the majority of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations for Sustainable Development. In this paper, we identify multiple lines of evidence for the role of GCs in the incidence of diseases with as yet unknown etiology (causation). Integrated medical geology promises a more holistic understanding of the occurrence, mobility, bioavailability, bio-accessibility, exposure and transfer mechanisms of GCs to the food-chain and humans, and the related ecotoxicological impacts and health effects. Scientific evidence based on this approach will support adaptive solutions for prevention, preparedness and response regarding human and environmental health impacts originating from exposure to GCs.

  • 22.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Liu, Chen-Wuing
    Aurora Armienta, Maria
    Moreno Lopez, Myriam V.
    Lopez, Dina L.
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Cornejo, Lorena
    Lauer Macedo, Luciene Fagundes
    Tenuta Filho, Alfredo
    Arsenic in the human food chain: the Latin American perspective2012Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 429, s. 92-106Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater and surface water due to a combination of geological processes and/or anthropogenic activities. In this paper, we review the available literature (both in English and Spanish languages) to delineate human As exposure pathways through the food chain. Numerous studies show that As accumulations in edible plants and crops are mainly associated with the presence of high As in soils and irrigation waters. However, factors such as As speciation, type and composition of soil, and plant species have a major control on the amount of As uptake. Areas of high As concentrations in surface water and groundwater show high As accumulations in plants, fish/shellfish, livestock meat, milk and cheese. Such elevated As concentrations in food may result in widespread health risks to local inhabitants, including health of indigenous populations and residents living close to mining industries. Some studies show that As can be transferred from the water to prepared meals, thereby magnifying the As content in the human diet. Arsenic speciation might also change during food preparation, especially during high temperature cooking, such as grilling and frying. Finally, the review of the available literature demonstrates the necessity of more rigorous studies in evaluating pathways of As exposure through the human food chain in Latin America.

  • 23.
    Cantoni, Jacopo
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Legacy contributions to diffuse water pollution: Data-driven multi-catchment quantification for nutrients and carbon2023Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 879, s. 163092-, artikkel-id 163092Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Legacy pollutants are increasingly proposed as possible reasons for widespread failures to improve water quality, de -spite the implementation of stricter regulations and mitigation measures. This study investigates this possibility, using multi-catchment data and relatively simple, yet mechanistically-based, source distinction relationships between water discharges and chemical concentrations and loads. The relationships are tested and supported by the available catch -ment data. They show dominant legacy contributions for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) across catchment locations and scales, from local to country-wide around Sweden. Consistently across the study catchments, close relationships are found between the legacy concentrations of TN and TOC and the land shares of agriculture and of the sum of agriculture and forests, respectively. The legacy distinction and quantification capabilities provided by the data-driven approach of this study could guide more effective pollution mitigation and should be tested in further research for other chemicals and various sites around the world.

  • 24.
    Chen, Xuanjing
    et al.
    College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China, Water Systems and Global Change Group, Wageningen University & Research, PB, Wageningen, the Netherlands..
    Strokal, Maryna
    Water Systems and Global Change Group, Wageningen University & Research, PB, Wageningen, the Netherlands..
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Water Systems and Global Change Group, Wageningen University & Research, PB, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    Ma, Lin
    Key Laboratory of Agricultural Water Resources, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, PR China..
    Shen, Zhenyao
    State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, PR China..
    Wu, Jiechen
    Key Lab of Plant-Soil Interaction, MOE, Center for Resources, Environment and Food Security, College of Resources. Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, PR China..
    Chen, Xinping
    College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China..
    Shi, Xiaojun
    College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Tiansheng Road 02, Chongqing 400715, PR China..
    Seasonality in river export of nitrogen: A modelling approach for the Yangtze River2019Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Coomar, Poulomee
    et al.
    IIT, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    IIT, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    USQ, Sch Civil Engn & Surveying, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.;USQ, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Verma, Swati
    IIT, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India.;NGRI, CSIR, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana, India..
    Fryar, Alan E.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Lexington, KY 40506 USA..
    Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo Eduardo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Univ Mayor San Andres, La Paz 303, Bolivia..
    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Univ Mayor San Andres, La Paz 303, Bolivia..
    Gupta, Saibal
    IIT, Dept Geol & Geophys, Kharagpur 721302, W Bengal, India..
    Mahanta, Chandan
    IIT, Dept Civil Engn, Gauhati 781039, Assam, India..
    Quino Lima, Israel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Univ Mayor San Andres, La Paz 303, Bolivia..
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Contrasting controls on hydrogeochemistry of arsenic-enriched groundwater in the homologous tectonic settings of Andean and Himalayan basin aquifers, Latin America and South Asia2019Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 689, s. 1370-1387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High groundwater arsenic (As) across the globe has been one of the most well researched environmental concerns during the last two decades. Consequently, a large scientific knowledge-base has been developed on As distributions from local to global scales. However, differences in bulk sediment As concentrations cannot account for the As concentration variability in groundwater. Instead, in general, only aquifers in sedimentary basins adjacent to mountain chains (orogenic foreland basins) along continental convergent tectonic margins are found to be As enriched. We illustrate this association by integrating observations from long-term studies of two of the largest orogenic systems (i.e., As sources) and the aquifers in their associated foreland basins (As sinks), which are located in opposite hemispheres and experience distinct differences in climate and land-use patterns. The Andean orogenic system of South America (AB), an active continental margin, is in principle a modern analogue of the Himalayan orogenic system associated with the Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra river systems in South Asia (HB). In general, the differences in hydrogeochemistry between AB and HB groundwaters are conspicuous. Major-solute composition of the arid, oxic AB groundwater exhibits a mixed-ion hydrochemical facies dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-HCO3. Molar calculations and thermodynamic modeling show that although groundwater of AB is influenced by cation exchange, its hydrochemical evolution is predominated by feldspar dissolution and relationships with secondary clays. In contrast, humid, strongly reducing groundwater of HB is dominated by Ca-HCO3 facies, suggestive of calcite dissolution, along with some weathering of silicates (monosiallitization). This work demonstrates that although hydrogeochemical evolutionary trends may vary with local climate and lithology, the fundamental similarities in global tectonic settings can still lead to the elevated concentrations of groundwater As.

