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  • 1.
    Azzi, Elias Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Karltun, Erik
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Prospective Life Cycle Assessment of Large-Scale Biochar Production and Use for Negative Emissions in Stockholm2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 14, p. 8466-8476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cities in Sweden are aiming for climate neutrality within a few decades and for negative emissions thereafter. Combined biochar, heat, and power production is an option to achieve carbon sequestration for cities relying on biomass-fuelled district heating, while biochar use could mitigate environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. By using prospective life cycle assessment, the climate impact of the pyrolysis of woodchips in Stockholm is compared with two reference scenarios based on woodchip combustion. The pyrolysis of woodchips produces heat and power for the city of Stockholm, and biochar whose potential use as a feed and manure additive on Swedish dairy farms is explored. The climate change mitigation trade-off between bioenergy production and biochar carbon sequestration in Stockholm's context is dominated by the fate of marginal power. If decarbonisation of power is achieved, building a new pyrolysis plant becomes a better climate option than conventional combustion. Effects of cascading biochar use in animal husbandry are uncertain but could provide 10-20% more mitigation than direct biochar soil incorporation. These results help design regional biochar systems that combine negative carbon dioxide emissions with increased methane and nitrous oxide mitigation efforts and can also guide the development of minimum performance criteria for biochar products.

  • 2.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Novel Quantification of Coupled Natural and Cross-Sectoral Water and Nutrient/Pollutant Flows for Environmental Management.2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 16, p. 6182-6190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human water use and anthropogenic water pollution and ecosystem deterioration have increased so much that it is now a strategic challenge to maximize benefits from various possible water uses, while ensuring that basic human needs are met and the environment is protected. We propose and develop a novel use of input-output flow analysis as a relatively simple, compact and powerful tool for quantification of coupled natural and cross-sectoral flows of water, nutrients, and pollutants in catchments. The tool quantifies implications of various environmental regulation and management scenarios for both natural water systems and engineered-economic systems and sectors that use and impact natural waters for meeting human needs. Specific case study application to water and nitrogen flows in the Swedish Norrstrom drainage basin indicates considerable nitrogen load contributions to surface and coastal waters from slow groundwater flow paths and legacies of accumulated nitrogen in subsurface and immobile water pools. This implies that effective nitrogen load abatement cannot focus only on active sources but must also include downstream measures, which can capture and abate nitrogen/pollutant loading from different types of known and yet unknown point and diffuse sources within associated catchments.

  • 3.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Uncertainty-Accounting Environmental Policy and Management of Water Systems2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 3635-3659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystem management do not commonly require explicit stochastic accounts of uncertainty and risk associated with the quantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loads and abatement effects. In this study, we formulate and investigate a possible environmental policy that does require an explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compare both the environmental and economic resource allocation performance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmental policy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and risk-averse environmental policies under a range of different hypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparison indicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accounting policy may perform better than deterministic policies over a range of different scenarios. Even in the absence of reliable site-specific data, reported literature values appear to be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.

  • 4.
    Bernemyr, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Ström, Johan
    Westlund, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Experimental Evaluation of a Rotating Disc DiluterIn: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Bhowmick, Subhamoy
    et al.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Kundu, Amit Kumar
    Saha, Debasree
    Iglesias, Monica
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Mazumder, Debendra Nath Guha
    Roman-Ross, Gabriela
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Is Saliva a Potential Biomarker of Arsenic Exposure?: A Case-Control Study in West Bengal, India2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 3326-3332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saliva is a biological fluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva and urine samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India who had been previously exposed to high As levels in their drinking water. We found a significant (p < 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (mu g day(-1)) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Male participants, smokers, and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with an increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population. The study also advocates that measurement of the forms of As in saliva may additionally provide insight into the internal dose and any individual differences in susceptibility to As exposure.

  • 6. Bhowmick, Subhamoy
    et al.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Mazumder, Debendra Nath Guha
    Roman-Ross, Gabriela
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Iglesias, Monica
    Speciation of Arsenic in Saliva Samples from a Population of West Bengal, India2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 12, p. 6973-6980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saliva, an easily accessible biofluid, is validated as biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in several villages of West Bengal, India. Pentavalent arsenic [As(V)] was found to be the predominant species in saliva, with the amount of inorganic As [As(V) and trivalent form, As(III)] being more than half of the total As in the samples. Significant association was found between total daily ingestion of As and As(V) (r = 0.59; p = 0.000), As(III) (r = 0.60; p = 0.000), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(V)) (r = 0.40; p = 0.000), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(V)) (r = 0.44; p = 0.000), implying that these species have mainly been derived from the methylation of the inorganic As in the water that study participants drank and the food they ate. Analysis of confounding effects of age, sex, smoking, body mass index and the prevalence of skin lesion suggests that women and controls with no skin lesion had a higher capacity to methylate the ingested As compared to the rest of the population. Thus, our study demonstrates that As species in saliva can be an useful tool to predict the individual susceptibility where higher As exposure and a lower methylation capacity are implicated in the development of As-induced health effects.

