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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 2. Bengtsson, Lennart
    et al.
    Rachlew (Källne), Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Wagner, Friedrich
    Sustainable energy supply and consumption by 2050 and outlook towards the end of the century: Possible scientific breakthroughs2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 1):, p. 1-4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Balancing diversity and connectivity in multi-level governance settings for urban transformative capacity2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation towards sustainable developmentis about findings new ways of thinking, organising and doingto navigate wicked challenges such as climate change andurbanisation. Such challenges call for new governancemodes that match the complexity of the systems to behandled, where multi-level governance and collaborativeapproaches have been suggested to contribute to suchtransformative capacity building. This in-depth, transdisciplinarystudy investigates how the multi-levelgovernance context in Stockholm, Sweden, influences thetransformative capacity from the perspective of localsustainability initiatives. It was found that even though thedecentralized governance of the Stockholm region hosts agreat potential in supporting city wide transformation, it ishampered by disconnect between actors, levels and sectorsand the short-term funding structure. The suggestedinterventions highlight the tension between enablingcollaborations, while safeguarding a high local diversity ofinitiatives and flexibility to ensure sustained space forinnovation and learning.

  • 4.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandström, Annica
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Developing an analytical framework for assessing progress toward ecosystem-based management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 357-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has become a key instrument of contemporary environmental policy and practice. Given the increasingly important role of EBM, there is an urgent need for improved analytical approaches to assess if and to what extent EBM has been accomplished in any given case. Drawing on the vast literature on EBM, we identify five key ecosystem aspects for assessment. By linking these aspects to four phases of management, we develop an interdisciplinary, analytical framework that enables a high-resolution and systematic assessment of the degree of specificity and integration of ecosystem aspects in an EBM. We then apply the framework to evaluate five coastal EBM initiatives in Sweden, four on the Baltic coast and one on the west coast. Our results demonstrate our framework's usefulness for in-depth and continuous assessments of processes aiming for EBM, and also provide an empirical basis for inferences about the key challenges for successful EBM.

  • 5. Boyd, Emily
    et al.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stacewicz, Izabela A.
    Anticipatory governance for social-ecological resilience2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. s149-S161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipation is increasingly central to urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to the global economic crisis. Anticipatory practices are coming to the forefront of political, organizational, and citizens' society. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace with public demand for insights into anticipatory practices, their risks and uses. Where research exists, it is deeply fragmented. This paper seeks to identify how anticipation is defined and understood in the literature and to explore the role of anticipatory practice to address individual, social, and global challenges. We use a resilience lens to examine these questions. We illustrate how varying forms of anticipatory governance are enhanced by multi-scale regional networks and technologies and by the agency of individuals, drawing from an empirical case study on regional water governance of Malaren, Sweden. Finally, we discuss how an anticipatory approach can inform adaptive institutions, decision making, strategy formation, and societal resilience.

  • 6.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    van der Leeuw, S E
    Redman, C L
    Meffert, D J
    Davis, G
    Alfsen, C
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 531-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities-New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix-the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  • 7. Farahbakhshazad, Neda
    Nutrient removal in a vertical upflow wetland in Piracicaba, Brazil2000In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 74-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical upflow wetland systems have shown high nutrient removal efficiencies. The removal of nutrients (N and P) from wastewater was investigated in a vertical upflow wetland system in Piracicaba, Brazil. The concentration removal was 93% for phosphate, 78% for nitrate and 50% for ammonia. Effective phosphate removal was observed in the top soil layer which has a high surface adsorption area. Nitrate was removed satisfactory at low loading rates due to plant uptake and denitrification. Removal of ammonia was concentration dependent and decreased at high inflow concentrations. Spatial sampling through the bed showed that the treatment efficiency was not uniform. The possibility of the recycling of nutrients as a soil improver or animal feed is an important feature of this type of vertical flow wetland system.