  • 26.
    Cui, Qing
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Copper content in lake sediments as a tracer of urban emissions: evaluation through a source-transport-storage model2010Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, nr 13, s. 2714-2725Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A coupled source-transport-storage model was developed to determine the origin and path of copper from materials/goods in use in the urban drainage area and the fate of copper in local recipient lakes The model was applied and tested using five small lakes in Stockholm, Sweden. In the case of the polluted lakes Racksta Trask, Trekanten and Langsjon, the source strengths of copper identified by the model were found to be well linked with independently observed copper contents in the lake sediments through the model. The model results also showed that traffic emissions, especially from brake linings, dominated the total load in all five cases Sequential sedimentation and burial proved to be the most important fate processes of copper in all lakes, except Racksta Trask, where outflow dominated The model indicated that the sediment copper content can be used as a tracer of the urban diffuse copper source strength, but that the response to changes in source strength is fairly slow (decades) Major uncertainties in the source model were related to management of stormwater in the urban area, the rate of wear of brake linings and weathering of copper roofs The uncertainty of the coupled model is in addition affected mainly by parameters quantifying the sedimentation and bury processes, such as particulate fraction, settling velocity of particles, and sedimentation rate As a demonstration example, we used the model to predict the response of the sediment copper level to a decrease in the copper load from the urban catchment in one of the case study lakes (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved

  • 27. da Silva, P. G.
    et al.
    Nascimento, M. S. J.
    Soares, Ruben R. G.
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Proteinvetenskap, Nanobioteknologi. Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Solna, Sweden.
    Sousa, S. I. V.
    Mesquita, J. R.
    Airborne spread of infectious SARS-CoV-2: Moving forward using lessons from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV2021Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 764, artikkel-id 142802Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although an increasing body of data reports the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air, this does not correlate to the presence of infectious viruses, thus not evaluating the risk for airborne COVID-19. Hence there is a marked knowledge gap that requires urgent attention. Therefore, in this systematic review, viability/stability of airborne SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV viruses is discussed. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and Scopus to assess the stability and viability of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 on air samples. Results and discussion: The initial search identified 27 articles. Following screening of titles and abstracts and removing duplicates, 11 articles were considered relevant. Temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 25 °C and relative humidity ranging from 40% to 50% were reported to have a protective effect on viral viability for airborne SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. As no data is yet available on the conditions influencing viability for airborne SARS-CoV-2, and given the genetic similarity to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, one could extrapolate that the same conditions would apply. Nonetheless, the effect of these conditions seems to be residual considering the increasing number of cases in the south of USA, Brazil and India, where high temperatures and humidities have been observed. Conclusion: Higher temperatures and high relative humidity can have a modest effect on SARS-CoV-2 viability in the environment, as reported in previous studies to this date. However, these studies are experimental, and do not support the fact that the virus has efficiently spread in the tropical regions of the globe, with other transmission routes such as the contact and droplet ones probably being responsible for the majority of cases reported in these regions, along with other factors such as human mobility patterns and contact rates. Further studies are needed to investigate the extent of aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 as this would have important implications for public health and infection-control policies.

  • 28.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Engn Sci & Math, Mat Sci Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden.;Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Hakim Sabzevari Univ, Fac Engn, Dept Mat & Polymer Engn, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran..
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material. SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, BOX 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Forsth, Michael
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Xu, Qiang
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Jiang, Lin
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Ji, Dongxiao
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore 117575, Singapore..
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore 117575, Singapore..
    The need for fully bio-based facemasks to counter coronavirus outbreaks: A perspective2020Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 736, artikkel-id 139611Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The onset of coronavirus pandemic has sparked a shortage of facemasks in almost all nations. Without this personal protective equipment, healthcare providers, essential workers, and the general public are exposed to the risk of infection. In light of the aforementioned, it is critical to balance the supply and demand for masks. COVID-19 will also ensure that masks are always considered as an essential commodity in future pandemic preparedness. Moreover, billions of facemasks are produced from petrochemicals derived raw materials, which are non-degradable upon disposal after their single use, thus causing environmental pollution and damage. The sustainable way forward is to utilise raw materials that are side-stream products of local industries to develop facemasks having equal or better efficiency than the conventional ones. In this regard, wheat gluten biopolymer, which is a by-product or co-product of cereal industries, can be electrospun into nanofibre membranes and subsequently carbonised at over 700 degrees C to form a network structure, which can simultaneously act as the filter media and reinforcement for gluten-based masks. In parallel, the same gluten material can be processed into cohesive thin films using plasticiser and hot press. Additionally, lanosol, a naturally-occurring substance, imparts fire (V-0 rating in vertical burn test), and microbe resistance in gluten plastics. Thus, thin films of flexible gluten with very low amounts of lanosol (<10 wt%) can be bonded together with the carbonised mat and shaped by thermoforming to create the facemasks. The carbon mat acting as the filter can be attached to the masks through adapters that can also be made from injection moulded gluten. The creation of these masks could simultaneously be effective in reducing the transmittance of infectious diseases and pave the way for environmentally benign sustainable products.