  • 7.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kundu, Arnit K.
    Mandal, Ujja
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 46, p. 434-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW)platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As andMnin groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe fromAs, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking waterguideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively.However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and redcolored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that wellwater is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TWplatform color can bepotentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As andMn, tomake further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  • 8.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Singer, Gabriel
    Univ Vienna, Dept Freshwater Ecol.
    Zaramella, Mattia
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Battin, Tom
    Univ Vienna, Dept Freshwater Ecol.
    Marion, Andrea
    Univ Padua, Dept Hydraul Maritime Environm & Geotech Engn.
    Effects of Streambed Morphology and Biofilm Growth on the Transient Storage of Solutes2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 19, p. 7337-7342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial biofilms are the prime site of nutrient and contaminant removal in streams. It is therefore essential to understand how biofilms affect hydrodynamic exchange, solute transport and retention in systems where geomorphology and induced hydrodynamics shape their growth and structure. We experimented with large-scale streamside flumes with streambed landscapes constructed from graded bedforms of constant height and wavelength. Each flume had a different bedform height and was covered with a layer of gravel as substratum for benthic microbial biofilms. Biofilms developed different biomass and physical structures in response to the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the streambed morphology. Step injections of conservative tracers were performed at different biofilm growth stages. The experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed with the STIR model, using a residence time approach to characterize the retention effects associated with biofilms. The retained mass of the solute increased with biofilm biomass and the biofilm-associated retention was furthermore related to bedform height We tentatively relate this behavior to biofilm structural differentiation induced by bed morphology, which highlights the strong linkage between geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and biofilms in natural streams and provide important clues for stream restoration.

  • 9. Christou, S.Y
    et al.
    Birgersson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Fierro, J.L.G.
    Efstathiou, A.M.
    Reactivation of an Aged Commercial Three-Way Catalyst by Oxalic and Citric Acid Washing2006In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, p. 2030-2036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of dilute oxalic and citric acid solutions on improving the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and catalytic activity of a severely aged (83 000 km) commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) has been investigated. Washing procedures applied after optimization of experimental parameters, namely, temperature, flow-rate, and concentration of acid solution, led to significant improvements of OSC and catalytic activity (based on dynamometer test measurements) of the aged TWC. The latter was made possible due to the removal of significant amounts of various contaminants accumulated on the catalyst surface (e.g., P, S, Pb, Ca, Zn, Si, Fe, Cu, and Ni) during driving conditions, as revealed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. For the first time, it is demonstrated that dilute oxalic acid solution significantly improves the catalytic activity of an aged commercial TWC toward CO, CxHy, and NOx conversions under real exhaust gas conditions (dynamometer tests) by two to eight times in the 250-450 degrees C range and the OSC quantity by up to 50%. Oxalic acid appears to be more efficient than citric acid in removing specifically P- and S-containing compounds from the catalyst surface, whereas citric acid in removing Pb- and Zn-containing compounds, thus uncovering surface active catalytic sites.

  • 10. Cornelissen, G.
    et al.
    Elmquist, M.
    Groth, Inga
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Gustafsson, O.
    Effect of sorbate planarity on environmental black carbon sorption2004In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 13, p. 3574-3580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soot and charcoal, collectively termed "black carbon" or BC, can exhibit extremely strong sorption of many hydrophobic organic compounds. In order to include BC sorption in fate models, it is important to know BC nanopore surface areas. In addition, it is useful to know for which compounds BC sorption can be expected to be important. By nitrogen adsorption measurements at ultralow pressures on sediment that was strongly enriched in BC by HF treatment and/or chemothermal oxidation at 375 degreesC, we found that environmental BC has nanoporosity in the <4-10 Angstrom size range. The nanopore surface area (<50 Angstrom) of BC in Lake Ketelmeer (The Netherlands) sediment was approximately 58 m(2)/g. We measured sorption isotherms over a wide concentration interval for four compounds with the same K-OW (10(4.6+/-0.1)): planar anthracene (ANT), phenanthrene (PHE), and 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-PCB) along with nonplanar 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl (2,2'-PCB). The environmental BC sorption coefficients of these iso-K-OW compounds decreased in the order ANT > PHE approximate to 4-PCB much greater than 2,2'-PCB and spanned a factor of 50-200, depending on concentration. Nonplanar 2,2'-PCB showed much more linear BC sorption (n(F) = 0.92) than the planar compounds (n(F) = 0.54-0.70). This shows that steric hindrance strongly attenuates BC-sorbate interactions for a nonplanar PCB. Thus, BC is more important for environmental sorption of planar compounds (>50% sorbed to BC in the nanogram per liter range) than for nonplanar ones (<10-20%). Using the measured BC nanopore surface area, a close agreement between modeled and measured BC sorption data could be found.

  • 11. Elberling, Bo
    et al.
    Søndergaard, Jens
    Jensen, Louise A.
    Schmidt, Lea B.
    Hansen, Birger U.
    Asmund, Gert
    Balic-Zunic, Tonci
    Hollesen, J. Orgen
    Hanson, Susanne
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Friborg, Thomas
    Arctic vegetation damage by winter-generated coal mining pollution released upon thawing2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 2407-2413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acid mine drainage (known as AMD) is a well-known environmental problem resulting from the oxidation of sulfidic mine waste. In cold regions, AMD is often considered limited by low temperatures most of the year and observed environmental impact is related to pollution generated during the warm summer period. Here we show that heat generation within an oxidizing, sulfidic, coal-mining waste-rock pile in Svalbard (78 degrees N) is high enough to keep the pile warm (roughly 5 degrees C throughout the year) despite mean annual air temperatures below -5 degrees C. Consequently, weathering processes continue year-round within the waste-rock pile. During the winter, weathering products accumulate within the pile because of a frozen outer layer on the pile and are released as a flush within 2 weeks of soil thawing in the spring. Consequently, spring runoff water contains elevated concentrations of metals. Several of these metals are taken up and accumulated in plants where they reach phytotoxic levels, including aluminum and manganese. Laboratory experiments document that uptake of Al and Mn in native plant species is highly correlated with dissolved concentrations. Therefore, future remedial actions to control the adverse environmental impacts of cold region coal-mining need to pay more attention to winter processes including AMD generation and accumulation of weathering products.