  • 8.
    Fölster, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Economics.
    Nystrom, Johan
    Climate Policy to Defeat the Green Paradox2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 223-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide emissions have accelerated since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol. This discouraging development may partly be blamed on accelerating world growth and on lags in policy instruments. However, it also raises serious question concerning whether policies to reduce CO2 emissions are as effective as generally assumed. In recent years, a considerable number of studies have identified various feedback mechanisms of climate policies that often erode, and occasionally reinforce, their effectiveness. These studies generally focus on a few feedback mechanisms at a time, without capturing the entire effect. Partial accounting of policy feedbacks is common in many climate scenarios. The IPCC, for example, only accounts for direct leakage and rebound effects. This article attempts to map the aggregate effects of different types of climate policy feedback mechanisms in a cohesive framework. Controlling feedback effects is essential if the policy measures are to make any difference on a global level. A general conclusion is that aggregate policy feedback mechanisms tend to make current climate policies much less effective than is generally assumed. In fact, various policy measures involve a definite risk of 'backfiring' and actually increasing CO2 emissions. This risk is particularly pronounced once effects of climate policies on the pace of innovation in climate technology are considered. To stand any chance of controlling carbon emissions, it is imperative that feedback mechanisms are integrated into emission scenarios, targets for emission reduction and implementation of climate policy. In many cases, this will reduce the scope for subsidies to renewable energy sources, but increase the scope for other measures such as schemes to return carbon dioxide to the ground and to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases from wetlands and oceans. A framework that incorporates policy feedback effects necessitates rethinking the design of the national and regional emission targets. This leads us to a new way of formulating emission targets that include feedback effects, the global impact target. Once the full climate policy feedback mechanisms are accounted for, there are probably only three main routes in climate policy that stand a chance of mitigating global warming: (a) returning carbon to the ground, (b) technological leaps in zero-emission energy technology that make it profitable to leave much carbon in the ground even in Annex II countries and (c) international agreements that make it more profitable to leave carbon in the ground or in forests.

  • 9. Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Isacs, Lina
    Swedish Chemical Agency, PO Box 2, 172 13 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Mattias
    Costs of alien invasive species in Sweden2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present calculations of total costs of 13 alien invasive species (AIS) in Sweden. All species are subject to control by Swedish public authorities, and estimates for most AIS include either damage cost or actual control cost. The results indicate a total annual cost between approximately 1620 and 5080 million SEK, which correspond to SEK 175 and SEK 565 per capita in Sweden. The estimates are well within the range of similar calculations for other countries, but differ with respect to the composition of costs of different AIS. Whereas costs for the agricultural and forestry sectors dominate in most other studies, the costs of AIS in Sweden are more equally divided among different categories. The results also indicate that the highest costs are attributable to unintentionally introduced AIS and that the most reliable cost estimates are related to human and animal health.

  • 10.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Removal of Surface Blooms of the Cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena: A Pilot Project Conducted in the Baltic Sea2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blooms of Cyanobacteria are a major concern during the summer period in the Baltic Sea Proper. The nitrogen-fixing Nodularia spumigena forms massive toxic blooms in the surface layers, with a concentration of biomass in the uppermost 1-m water layer. This pilot study describes the construction and test of a Nodularia collecting device during the summer of 2006. Oil booms were modified so that their dragging skirt was replaced with a water-permeable forming fabric used in the pulp and paper industry. The results showed that the modified oil booms worked and operated in an effective way when towed in the sea. Calculations showed that the collecting device used in this study has a theoretical capacity of cleaning 0.055 km(2) (5.5 ha) of sea surface hr(-1), compared with the 6600 km(2) of the Baltic Sea that were covered by Nodularia blooms during the summer of 2005. Future possibilities for Nodularia harvesting are discussed.