  • 29.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gaily, Tarig
    Mangold, Mikael
    Prevalence of microbiological contaminants in groundwater sources and risk factor assessment in Juba, South Sudan2015Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 515-516, s. 181-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In low-income regions, drinking water is often derived from groundwater sources, which might spread diarrheal disease if they are microbiologically polluted. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of fecal contamination in 147 improved groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan and to assess potential contributing risk factors, based on bivariate statistical analysis. Thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) were detected in 66% of the investigated sources, including 95 boreholes, breaching the health-based recommendations for drinking water. A significant association (p<. 0.05) was determined between the presence of TTCs and the depth of cumulative, long-term prior precipitation (both within the previous five days and within the past month). No such link was found to short-term rainfall, the presence of latrines or damages in the borehole apron. However, the risk factor analysis further suggested, to a lesser degree, that the local topography and on-site hygiene were additionally significant. In summary, the analysis indicated that an important contamination mechanism was fecal pollution of the contributing groundwater, which was unlikely due to the presence of latrines; instead, infiltration from contaminated surface water was more probable. The reduction in fecal sources in the environment in Juba is thus recommended, for example, through constructing latrines or designating protection areas near water sources. The study results contribute to the understanding of microbiological contamination of groundwater sources in areas with low incomes and high population densities, tropical climates and weathered basement complex environments, which are common in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 30. Eriksson, Ann Kristin
    et al.
    Hesterberg, Dean
    Klysubun, Wantana
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. SLU, Sweden.
    Phosphorus dynamics in Swedish agricultural soils as influenced by fertilization and mineralogical properties: Insights gained from batch experiments and XANES spectroscopy2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, s. 1410-1419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The soil chemistry of phosphorus (P) is important for understanding the processes governing plant availability as well as the risk of environmental losses of P. The objective of this research was to investigate both the speciation and the pH-dependent solubility patterns of P in clayey agricultural soils in relation to soil mineralogy and fertilization history. The study focused on soil samples from six fields that were subjected to different P fertilization regimes for periods of 45 to 57 years. Soil P speciation was analyzed by P K-edge XANES spectroscopy and chemical fractionation, sorption isotherms were constructed, and dissolved P was measured as a function of pH. The XANES fitting results showed that organic P and P adsorbed to Fe and Al (hydr) oxides were common P constituents in all soils. Calciumphosphateswere identified in five of six soil samples. The XANES results also indicated an increase in P adsorbed to Al and to a lesser extent Fe (hydr) oxides as a result of fertilization. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity from the P K-edge XANES analysis was most strongly correlated with HCl-digestible P (r = 0.81***). Consistent with the XANES analysis, laboratory sorption isotherm models showed that the Freundlich sorption coefficient (K-F) was most closely related to oxalate-extractable Al. Greater proportions of Ca phosphate in two of the heavily fertilized soils in combination with enhanced PO4 solubilization upon sample acidification indicated neoformation of Ca-phosphate precipitates. The results for the unfertilized soil samples generally showed a minimum in dissolved PO4 between pH 6.5 and 7.5, with increases particularly at lower pH. This behavior can be explained either by the dissolution of Al-hydroxide-type sorbents or Ca phosphates at lower pH. In fertilized soils, there was no consistent trend in pH-dependent solubilization of P, with a complex relationship to solid-phase speciation. To conclude, inorganic P species changed most dynamically in agricultural clay soils over a period of several decades, and the role of pH in the solubilization of P depended mainly on P fertilization history and the content of reactive Ca phosphates.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Falfushynska, Halina I.
    et al.
    Univ Rostock, Inst Biol Sci, Dept Marine Biol, Rostock, Germany.;Ternopil V Hnatiuk Natl Pedagog Univ, Dept Human Hlth Phys Rehabil & Vital Act, Ternopol, Ukraine..
    Wu, Fangli
    Univ Rostock, Inst Biol Sci, Dept Marine Biol, Rostock, Germany..
    Fei, Ye
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Material- och nanofysik.
    Kasianchuk, Nadiia
    Ternopil V Hnatiuk Natl Pedagog Univ, Dept Human Hlth Phys Rehabil & Vital Act, Ternopol, Ukraine..
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Material- och nanofysik.
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Coll Agr & Marine Sci, Dept Marine Sci & Fisheries, Al Khoud 123,POB 34, Muscat, Oman.;Sultan Qaboos Univ, Ctr Excellence Marine Biotechnol, Al Khoud 123,POB 50, Muscat, Oman..
    Sokolova, Inna M.
    Univ Rostock, Inst Biol Sci, Dept Marine Biol, Rostock, Germany.;Univ Rostock, Dept Marine Syst, Interdisciplinary Fac, Rostock, Germany..
    The effects of ZnO nanostructures of different morphology on bioenergetics and stress response biomarkers of the blue mussels Mytilus edulis2019Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 694, artikkel-id UNSP 133717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofouling causes massive economical losses in the maritime sector creating an urgent need for effective and ecologically non-harmful antifouling materials. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings show promise as an antifouling material; however, the toxicity of ZnO nanorods to marine organisms is not known. We compared the toxicity of suspended ZnO nanorods (NR) with that of ZnO nanoparticles (NP) and ionic Zn2+ in amarine bivalve Mytilus edulis exposed for two weeks to 10 or 100 mu g Zn L-1 of ZnO NPs, NRs or Zn2+, or to immobilized NRs. The multi-biomarker assessment included bioenergetics markers (tissue energy reserves, activity ofmitochondrial electron transport system and autophagic enzymes), expression of apoptotic and inflammatory genes, and general stress biomarkers (oxidative lesions, lysosomalmembrane stability and metallothionein expression). Exposure to ZnO NPs, NRs and Zn2+ caused accumulation of oxidative lesions in proteins and lipids, stimulated autophagy, and led to lysosomal membrane destabilization indicating toxicity. However, these responses were not specific for the form of Zn (NPs, NR or Zn2+) and showed no monotonous increase with increasing Zn concentrations in the experimental exposures. No major disturbance of the energy status was found in the mussels exposed to ZnO NPs, NRs, or Zn2+. Exposure to ZnO NPs and NRs led to a strong induction of apoptosis- and inflammation-related genes, which was not seen in Zn2+ exposures. Based on the integrated biomarker response, the overall toxicity as well as the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory action was stronger in ZnO NPs compared with the NRs. Given the stability of ZnO NR coatings and the relatively low toxicity of suspended ZnO NR, ZnO NR coating might be considered a promising low-toxicity material for antifouling paints.