  • 12.
    Eveborn, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hesterberg, Dean
    University Raleigh, Department of Soil Science, North Carolina, USA.
    Hillier, Stephen
    Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK.
    XANES Speciation of P in Environmental Samples: An Assessment of Filter Media for on-Site Wastewater Treatment2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 17, p. 6515-6521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopyis a useful technique for characterization of chemical speciesof phosphorus in complex environmental samples. To developand evaluate bed filters as sustainable on-site wastewater treatment solutions, our objective in this study was to determine the chemical forms of accumulated phosphorus in a selectionof promising filter materials: Filtralite P, Filtra P, Polonite, Absol, blast furnace slag, and wollastonite. Full-scale operational wastewater-treatment systems were sampled and in addition, filter samples collected from laboratory studies provided access to additional media and complementary samples.Phosphorus species were characterized using phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and attenuated total reflectance Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). No systematic differences could be seen in the results between laboratory and full-scale samples. All six filter media contained significant amounts of crystalline calcium phosphates. Some samples also contained amorphous calcium phosphate (>60 % of totalP in Absol). In Filtralite P and blast furnace slag, more than 35 % of the accumulated phosphorus was associated with Fe or Al. Both the power and shortcomings of XANES analysis for characterizing P species in these filter media are discussed.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Modeling salt-dependent proton binding by organic soils with the MICA-Donnan and Stockholm Humic models2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 14, p. 5372-5377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are available for simulations of proton dissociation and cation binding by natural organic matter; two examples are the NICA-Donnan and Stockholm Humic (SHM) models. To model proton and metal binding, it is necessary to properly account for the ionic strength dependence of proton dissociation. In previous applications of the models for soils it was assumed that the electrostatic interactions for solid-phase humic substances were the same as in solution;this assumption was recently challenged. Therefore, we reanalyzed previously published acid-base titrations of acid-washed Sphagnum peat, and we produced additional data sets for two Sphagnum peats and two Spodosol Oe horizons. For the soil suspensions, the original NICA-Donnan and SHM models, which were developed for dissolved humic substances, underestimated the observed salt dependence considerably. When a fixed Donnan volume of 1 L kg(-1) for humic substances in the solid phase was used, the NICA-Donnan model fits were much improved. Also for SHM, slight changes produced improved model fits. The models also produced acceptable simulations of the dissolved Ca, Mg, and Cd concentrations, provided that cation selectivity was introduced. In conclusion, the proposed extensions to the NICA-Donnan and SHM models were shown to predict the salt dependence of solid-phase humic substances more satisfactorily than earlier model versions.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Pechova, P.
    Berggren, D.
    Modeling metal binding to soils: The role of natural organic matter2003In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2767-2774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mechanistically based models to simulate the solution concentrations of heavy metals in soils is complicated by the presence of different sorbents that may bind metals. In this study, the binding of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd by 14 different Swedish soil samples was investigated. For 10 of the soils, it was found that the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) was able to describe the acid-base characteristics, when using the concentrations of active humic substances and Al as fitting parameters. Two additional soils could be modeled when ion exchange to clay was also considered, using a component additivity approach. For dissolved Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg reasonable model fits were produced when the metal-humic complexation parameters were identical for the 12 soils modeled. However, poor fits were obtained for Pb and Cu in Aquept B horizons. In two of the soil suspensions, the Lund A and Romfartuna Bhs, the calculated speciation agreed well with results obtained by using cation-exchange membranes. The results suggest that organic matter is an important sorbent for metals in many surface horizons of soils in temperate and boreal climates, and the necessity of properly accounting for the competition from Al in simulations of dissolved metal concentrations is stressed.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Persson, I.
    Oromieh, A. G.
    Van Schaik, J. W. J.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Chromium(III) complexation to natural organic matter: Mechanisms and modeling2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1753-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium is a common soil contaminant, and it often exists as chromium(III). However, limited information exists on the coordination chemistry and stability of chromium(III) complexes with natural organic matter (NOM). Here, the complexation of chromium(III) to mor layer material and to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) was investigated using EXAFS spectroscopy and batch experiments. The EXAFS results showed a predominance of monomeric chromium(III)-NOM complexes at low pH (<5), in which only Cr··C and Cr-O-C interactions were observed in the second coordination shell. At pH > 5 there were polynuclear chromium(III)-NOM complexes with Cr···Cr interactions at 2.98 Å and for SRFA also at 3.57 Å, indicating the presence of dimers (soil) and tetramers (SRFA). The complexation of chromium(III) to NOM was intermediate between that of iron(III) and aluminum(III). Chromium(III) complexation was slow at pH < 4: three months or longer were required to reach equilibrium. The results were used to constrain chromium-NOM complexation in the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM): a monomeric complex dominated at pH < 5, whereas a dimeric complex dominated at higher pH. The optimized constant for the monomeric chromium(III) complex was in between those of the iron(III) and aluminum(III) NOM complexes. Our study suggests that chromium(III)-NOM complexes are important for chromium speciation in many environments.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Van Schaik, Joris W. J.
    Binding of iron(III) to organic soils: EXAFS spectroscopy and chemical equilibrium modeling2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 1232-1237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexation of iron(III) to soil organic matter is important for the binding of trace metals in natural environments because of competition effects. In this study, we used extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to characterize the binding mode for iron(III) in two soil samples from organic mor layers, one of which was also treated with iron(III). In most cases the EXAFS spectra had three significant contributions, inner-core Fe-O/N interactions at about 2.02(2) A, Fe-C interactions in the second scattering shell at 3.00(4) A, and a mean Fe-Fe distance at 3.37(3) A. One untreated sample showed features typical for iron (hydr)oxides; however, after treatment of iron(III) the EXAFS spectrum was dominated by organically complexed iron. The presence of a Fe-Fe distance in all samples showed that the major part of the organically complexed iron was hydrolyzed, most likely in a mixture of complexes with an inner core of (O5Fe)(2)O and (O5Fe)(3)O. These results were used to constrain a model for metal-humic complexation, the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM). The model was able to describe iron(III) binding very well at low pH considering only one dimeric iron(III)-humic complex. The competition effect on trace metals was also well described.