  • 11.
    Gårdestedt, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plea, Mama
    Nilsson, Gertrud
    Jacks, Birgitta
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Zinc in Soils, Crops, and Meals in the Niger Inland Delta, Mali2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 334-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc deficiency is a problem in developing countries and not least so in Africa. This concerns both agriculture and human food provision. Zinc deficiency in soils may severely decrease yields, whereas insufficient zinc in food intake primarily affects the immune defense, notably in children. The present investigation concerned zinc availability in soils, crops, and food in the Niger inland delta in Mali. Agricultural soils are largely deficient in plant-available zinc, however, soils in close vicinity to habitation show elevated zinc concentrations. The zinc concentrations in crops are low; in rice, they are about half of reference ranges. Zinc intake assessed from a number of sampled meals was about half the recommended requirement. When zinc concentration is higher phytate was also high, which made the zinc less available. In spite of a recorded sufficient intake of iron, anemia is common and is most likely because of the high phytate concentration in the cereal-dominated diet. Increasing zinc and iron availability would be possible through the use of malting, fermentation, and soaking in food preparation. Finally, in the long run, any trace element deficiency, especially that of zinc in agricultural soils needs to be amended by addition of appropriate amounts in commercial fertilizers.

  • 12. Haase, Dagmar
    et al.
    Larondelle, Neele
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Artmann, Martina
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Breuste, Jürgen
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Gren, Åsa
    Hamstead, Zoé
    Hansen, Rieke
    Kabisch, Nadja
    Kremer, Peleg
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Lorance Rall, Emily
    McPhearson, Timon
    Pauleit, Stephan
    Qureshi, Salman
    Schwarz, Nina
    Voigt, Annette
    Wurster, Daniel
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A Quantitative Review of Urban Ecosystem Service Assessments:Concepts, Models, and Implementation2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, p. 413-433Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although a number of comprehensive reviewshave examined global ecosystem services (ES), few havefocused on studies that assess urban ecosystem services(UES). Given that more than half of the world’s populationlives in cities, understanding the dualism of the provisionof and need for UES is of critical importance. Which UESare the focus of research, and what types of urban land useare examined? Are models or decision support systemsused to assess the provision of UES? Are trade-offs con-sidered? Do studies of UES engage stakeholders? Toaddress these questions, we analyzed 217 papers derivedfrom an ISI Web of Knowledge search using a set ofstandardized criteria. The results indicate that most UESstudies have been undertaken in Europe, North America,and China, at city scale. Assessment methods involve bio-physical models, Geographical Information Systems, andvaluation, but few study findings have been implementedas land use policy.

  • 13.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Brief Overview of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are based on molecular and nanometer-scale components. Record cell efficiencies of 12%, promising stability data and means of energy-efficient production methods have been accomplished. As selling points for the DSC technology the prospect of low-cost investments and fabrication are key features. DSCs offer the possibilities to design solar cells with a large flexibility in shape, color, and transparency. The basic principles of the operation of DSC, the state-of-the-art as well as the potentials for future development are described.

  • 14. Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Petersson, Mona
    Quin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Governance of Water Resources in the Phase of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 210-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  • 15. Horvath, Akos
    et al.
    Rachlew (Källne), Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no Suppl. 1, p. 38-49Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power—including fission and fusion processes—is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come.

    There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields—from material sciences to safety demonstration—to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  • 16. Karlberg, Louise
    et al.
    Gustafsson, David
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Modeling carbon turnover in five terrestrial ecosystems in the boreal zone using multiple criteria of acceptance2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 448-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover in ecosystems are key elements in the understanding of climate change and in predicting the accumulation of trace elements in the biosphere. In this paper we present estimates of carbon fluxes and turnover times for five terrestrial ecosystems using a modeling approach. Multiple criteria of acceptance were used to parameterize the model, thus incorporating large amounts of multi-faceted empirical data in the simulations in a standardized manner. Mean turnover times of carbon were found to be rather similar between systems with a few exceptions, even though the size of both the pools and the fluxes varied substantially. Depending on the route of the carbon through the ecosystem, turnover times varied from less than one year to more than one hundred, which may be of importance when considering trace element transport and retention. The parameterization method was useful both in the estimation of unknown parameters, and to identify variability in carbon turnover in the selected ecosystems.