  • 32. Ferreira, C. S. S.
    et al.
    Pereira, P.
    Kalantari, Z.
    Human impacts on soil2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 644, s. 830-834Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Ferreira, Carla S. S.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Navarino Environm Observ, Costa Navarino 24001, Greece..
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Navarino Environm Observ, Costa Navarino 24001, Greece..
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Navarino Environm Observ, Costa Navarino 24001, Greece..
    Ghajarnia, Navid
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Navarino Environm Observ, Costa Navarino 24001, Greece.
    Soil degradation in the European Mediterranean region: Processes, status and consequences2022Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 805, artikkel-id 150106Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil, a non-renewable resource, sustains life on Earth by supporting around 95% of global food production and providing ecosystem services such as biomass production, filtration of contaminants and transfer of mass and energy between spheres. Unsustainable management practices and climate change are threatening the natural capital of soils, particularly in the Mediterranean region, where increasing population, rapid land-use changes, associated socio-economic activities and climate change are imposing high pressures on the region's shallow soils. Despite evidence of high soil susceptibility to degradation and desertification, the true extent of soil degradation in the region is unknown. This paper reviews and summarises the scientific literature and relevant official reports, with the aim to advance this knowledge by synthesizing, mapping, and identifying gaps regarding the status, causes, and consequences of soil degradation processes in the European Mediterranean region. This is needed as scientific underpinning of efforts to counteract soil degradation in the region. Three main degradation categories are then considered: physical (soil sealing, compaction, erosion), chemical (soil organic matter, contamination, salinisation), and biological. We find some degradation processes to be relatively well documented (e.g. soil erosion), while others, such as loss of biodiversity, remain poorly addressed, with limited data availability. We suggest establishment of a continuous, harmonised soil monitoring system at national and regional scale in the Mediterranean region to provide comparable datasets and chart the spatial extent and temporal changes in soil degradation, and corresponding economic implications. This is critical to support decision making and fulfilment of related sustainable development goals.

  • 34. Goidanich, S.
    et al.
    Brunk, Jon
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Arenas, M. A.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Atmospheric corrosion of brass in outdoor applications Patina evolution, metal release and aesthetic appearance at urban exposure conditions2011Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, s. 46-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincification in relation to detailed bulk and surface characteristics prior to exposure. This has been accomplished by using a multitude of surface and bulk analytical tools, chemical analysis and colorimetric investigations. Small differences in surface finish and local variations in nobility observed for the non-exposed brass alloys resulted in slight differences in corrosion initiation. Despite different kinetic behaviour and relative surface distributions of zinc- and copper-rich patina constituents, similar phases were identified with copper-rich phases rapidly dominating the outermost patina layer in Milan, compared to Madrid and Stockholm showing both copper- and zinc-rich phases. As a consequence of differences in surface coverage of copper- and zinc-rich corrosion products at the different sites, the release ratios of copper to zinc varied concordantly. The released amount of zinc to copper (Zn/Cu) was for both alloys and test sites always higher compared to the bulk composition showing a preferential release of zinc. The amount of released copper from the brass alloys was on an average 30-40% lower compared to copper sheet at all test sites investigated. Significantly lower annual total release rates of copper and zinc compared with annual corrosion rates were evident for both brass alloys at all sites.