  • 17.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhowmick, S.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chatterjee, D.
    Nriagu, J.
    Guha Mazumder, D. N.
    Šlejkovec, Z.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Risk of arsenic exposure from drinking water and dietary components: Implications for risk management in rural Bengal2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 1120-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the communities in rural Bengal, even when they have been supplied with As safe drinking water. The estimates of exposure via dietary and drinking water routes show that, when people are consuming water with an As concentration of less than 10 μg L-1, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) exceeds the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 BW, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 35% of the cases due to consumption of rice. When the level of As concentration in drinking water is above 10 μg L-1, the TDI-iAs exceeds the previous PTDI for all the participants. These results imply that, when rice consumption is a significant contributor to the TDI-iAs, supplying water with an As concentration at the current national drinking water standard for India and Bangladesh would place many people above the safety threshold of PTDI. We also found that the consumption of vegetables in rural Bengal does not pose a significant health threat to the population independently. This study suggests that any effort to mitigate the As exposure of the villagers in Bengal must consider the risk of As exposure from rice consumption together with drinking water.

  • 18.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhowmick, Subhamoy
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Mazumdar, Debendra Nath Guha
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Consumption of Brown Rice: A Potential Pathway for Arsenic Exposure in Rural Bengal2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 4142-4148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the arsenic (As) accumulation in different varieties of rice grain, that people in rural Bengal mostly prefer for daily consumption, to estimate the potential risk of dietary As exposure through rice intake. The rice samples have been classified according to their average length (L) and L to breadth (B) ratio into four categories, such as short-bold (SB), medium-slender (MS), long-slender (LS), and extra-long slender (ELS). The brown colored rice samples fall into the SB, MS, or LS categories; while all Indian Basmati (white colored) are classified as ELS. The study indicates that the average accumulation of As in rice grain increases with a decrease of grain size (ELS: 0.04; LS: 0.10; MS: 0.16; and SB: 0.33 mg kg(-1)), however people living in the rural villages mostly prefer brown colored SB type of rice because of its lower cost. For the participants consuming SB type of brown rice, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) in 29% of the cases exceeds the previous WHO recommended provisional tolerable daily intake value (2.1 mu g day(-1) kg(-1) BW), and in more than 90% of cases, the As content in the drinking water equivalent to the inorganic As intake from rice consumption (C-W,C-eqv) exceeds the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 mu g L-1. This study further demonstrates that participants in age groups 18-30 and 51-65 yrs are the most vulnerable to the potential health threat of dietary As exposure compared to participants of age group 31-50 yrs, because of higher amounts of brown rice consumption patterns and lower BMI.

  • 19.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    In the Search for Nanospecific Effects of Dissolution of Metallic Nanoparticles at Freshwater-Like Conditions: A Critical Review2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 4030-4044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on relations between particle properties and dissolution/transformation characteristics of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in freshwater is important for risk assessment and product development. This critical review aims to elucidate nanospecific effects on dissolution of metallic NPs in freshwater and similar media. Dissolution rate constants are compiled and analyzed for NPs of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), copper oxide/hydroxide (CuO, Cu(OH) 2 ), zinc oxide (ZnO), manganese (Mn), and aluminum (Al), showing largely varying (orders of magnitude) constants when modeled using first order kinetics. An effect of small primary sizes (&lt;15 nm) was observed, leading to increased dissolution rate constants and solubility in some cases. However, the often extensive particle agglomeration can result in reduced nanospecific effects on dissolution and also an increased uncertainty related to the surface area, a parameter that largely influence the extent of dissolution. Promising ways to model surface areas of NPs in solution using fractal dimensions and size distributions are discussed in addition to nanospecific aspects related to other processes such as corrosion, adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM), presence of capping agents, and existence of surface defects. The importance of the experimental design on the results of dissolution experiments of metal and metal oxide NPs is moreover highlighted, including the influence of ionic metal solubility and choice of particle dispersion methodology.