  • 17.
    Levi, Lea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Andricevic, Roko
    Destouni, Georgia
    Hydroclimatic changes and drivers in the Sava River Catchment and comparison with Swedish catchments2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 624-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate long-term hydroclimatic changes and their possible relation to regional changes in climate, land-use and water-use over the twentieth century in the transboundary Sava River Catchment (SRC) in South Eastern Europe. In a hydropower dominated part of the SRC, unlike in an unregulated part, we find increase in average annual evapotranspiration and decrease in temporal runoff variability, which are not readily explainable by observed concurrent climate change in temperature and precipitation and may be more related to landscape-internal change drivers. Among the latter investigated here, results indicate hydropower developments as most closely related to the found hydroclimatic shifts, consistent with previous such indications in studies of Swedish hydropower catchments. Overall, the present results have quantitatively framed the recent history and present state of hydroclimate in the SRC, of relevance for water resources in several countries and for a majority of their populations. This provides a useful basis for further assessment of possible future hydroclimatic changes, under different scenarios of climate change and land/water-use developments in the region.

  • 18.
    Lidström, Susanna
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Stockholm University; Gothenburg University.
    Decline and diversity in Swedish seas: Environmental narratives in marine history, science and policy2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the mid-twentieth century, there was no comprehensive narrative about empirical conditions in Swedish seas. Around 1970, this view changed profoundly. In line with growing research and the emergence of ‘the environment’ as a defining concept, conditions in Swedish seas were framed as a ‘narrative of decline’. Marine scientists have since recorded more diverse developments than are described by an overall declensionist narrative. Data show trends of interrupted decline, variability and even recovery, taking place at least partly in response to effective policy and legislation. We suggest that beyond the specialised fields of marine sciences and marine environmental history, the overarching narrative of decline has persisted, paying little attention to local and regional particularities as well as cultural and political dimensions of the marine environment. This overly uniform narrative risks obscuring historical reality and, hence, fails to adequately inform policy and the public about developments and outcomes of interventions in Swedish seas.

  • 19.
    Marques, Marcia
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Da Costa, M. F.
    Mayorga, M. I. D. O.
    Pinheiro, P. R. C.
    Water environments: Anthropogenic pressures and ecosystem changes in the Atlantic drainage basins of Brazil2004In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 33, no 1-2, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Densely occupied drainage basins and coastal zones in developing countries that are facing economic growth are likely to suffer from moderate to severe environmental impacts regarding different issues. The catchment basins draining towards the Atlantic coast from northeastern to southern Brazil include a wide range of climatic zones and diverse ecosystems. Within its borders lies the Atlantic rain forest, significant extensions of semiarid thorn forests (caatinga), vast tree and scrub woodlands (cerrado) and most of the 6670 km of the Brazilian coast and its marine ecosystems. In recent decades, human activities have increasingly advanced over these natural resources. Littoralization has imposed a burden on coastal habitats and communities. Most of the native vegetation of the cerrado and caatinga was removed and only 7% of the original Atlantic rainforest still exists. Estuaries, bays and coastal lagoons have been irreversibly damaged. Land uses, damming and water diversion have become the major driving forces for habitat loss and aquatic ecosystem modification. Regardless of the contrast between the drought-affected northeastern Brazil and the much more prosperous and industrialized southeastern/southern Brazil, the impacts on habitat and communities were found equally severe in both cases. Attempts to halt environmental degradation have not been effective. Instead of focusing on natural resources separately, it is suggested that more integrated environmental policies that focus on aquatic ecosystems integrity are introduced.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Langaas, Sindre
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    International river basin management under the EU Water Framework Directive: An assessment of cooperation and water quality in the Baltic Sea drainage basin2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address issues connected with international river basin management and the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). By creating a register of River Basin Districts established under the WFD, we show that the number and area of international River Basin Districts are significant. Further, we present an assessment of international cooperation and water quality in 14 international river basins in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin. Our results indicate that the WFD is a push forward for international river basin management in the region. However the WFD in general, and the principle of river basin management in particular, may be hard to implement in river basins shared between EU Member States and countries outside the EU. According to the study, Vistula, Pregola, and Nemunas appear to be the international basins within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin in greatest need of intensified cooperation with regard to the state of the water quality.