  • 35. Goldenberg, Romain
    et al.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Deal, Brian
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University.
    Distinction, quantification and mapping of potential and realized supply-demand of flow-dependent ecosystem services2017Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 593, s. 599-609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses and conceptualizes the possible dependence of ecosystem services on prevailing air and/or water flow processes and conditions, and particularly on the trajectories and associated spatial reach of these flows in carrying services from supply to demand areas in the landscape. The present conceptualization considers and accounts for such flow-dependence in terms of potential and actually realized service supply and demand, which may generally differ and must therefore be distinguished due to and accounting for the prevailing conditions of service carrier flows. We here concretize and quantify such flow-dependence for a specific landscape case (the Stockholm region, Sweden) and for two examples of regulating ecosystem services: local climate regulation and storm water regulation. For these service and landscape examples, we identify, quantify and map key areas of potential and realized service supply and demand, based for the former (potential) on prevailing relatively static types of landscape conditions (such as land-cover/use, soil type and demographics), and for the latter (realized) on relevant carrier air and water flows. These first-order quantification examples constitute first steps towards further development of generally needed such flow-dependence assessments for various types of ecosystem services in different landscapes over the world.

  • 36. Gong, Haiqing
    et al.
    Guo, Yu
    Wu, Jiechen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Wu, Huijun
    Nkebiwe, Peteh Mehdi
    Pu, Zhengxian
    Feng, Gu
    Jiao, Xiaoqiang
    Synergies in sustainable phosphorus use and greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in China:: Perspectives from the entire supply chain from fertilizer production to agricultural use2022Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, s. 155997-155997, artikkel-id 155997Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synergies to achieve high phosphorus (P) use efficiency (PUE) and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are critical for developing strategies aimed toward agricultural green development. However, the potential effects of such synergies in the entire P supply chain through optimizing P management in crop production are poorly understood. In this study, a partial life cycle of a GHG emissions model was developed to quantify the P-related GHG emissions in the entire P supply chain in China. Our results showed that 16.3 kg CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq) was produced from the entire P supply chain per unit of P used for grain agriculture (maize, rice, and wheat). P-related GHG emissions in China increased more than five-fold from 1980 (7.2 Tg CO2-eq) to 2018 (44.9 Tg CO2-eq). GHG emissions were found to be strongly associated with the intensity of grain production in China, and they varied considerably across production regions owing to the differences in the P fertilizer production efficiency. Mineral P fertilizer use in crop production was the primary source of P-related GHG emissions. The results suggest that sustainable P management by matching mineral P fertilizer rates and fertilizer types with crop needs can mitigate GHG emissions by 10.8–27.7 Tg (24.0–65.1%). Moreover, this can improve PUE and reduce mineral P input by 0.7–1.4 Tg (24.0–46.0%). These findings highlight that potential synergies between high PUE and low P-related GHG emissions can be achieved via sustainable P management, thereby enhancing green agricultural development in China and other regions worldwide.

  • 37.
    Gong, Haiqing
    et al.
    National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Department of Plant Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
    Meng, Fanlei
    National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Department of Plant Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
    Wamg, Guohao
    National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Department of Plant Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
    Hartmann, Tobias Edward
    Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70593, Germany.
    Feng, Gu
    National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Department of Plant Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
    Wu, Jiechen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Jiao, Xiaoqiang
    National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Department of Plant Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
    Zhang, Fusuo
    National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Department of Plant Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
    Toward the sustainable use of mineral phosphorus fertilizers for crop production in China: From primary resource demand to final agricultural use2022Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 804, nr 150183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38. Gong, Haiqing
    et al.
    Xiang, Yue
    Wu, Jiechen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Nkebiwe, Peteh Mehdi
    Feng, Gu
    Jiao, Xiaoqiang
    Zhang, Fusuo
    Using knowledge-based management for sustainable phosphorus use in China2022Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 814, s. 152739-152739, artikkel-id 152739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable phosphorus (P) management presents challenges in crop production and environmental protection; the current understanding of chemical P-fertilizer manufacturing, rock phosphate (RP) mining, P loss within supply chains, and strategies to mitigate loss is incomplete because of a fragmented understanding of P in the crop production supply chain. Therefore, we develop a knowledge-based management theoretical framework to analyze P supply chains to explore ways to mitigate China's P crisis. This framework connects upstream P industries and crop production, addressing knowledge gaps and stakeholder involvement. We demonstrate the potential to improve P use efficiency in the supply chain, thereby mitigating the P crisis using optimized P management. Our results showed that P footprint and grain production demand for RP can be reduced without yield penalty using a crop-demand-oriented P supply chain management that integrates P use in crop production, P-fertilizer manufacturing, and RP mining. Food security and P-related environment sustainability can be achieved by sharing responsibility and knowledge among stakeholders. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Gong et al., 2022
  • 39.
    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. CRETUS Institute, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Spain.
    Almeida, Fernando
    Grp Da Cunha, Carral 15175, Spain.;Univ Santiago de Compostela, Fac Sci, Dept Analyt Chem, Lugo 27002, Spain..
    Teresa Moreira, Maria
    Univ Santiago de Compostela, CRETUS Inst, Dept Chem Engn, Sch Engn, Santiago De Compostela 15782, Spain..
    Brandao, Miguel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Evaluating the environmental profiles of winter wheat rotation systems under different management strategies2021Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 770, artikkel-id 145270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change poses a remarkable challenge to global food security, for which wheat is one of the main staple agricultural commodities. The cultivation of different varieties of winter wheat in Galicia (commercial and native) under rotation systems with potato, maize and oilseed rape was evaluated from an environmental point of view. The general approach of this study included the gathering of the inventory data of the different crops, the quantification of their environmental impacts and economic benefits, to identify the best land management system. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used as environmental tool. The environmental profiles of each rotation system were reported in terms of nine impact categories. Crop rotations were analysed both per hectare and per is an element of of gross margin, so that the information can be relevant to land-management decisions. Preference ranks were established based on an environmental normalized score for both units. The results suggest that arable operations contribute decisively to the environmental profile of the rotations. The avoided mineral fertilization processes, the carbon storage in the soil when returning straw to the field, as well as the electricity production clearly influence the environmental impact of the rotations. Scenarios that include native wheat under organic management are always the environmentally preferred ones while the preferred alternate crop depends on the reference unit. Concerning the margin gross, scenarios including the native variety report the highest profits, being the potato the preferred alternate crop. Further assessment needs to be undertaken to identify differences in the results of different ways of conducting LCA, i.e. attributional vs consequential approaches.