  • 20.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Skoglund, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, Maria-Elisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Sequential Studies of Silver Released from Silver Nanoparticles in Aqueous Media Simulating Sweat, Laundry Detergent Solutions and Surface Water2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 13, p. 7314-7322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an increased use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as an antibacterial in consumer products follows a need to assess the environmental interaction and fate of their possible dispersion and release of silver. This study aims to elucidate an exposure scenario of the Ag NPs potentially released from, for example, impregnated clothing by assessing the release of silver and changes in particle properties in sequential contact with synthetic sweat, laundry detergent solutions, and freshwater, simulating a possible transport path through different aquatic media. The release of ionic silver is addressed from a water chemical perspective, compared with important particle and surface characteristics. Released amounts of silver in the sequential exposures were significantly lower, approximately a factor of 2, than the sum of each separate exposure. Particle characteristics such as speciation (both of Ag ionic species and at the Ag NP surface) influenced the release of soluble silver species present on the surface, thereby increasing the total silver release in the separate exposures compared with sequential immersions. The particle stability had no drastic impact on the silver release as most of the Ag NPs were unstable in solution. The silver release was also influenced by a lower pH (increased release of silver), and cotransported zeolites (reduced silver in solution).

  • 21.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Jonas F.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Critical Review: Copper Runoff from Outdoor Copper Surfaces at Atmospheric Conditions2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1372-1381Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature, and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from. outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electrochemical and chemical reactions and is highly dependent on given exposure conditions (size, inclination, geometry, degree of sheltering, and orientation), surface parameters (age, patina composition, and thickness), and site-specific environmental conditions (gaseous pollutants, chloride, rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, pH), wind direction, temperature, time of wetness, season). The corrosion rate cannot be used to assess the runoff rate. The extent of released copper varies largely between different rain events and is related to dry and wet periods, dry deposition prior to the rain event and prevailing rain and patina characteristics. Interpretation and use of copper runoff data for environmental risk assessment and management need therefore to consider site-specific factors and focus on average data of long-term studies (several years). Risk assessments require furthermore that changes in copper speciation, bioavailability aspects, and potential irreversible retention on solid surfaces are considered, factors that determine the environmental fate of copper runoff from outdoor surfaces.

  • 22. Herbert, R. B.
    et al.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Ebena, G.
    Salmon, U.
    Ferrow, E.
    Fuchs, M.
    Quantification of abiotic reaction rates in mine tailings: Evaluation of treatment methods for eliminating iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 770-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective treatment techniques for eliminating iron-oxidizing (10B) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are required for the comparison of abiotic and microbial sulfide oxidation rates and mechanisms in mine tailings. This study evaluates the effect of autoclaving, repeated heating, ethanol treatment, antibiotic treatment, gamma-radiation, and washing with deionized water on tailings characteristics and concentrations of IOB and SOB. Most probable number enumeration indicates that IOB and SOB were present at very low concentrations or below detection limits following treatment with all methods except rinsing and antibiotics treatment, where higher concentrations of IOB and SOB were present. The physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of the tailings indicated no changes in bulk mineralogy or bulk chemical composition as a result of treatment. However, an increase in oxidized sulfur species at the tailings surface, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, was observed for the heating, autoclaving, and antibiotics treatments. Batch weathering experiments, used to evaluate the effect of treatment on element release rates, indicated that the final element release rates (after >30 d) were similar between treated and untreated control samples. On the basis of the results of this study, experiments over relatively long periods (>30 d) are to be recommended for the establishment of microbial and abiotic weathering rates in mill tailings samples. For the determination of abiotic reaction rates, treatment by gamma-radiation is suggested to be the most appropriate method for sulfide-rich tailings.

  • 23. Kennedy, Christopher
    et al.
    Steinberger, Julia
    Gasson, Barrie
    Hansen, Yvonne
    Hillman, Timothy
    Havranek, Miroslav
    Pataki, Diane
    Phdungsilp, Aumnad
    Dhurakij Pundit Univ, Dept Energy Management, Bangkok 10210, Thailand.
    Ramaswami, Anu
    Villalba Mendez, Gara
    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 19, p. 7297-7302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world's population is now over 50% urban, and cities make an important contribution to national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many cities are developing strategies to reduce their emissions. Here we ask how and why emissions differ between cities. Our study often global cities shows how a balance of geophysical factors (climate, access to resources, and gateway status) and technical factors (power generation, urban design, and waste processing) determine the GHGs attributable to cities. Within the overall trends, however, there are differences between cities with more or less public transit while personal income also impacts heating and industrial fuel use. By including upstream emissions from fuels, GHG emissions attributable to cities exceed those from direct end use by up to 25%. Our findings should help foster intercity learning on reducing GHG emissions.