  • 21.
    Noring, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Dahlgren, Elin
    Valuation of ecotoxicological impacts from tributyltin based on a quantitative environmental assessment framework2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the scientific literature, few valuations of biodiversity and ecosystem services following the impacts of toxicity are available, hampered by the lack of ecotoxicological documentation. Here, tributyltin is used to conduct a contingent valuation study as well as cost–benefit analysis (CBA) of measures for improving the environmental status in Swedish coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Benefits considering different dimensions when assessing environmental status are highlighted and a quantitative environmental assessment framework based on available technology, ecological conditions, and economic valuation methodology is developed. Two scenarios are used in the valuation study: (a) achieving good environmental status by 2020 in accordance with EU legislation (USD 119 household−1 year−1) and (b) achieving visible improvements by 2100 due to natural degradation (USD 108 household−1 year−1) during 8 years. The later scenario was used to illustrate an application of the assessment framework. The CBA results indicate that both scenarios might generate a welfare improvement.

  • 22.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    et al.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hansen, Anne L.
    LandboSyd, Aabenraa, Denmark..
    Hojberg, Anker L.
    Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Olesen, Jorgen E.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Agroecol, Tjele, Denmark..
    Hashemi, Fatemeh
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biosci, Silkeborg, Denmark..
    Wachniew, Przemyslaw
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Krakow, Poland..
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Bartosova, Alena
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Stelljes, Nico
    Ecol Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Chubarenko, Boris
    Russian Acad Sci, Shirshov Inst Oceanol, Moscow, Russia..
    Spatially differentiated regulation: Can it save the Baltic Sea from excessive N-loads?2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 1278-1289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea Action Plan and the EU Water Framework Directive both require substantial additional reductions of nutrient loads (N and P) to the marine environment. Focusing on nitrogen, we present a widely applicable concept for spatially differentiated regulation, exploiting the large spatial variations in the natural removal of nitrate in groundwater and surface water. By targeting mitigation measures towards areas where nature's own capacity for removal is low, spatially differentiated regulation can be more cost-effective than the traditional uniform regulation. We present a methodology for upscaling local modelling results on targeted measures at field scale to Baltic Sea drainage basin scale. The paper assesses the potential gain and discusses key challenges related to implementation of spatially differentiated regulation, including the need for more scientific knowledge, handling of uncertainties, practical constraints related to agricultural practice and introduction of co-governance regimes.

  • 23.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nordstrom, Jonas
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food & Resource Econ, Rolighedsvej 25, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.;Lund Univ, Agrifood Econ Ctr, Lund, Sweden..
    Risen, Emma
    Sweco Environm AB, Gjorwellsgatan 22, S-11260 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 398-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

  • 24. Wittgren, H. B.
    et al.
    Castensson, R.
    Gipperth, L.
    Joelsson, A.
    Jonasson, L.
    Pettersson, A.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Torstensson, G.
    An actor game on implementation of environmental quality standards for nitrogen in a Swedish agricultural catchment2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite political efforts, diffuse pollution from agriculture continues to be the single largest source of nitrogen (N) emissions into the aquatic environment in many countries and regions. This fact, and the recent enactment of a new Swedish environmental code, led to the design of a study targeted at the evaluation of new N pollution abatement strategies. An actor game was chosen as the key component of the study, with a focus on four major goals: to test the implementability of legally binding environmental quality standards for nitrate concentration in groundwater and N transport to the sea, to find sets of agriculturally feasible and cost-effective measures to decrease N loads, to investigate the possibilities for collective action through negotiated and institutionalized actor cooperation, and to investigate the role of mathematical modeling in environmental N management. Characteristics from the agriculturally dominated catchment of Genevadsan (224 km(2)) on the southwest coast of Sweden served as the playing field for the actor game. The most noteworthy result from the study was that it appeared to be possible to meet ambitious environmental N standards with less economically drastic measures than anticipated by most of the participants. The actor game was shown to be a good method for learning about the new Swedish environmental code and its application and for gaining deeper insight into the issues of N management. In addition, the actor game functioned as an arena for gaining a more thorough understanding of the views of different stakeholders.

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