  • 40.
    Grünfeld, Katrin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Integrating spatio-temporal information in environmental monitoring data: a visualization approach applied to moss data2005Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 347, nr 1-3, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale environmental monitoring data being sparse and collected on irregular grids, which may differ from year to year, are difficult to analyse and present. The traditional techniques from statistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may not be useful given the often relatively small sample size combined with varying sampling density. In this study, the freeware visualization package XmdvTool was used for integration and exploration of monitoring data from three surveys of terrestrial mosses. Data on contents of Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in mosses within an area of 300×300 km in southern Sweden, sampled in 1985 (177 samples), 1990 (156 samples) and 1995 (188 samples), were integrated and visualized using parallel coordinate and scatterplot display techniques. Several interesting findings about multi-element composition of samples, as well as changing temporal trends in the relations of five metals were made during interactive visual discovery. Visualization techniques for high-dimensional data may have limitations considering, for example, number of variables, ranges of data values, and spatial scales. Nevertheless, interactive data manipulation tools encourage the process of visual exploration, and the unique way of integrating spatial, temporal and multi-element components of moss data provided visual insights that are not possible to gain with traditional analysis tools.

  • 41. Gunnarsson, L.
    et al.
    Adolfsson-Erici, M.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Co..
    Rutgersson, C.
    Förlin, L.
    Larsson, D.G.J.
    Comparison of six different sewage treatment processes-Reduction of estrogenic substances and effects on gene expression in exposed male fish2009Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, nr 19, s. 5235-5242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated sewage effluents often contain a mixture of estrogenic compounds in low concentrations. The total combined activity of these, however, may be sufficiently high to affect the reproduction of aquatic vertebrates. The introduction of advanced treatment technologies has been suggested as a way to remove micro-contaminants, including estrogenic substances. In this study, one municipal influent was treated with six different processes in parallel on a semi-large scale in order to assess their potential to reduce substances that could contribute to estrogenic effects in male fish. The effluent from a conventional, activated sludge treatment line was compared to a similarly treated effluent with a final sand-filtering step. The addition of ozonation (15 g O3/m3), a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) or both in combination was also evaluated. There was also a separate treatment line that was based on a membrane bioreactor. A small battery of hepatic estrogen-responsive genes was measured in the exposed fish using quantitative PCR. Concentrations of steroid estrogens and estrogenic phenols in the effluents were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. The ozonated effluents were the only tested effluents for which all measured biological effects in exposed fish were removed. Chemical data suggested that the MBBR technology was equally effective in removing the analyzed estrogens; however, elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes suggested that some estrogenic substances were still present in the effluent. The membrane bioreactor removed most of the measured estrogens and it reduced the induction of the estrogen-responsive genes. However, fish exposed to this effluent had significantly enlarged livers. Given that the same influent was treated in parallel with a broad set of technologies and that the chemical analyses were combined with an in vivo assessment of estrogenic responses, this study provides valuable input into the assessment of advanced treatment processes for removing estrogenic substances.

  • 42.
    Habib, Md. Ahasan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik. NGO Forum for Public Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Cocciolo, Serena
    Haque, Md. Abdul
    Raihan, Md. Mir Abu
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Tompsett, Anna
    How to clean a tubewell: the effectiveness of three approaches in reducing coliform bacteria2023Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 872, s. 161932-161932, artikkel-id 161932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to safe drinking water in rural Bangladesh remains a perpetual challenge. Most households are exposed to either arsenic or faecal bacteria in their primary source of drinking water, usually a tubewell. Improving tubewell cleaning and maintenance practices might reduce exposure to faecal contamination at a potentially low cost, but whether current cleaning and maintenance practices are effective remains uncertain, as does the extent to which best practice approaches might improve water quality. We used a randomized experiment to evaluate how effectively three approaches to cleaning a tubewell improved water quality, measured by total coliforms and E. coli. The three approaches comprise the caretaker's usual standard of care and two best-practice approaches. One best-practice approach, disinfecting the well with a weak chlorine solution, consistently improved water quality. However, when caretakers cleaned the wells themselves, they followed few of the steps involved in the best-practice approaches, and water quality declined rather than improved, although the estimated declines are not consistently statistically significant. The results suggest that, while improvements to cleaning and maintenance practices might help reduce exposure to faecal contamination in drinking water in rural Bangladesh, achieving widespread adoption of more effective practices would require significant behavioural change.