  • 24.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nakata, Satomi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Silver(I) Binding Properties of Organic Soil Materials Are Different from Those of Isolated Humic Substances2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 14, p. 7453-7460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of silver(I) in many soils is controlled by complexation reactions with organic matter. In this work we have compared the ability of isolated humic and fulvic acids to bind silver(I) with that of mor and peat materials. One new data set for Suwannee River Fulvic Acid was produced, which was consistent with published data sets for isolated fulvic and humic acids. The ability of soil materials to bind silver(I) was studied as a function of pH in the range 2.5-5.0, at a wide range of silver(I)-to-soil ratios (10(-4.2) - 10(-1.9) mol kg(-1)). By calibrating the Stockholm Humic Model on the humic and fulvic acids data sets, we showed that binding of silver(I) to both types of soil materials was much stronger (up to 2 orders of magnitude) than predicted from the silver(I) binding properties of the isolated humic materials. Thus, the approach taken for many other metals, that is, to model solubility in soils by using metal and proton binding parameters derived from isolated humic and fulvic acids, cannot be used for silver(I). One possible explanation for the discrepancy could be that silver(I) predominately interacted with various biomolecules in the soil samples, instead of humic- and fulvic-acid type materials.

  • 25.
    Lindgren, Georg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Destouni, Georgia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Effects of Inland Nitrogen Transport and Attenuation Modeling on Coastal Nitrogen Load Abatement2006In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, p. 6208-6214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling of the spatial distribution of nitrogen transport and attenuation from various inland sources and along different hydrological pathways to coastal waters is needed for relevant decisions on effective allocation of measures for coastal nitrogen load abatement. We identify, classify, and quantify uncertainties associated with main discrepancies between spatial process representations in different catchment-scale nitrogen transport-attenuation models. The results show important model differences, indicating scientific disagreement on the realistic spatial process understanding, representation, and quantification in nitrogen transport-attenuation modeling. By further developing solutions for economic optimization of spatially differentiated nitrogen source abatement in coastal catchments, we find this disagreement to considerably affect the economic efficiency of coastal nitrogen load reduction. It may also lead to stakeholder mistrust and conflict and needs to be recognized and handled in environmental policy.

  • 26.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Destouni, G.
    Banwart, S. A.
    Stromberg, B. H. E.
    Resolving the scale-dependence of mineral weathering rates2000In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 1375-1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison between mineral weathering rates determined in the laboratory and in the field commonly reveals large discrepancies, with order(s)-of-magnitude lower rates in the field. Such unresolved scale-dependence seriously limits our ability to extrapolate laboratory results to other scales and conditions. This extrapolation is necessary for quantifying environmental impacts, for instance from acid mine drainage, acid deposition, soil acidification, geological disposal of hazardous waste, and weathering feedback to climate change. We use the well-characterized deposits of mining waste rock at the Aitik site in northern Sweden, for which weathering rates have been previously published, as a model system for investigating this apparent scale-dependence of these rates. We show that the scale-dependence exhibited by the Aitik data is to a large degree predictable by quantification of the effects of a few critical and readily available, bulk-averaged physicochemical characteristics. The fact that this scale-dependence exhibited by the Aitik data is consistent with other laboratory and watershed studies suggests that at least some of the quantified effects are of general applicability and importance when extrapolating weathering rates from the laboratory to the field.

  • 27.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Destouni, G.
    Martinet, Philippe
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Modeling expected solute concentration in randomly heterogeneous flow systems with multicomponent reactions2004In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 2673-2679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many environmental problems require assessment of extensive reaction systems within natural subsurface flow systems exhibiting large physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity. We present an approach to couple stochastic advective-reactive modeling of physical solute transport (LaSAR) with the geochemical model PHREEQC for modeling solute concentrations in systems with variable flow velocity and multicomponent reactions. PHREEQC allows for general and flexible quantification of a multitude of linear and nonlinear geochemical processes, while LaSAR efficiently handles field-scale solute spreading in stochastic heterogeneous flow fields. The combined LaSAR-PHREEQC approach requires very modest computational efforts,thereby allowing a large number of reactive transport problems to be readily assessed and facilitating handling of quantifiable uncertainty in environmental model applications. Computational efficiency and explicit handling of field-scale dispersion without introduction of excessive fluid mixing that may impair model results are general advantages of the LaSAR compared with alternative solute transport modeling approaches. The LaSAR-PHREEQC approach is restricted to steady or unidirectional flow fields, and our specific application examples are limited to homogeneous reaction systems without local or transverse dispersion-diffusion, although these are not general methodological limitations. As a comprehensive application example, we simulate the spreading of acid mine drainage in a groundwater focusing on Zn2+ and including relevant, major-component geochemistry. Model results show that Zn2+ may be substantially attenuated by both sorption and precipitation, with flow heterogeneity greatly affecting expected solute concentrations downstream of the mine waste deposit in both cases.

  • 28.
    Merenyi, Gabor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry.
    Lind, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry.
    Naumov, Sergej
    von Sonntag, Clemens
    Reaction of Ozone with Hydrogen Peroxide (Peroxone Process): A Revision of Current Mechanistic Concepts Based on Thermokinetic and Quantum-Chemical Considerations2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 3505-3507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reaction of ozone with the anion of H2O2 (peroxone process) gives rise to (OH)-O-center dot radicals (Staehelin, J.; Hoigne, J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1982, 16, 676-681). Thermokinetic considerations now suggest that the electron transfer originally assumed as the first step has to be replaced by the formation of an adduct, HO2- + O-3 -> HO5- (Delta G degrees = -39.8 kJ mol(-1)). This decomposes into HO2 center dot and O-3(center dot-) (Delta G degrees = 13.2 kJ mol(-1)). HO2 center dot is in equilibrium with O-2(center dot-) + H+ and O-2(center dot-) undergoes electron transfer to O-3 giving rise to further O-3(center dot-). The decay of O-3 into (OH)-O-center dot is now discussed on the basis of the equilibria O-3(center dot-) reversible arrow O-2 + O center dot- and O center dot- + H2O reversible arrow (OH)-O-center dot + OH-, excluding HO3 center dot as the intermediate originally assumed. To account for the observation of the peroxone process being only 50% efficient, the decay of HO5- into 2 O-2 + OH- (Delta G degrees = -197 kJ mol(-1)) is proposed to compete with the decay into HO2 center dot; and O-3(center dot-).

  • 29. Müller, Esther
    et al.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Widmer, Rolf
    Schluep, Mathias
    Faulstich, Martin
    Modeling Metal Stocks and Flows: A Review of Dynamic Material Flow Analysis Methods2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 2102-2113Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) is a frequently used method to assess past, present, and future stocks and flows of metals in the anthroposphere. Over the past fifteen years, dynamic MFA has contributed to increased knowledge about the quantities, qualities, and locations of metal-containing goods. This article presents a literature review of the methodologies applied in 60 dynamic MFAs of metals. The review is based on a standardized model description format, the ODD (overview, design concepts, details) protocol. We focus on giving a. comprehensive overview of modeling approaches and structure them according to essential aspects, such as their treatment of material dissipation, spatial dimension of flows, or data uncertainty. The reviewed literature features similar basic modeling principles but very diverse extrapolation methods. Basic principles include the calculation of outflows of the in-use stock based on inflow or stock data and a lifetime distribution function. For extrapolating stocks and flows, authors apply constant, linear, exponential, and logistic models or approaches based on socioeconomic variables, such as regression models or the intensity-of-use hypothesis. The consideration and treatment of further aspects, such as dissipation, spatial distribution, and data uncertainty, vary significantly and highly depends on the objectives of each study.

  • 30.
    Olsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Van Schaik, Joris W. J.
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kleja, Dan Berggreb
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Man-Technology Environment Research Center, Department of Natural Science, Örebro University.
    Copper(II) binding to dissolved organic matter fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachate2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 4286-4291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on Cu speciation in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash leachate is needed for Cu leaching predictions and toxicity estimates. The complexation of Cu with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachates from a stored MSWI bottom ash was studied potentiometrically using a Cu-ion selective electrode. More than 95% of the copper was bound to DOM in the hydrophilic fraction of the leachate, indicating that the hydrophilic acids contribute to Cu complex formation. The hydrophilic acids constituted 58% of the dissolved organic carbon in the ash leachate. Comparisons between experimental results and speciation calculations with the NICA-Donnan model and the Stockholm humic model indicated differences between the ash DOM and the natural DOM for which the models have been calibrated. The ratio of carboxylic binding sites to phenolic binding sites was 2 times larger in ash DOM, and the Cu-binding affinity of the former was stronger than accounted for by the generic Cu-binding parameters. The Cu-binding affinity of the phenolic sites, on the other hand, was weaker. When these parameters were adjusted, a good description of the experimental data was obtained.

  • 31.
    Ottenhall, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Illergård, Josefin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Water Purification Using Functionalized Cellulosic Fibers with Nonleaching Bacteria Adsorbing Properties2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 13, p. 7616-7623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Portable purifi cation systems are easy ways to obtain clean drinking water when there is no large-scale water treatment available. In this study, the potential to purify water using bacteria adsorbing cellulosic fi bers, functionalized with polyelectrolytes according to the layer-by-layer method, is investigated. The adsorbed polyelectrolytes create a positive charge on the fi ber surface that physically attracts and bonds with bacteria. Three types of cellulosic materials have been modifi ed and tested for the bacterial removal capacity in water. The time, material-water ratio and bacterial concentration dependence, as well as the bacterial removal capacity in water from natural sources, have been evaluated. Freely dispersed bacteria adsorbing cellulosic fi bers can remove greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli  from nonturbid water, with the most notable reduction occurring within the fi rst hour. A fi ltering approach using modifi ed cellulosic fi bers is desirable for purifi cation of natural water. An initial fi ltration test showed that polyelectrolyte multilayer modifi ed cellulosic fi bers can remove greater than 99% of bacteria from natural water. The bacteria adsorbing cellulosic fi bers do not leach any biocides, and it is an environmentally sustainable and cheap option for disposable water purification devices.

  • 32. Painter, S.
    et al.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Pickett, D.
    Turner, D. R.
    Significance of kinetics for sorption on inorganic colloids: Modeling and experiment interpretation issues2002In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 36, no 24, p. 5369-5375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-site kinetic model for solute sorption on inorganic colloids is developed. The model quantifies linear first-order sorption on two types of sites (fast and slow) characterized by two pairs of rates (forward and reverse). We use the model to explore data requirements for long-term predictive calculations of colloid-facilitated transport and to evaluate laboratory kinetic sorption data of Lu et al.. Five batch sorption data sets are considered with plutonium as the tracer and montmorillonite, hematite, silica, and smectite as colloids. Using asymptotic results applicable on the time stale of limited duration experiments, a robust estimation procedure is developed for the fast-site partitioning coefficient K-c and the slow forward rate alpha. The estimated range of K-c is 1.1-76 L/g, and the range for a is 0.0017-0.02 1/h. The fast reverse rate k(r) is estimated in the range 0.012-0.1 1/h. Comparison of one-site and two-site sorption interpretations reveals the difficulty in, discriminating between the two models for montmorillonite and to a lesser extent for hematite. For silica and smectite, the two-site model clearly provides a better representation of the data as compared with a single site model. Kinetic data for silica are available for different colloid concentrations (0.2 g/L and 1 g/L). For the range of experimental conditions considered, a. appears to be independent of colloid concentration.