  • 43.
    Hakim Jaffer Ali, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Proteinvetenskap. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Khatami, Kasra
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik.
    Atasoy, Merve
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Birgersson, Madeleine
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Proteinvetenskap. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Williams, Cecilia
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Proteinvetenskap.
    Cetecioglu, Zeynep
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Benchmarking virus concentration methods for quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in raw wastewater2021Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 755Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater-based epidemiology offers a cost-effective alternative to testing large populations for SARS-CoV-2 virus, and may potentially be used as an early warning system for SARS-CoV-2 pandemic spread. However, viruses are highly diluted in wastewater, and a validated method for their concentration and further processing, and suitable reference viruses, are the main needs to be established for reliable SARS-CoV-2 municipal wastewater detection. For this purpose, we collected wastewater from two European cities during the Covid-19 pandemic and evaluated the sensitivity of RT-qPCR detection of viral RNA after four concentration methods (two variants of ultrafiltration-based method and two adsorption and extraction-based methods). Further, we evaluated one external (bovine corona virus) and one internal (pepper mild mottle virus) reference virus. We found a consistently higher recovery of spiked virus using the modified ultrafiltration-based method. This method also had a significantly higher efficiency (p-value <0.01) for wastewater SARS-CoV-2 detection. The ultracentrifugation method was the only method that detected SARS-CoV-2 in the wastewater of both cities. The pepper mild mottle virus was found to function as a potentially suitable internal reference standard.

  • 44.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Slejkovec, Zdenka
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 497, s. 200-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (<10 mu g L-1) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population.

  • 45.
    Hamisi, Rajabu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Resurser, energi och infrastruktur.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Long-term phosphorus sorption and leaching in sand filters for onsite treatment systems2022Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 833, s. 155254-155254, artikkel-id 155254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption capacities of sand filters used for onsite wastewater treatment and their associated risks of phosphorus (P) leaching on contact with rainwater were investigated in column experiments and with modelling tool for over 300 days. Columns packed with sand were exposed to real domestic wastewater of different characteristics and hydraulic loading modes. The wastewater fed into the columns was effluent collected from three different treatment units in the field: a septic tank (ST), biofiltration tank (BF) and Polonite® filter bag (PO). The risk of P leaching to groundwater and surface water was also assessed, by exposing the same sand columns to natural rainwater. Overall results indicated that sand soils can exhibit different adsorption and desorption capacities for electrical conductivity (EC), Total-P, phosphate-P and total suspended solids, depending on the characteristics of influent wastewater, loading rate and total operation time. The removal efficiencies of the sand columns increased in the order ST (98.16 %) > PO (93.36%) > BF (81.57%) for PO4-P and slightly decreased ST (97.11 %) > PO (92.06%) > BF (76.76%) for Total-P columns. All sand columns loaded with actual wastewater solutions from septic tanks and biofiltration tank have demonstrated high risks of phosphorus leaching (> 99.99%) to the groundwater. The modelling was successful captured behavior of EC tracer and adsorption of PO4-P with acceptable prediction uncertainty in the PO < 8% columns. The modelling results indicated that the decrease of loading rate from 83.3 mL d-1 to 20.83 mL d-1 led to an average increase of removal efficiency and prolong operational lifetime and mass of adsorbed Total-P in the sand soil. This study concludes that sand is a valuable filter medium at low loading rate for phosphorus removal in full-scale operations of onsite treatment systems, however very vulnerable for leaching P when in contact with rainwater.

  • 46.
    Han, Tong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Lu, X.
    Sun, Y.
    Jiang, J.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Magnetic bio-activated carbon production from lignin via a streamlined process and its use in phosphate removal from aqueous solutions2020Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 708, artikkel-id 135069Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin and ferrous salt were mechanically mixed, melted, carbonized and steam activated to produce magnetic bio-activated carbons (MBACs). Phosphate adsorption capacity measurement was conducted on representative MBAC, which has a high surface iron oxide proportion and mesoporous volume. The results indicate that iron species are embedded into the carbon matrix by lignin melting. Steam is not only an activation agent for pore generation and widening but is also effective for the oxidization of Hagg iron carbide produced via ferrous salt decomposition and subsequent reduction during the carbonization process to form magnetite. The porous and magnetic properties and surface iron oxide content of the produced MBACs can be modified by controlling the steam/magnetic biochar (MBC) ratio. The MBAC production process is streamlined and novel, compared with conventional coprecipitation or impregnation methods. The maximum phosphate adsorption onto the representative MBAC product using the best fitting model, i.e., the Langmuir-Freundlich model, is estimated to be 21.18 mg/g, suggesting that the representative MBAC product has a comparable phosphate adsorption capacity to most of the reported MBCs and MBACs.

  • 47. Henryson, K.
    et al.
    Kätterer, T.
    Tidåker, P.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Resurser, energi och infrastruktur. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, P.O. Box 7032, Uppsala, 750 07, Sweden.
    Soil N2O emissions, N leaching and marine eutrophication in life cycle assessment – A comparison of modelling approaches2020Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 725, artikkel-id 138332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen fertilisation is an essential part of modern agriculture, providing food for a growing human population, but also causing environmental impacts when reactive nitrogen (N) is released to the environment. The amount and impact of these emissions are difficult to quantify in life cycle assessment (LCA), due to their site-dependent nature. This study compared seven models for direct soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, seven models for N leaching and five characterisation models for marine eutrophication impact assessment, selected to represent medium-effort options for accounting for spatial variation in emissions and impact assessment. In a case study, the models were applied to wheat cultivation at two Swedish sites to estimate climate and marine eutrophication impact. Direct N2O emissions estimated by the models varied by up to five-fold at one of the sites and contributed 21–56% of the total climate impact. Site-dependent models gave both lower and higher N2O emissions estimates than the site-generic Tier 1 model from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Estimated N leaching also varied by up to fivefold at one of the sites and contributed 47–93% of the total eutrophication potential, depending on model choice. All site-dependent models estimated lower N leaching than the site-generic IPCC Tier 1 model. Marine eutrophication impact estimates varied by almost an order of magnitude depending on characterisation model choice. The large variation between models found in this study highlights the importance of model choice for N emissions and marine eutrophication impact assessment in LCA of crop cultivation. Due to the divergence of model outcomes and different limitations of some of the models, no general recommendations on choosing soil N2O emissions model, N leaching model or characterisation model for marine eutrophication could be given.

  • 48.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. NGO Forum Publ Hlth, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Frape, Shaun K.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, M. Moklesur
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. Ramboll Sweden AB, Soil & Water Environm, SE-10462 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasan, M. Aziz
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells2014Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, s. 615-625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 mu g/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 mu g/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 mu g/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5 m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments.

  • 49.
    Hussain, Muhammad Mahroz
    et al.
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Inst Soil & Environm Sci, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan..
    Bibi, Irshad
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Inst Soil & Environm Sci, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan..
    Niazi, Nabeel Khan
    Univ Agr Faisalabad, Inst Soil & Environm Sci, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.;Univ Southern Queensland, Sch Civil Engn & Surveying, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia..
    Shahid, Muhammad
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Dept Environm Sci, Vehari Campus, Vehari, Pakistan..
    Iqbal, Jibran
    Zayed Univ, Coll Nat & Hlth Sci, POB 144534, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates..
    Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal
    Univ Punjab, Coll Earth & Environm Sci, Lahore 54000, Pakistan..
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Groningenhaven 7, NL-3433 PE Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;Wageningen Univ & Res WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Shah, Noor Samad
    COMSATS Univ Islamabad, Dept Environm Sci, Vehari Campus, Vehari, Pakistan..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Mao, Kang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang 550081, Peoples R China..
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Univ Southern Queensland, UNESCO Chair Groundwater Arsen 2030 Agenda Sustai, West St, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia..
    Ok, Yong Sik
    Korea Univ, APRU Sustainable Waste Management Program, Korea Biochar Res Ctr, Seoul 02841, South Korea.;Korea Univ, Div Environm Sci & Ecol Engn, Seoul 02841, South Korea..
    Zhang, Hua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang 550081, Peoples R China..
    Arsenic biogeochemical cycling in paddy soil-rice system: Interaction with various factors, amendments and mineral nutrients2021Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 773, artikkel-id 145040Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) contamination is a well-recognized environmental and health issue, threatening over 200 million people worldwide with the prime cases in South and Southeast Asian and Latin American countries. Rice is mostly cultivated under flooded paddy soil conditions, where As speciation and accumulation by rice plants is controlled by various geo-environmental (biotic and abiotic) factors. In contrast to other food crops, As uptake in rice has been found to be substantially higher due to the prevalence of highly mobile and toxic As species, arsenile (As(Ill)), under paddy soil conditions. In this review, we discussed the biogeochemical cycling of As in paddy soil-rice system, described the influence of critical factors such as pH, iron oxides, organic matter, microbial species, and pathways affecting As transformation and accumulation by rice. Moreover, we elucidated As interaction with organic and inorganic amendments and mineral nutrients. The review also elaborates on As (im) mobilization processes and As uptake by rice under the influence of different mineral nutrients and amendments in paddy soil conditions, as well as their role in mitigating As transfer to rice grain. This review article provides critical information on As contamination in paddy soil-rice system, which is important to develop suitable strategies and mitigation programs for limiting As exposure via rice crop, and meet the UN's key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs: 2 (zero hunger), 3 (good health and well-being), 12 (responsible consumption and production), and 13 (climate action)).

  • 50.
    Höglund, Paul G.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Infrastruktur och samhällsplanering.
    Parking, energy consumption and air pollution2004Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 334, s. 39-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above.

123 1 - 50 of 136
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