  • 33. Ritter, E.
    et al.
    De Rosa, M.
    Falk, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Christensen, P.
    Løkke, S.
    Wood as construction material: A "common" choice for carbon management?2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 21, p. 11930-11931Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Roy, Prasun K.
    et al.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Varrna, Indra K.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Degradable Polyethylene: Fantasy or Reality2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 4217-4227Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic waste disposal is one of the serious environmental issues being tackled by our society today. Polyethylene, particularly in packaging films, has received criticism as it tends to accumulate over a period of time, leaving behind an undesirable visual footprint. Degradable polyethylene, which would enter the eco-cycle harmlessly through biodegradation would be a desirable solution to this problem. However, the "degradable polyethylene" which is presently being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to the nondegradable counterpart, does not seem to meet this criterion. This article reviews the state of the art on the aspect of degradability of polyethylene containing pro-oxidants, and more importantly the effect these polymers could have on the environment in the long run. On exposure to heat, light, and oxygen, these polymers disintegrate into small fragments, thereby reducing or increasing the visual presence. However, these fragments can remain in the environment for prolonged time periods. This article also outlines important questions, particularly in terms of time scale of complete degradation, environmental fate of the polymer residues, and possible accumulation of toxins, the answers to which need to be established prior to accepting these polymers as environmentally benign alternatives to their nondegradable equivalents. It appears from the existing literature that our search for biodegradable polyethylene has not yet been realized.

  • 35.
    Saadatmand, Soheil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Danielsson, S.
    Dahlman, O.
    Prehydrolysis in softwood pulping produces a valuable biorefinery fraction for material utilization2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 15, p. 8389-8396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A scaled-up prehydrolysis process was elaborated to demonstrate an industrially feasible operation step in a pulping process that generates a valuable side product in addition to the cellulose pulp. The valuable side product is aqueous process liquor, a softwood hydrolysate (SWH) herein produced in 60 L batches, and its components were recovered and utilized as materials. The process parameters were shown to influence the yield, composition, and quality of the obtained hydrolysates. Furthermore, the process conditions were shown to influence the ability of SWHs to form free-standing, foldable films in blends with either microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Films with oxygen permeabilities (OP) as low as 0.35 cm 3 ÎŒm day -1 m -2 kPa -1 at 50% relative humidity, were produced from aqueous solutions providing a viable and green alternative to petroleum-based packaging barriers. The OPs were very low regardless of SWH film composition and upgrading conditions, whereas the films' tensile performance was directly controlled by the ratio of SWH to cocomponent.

  • 36. Samuelsson, L.M.
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Stockholm Water Company.
    Förlin, L.
    Larsson, D.G.J.
    Reproducible H-1 NMR-based metabolomic responses in fish exposed to different sewage effluents in two separate studies2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1703-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated sewage effluents contain complex mixtures of micropollutants, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. The addition of advanced treatment steps has therefore been suggested. However, some of these could potentially produce effluents affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. Here, 1H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) metabolomics of fish blood plasma was used to explore potential responses not identified by more targeted (chemical or biological) assays. Rainbow trout was exposed in parallel to six differently treated effluents (e.g., conventional activated sludge, addition of sand filter, further addition of ozonation and/or a moving bed biofilm reactor or a separate membrane bioreactor line). Multivariate data analysis showed changes in the metabolome (HDL, LDL, VLDL and glycerol-containing lipids, cholesterol, glucose, phosphatidylcholine, glutamine, and alanine) between treatment groups. This formed the basis for postulating a hypothesis on how exposure to effluent treated by certain processes, including ozonation, would affect the metabolic profiles of exposed fish. The hypothesis withstood testing in an independent study the following year. To conclude, 1H NMR metabolomics proved suitable for identifying physiological responses not identified by more targeted assays used in parallel studies. Whether these changes are linked to adverse effects remains to be tested.

  • 37.
    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Helfrid M. A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Semiao, Andrea J. C.
    Chaurand, Perrine
    Graham, Margaret C.
    Effect of pH and Pressure on Uranium Removal from Drinking Water Using NF/RO Membranes2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 5817-5824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is becoming an increasingly important drinking water source. However, the use of groundwater for potable purposes can lead to chronic human exposure to geogenic contaminants, for example, uranium. Nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes are used for drinking water purification, and it is important to understand how contaminants interact with membranes since accumulation of contaminants to the membrane surface can lead to fouling, performance decline and possible breakthrough of contaminants. During the current study laboratory experiments were conducted using NF (TFC-SR2) and RO (BW30) membranes to establish the behavior of uranium across pH (3-10) and pressure (5-15 bar) ranges. The results showed that important determinants of uranium membrane sorption interactions were (1) the uranium speciation (uranium species valence and size in relation to membrane surface charge and pore size) and (ii) concentration polarization, depending on the pH values. The results show that it is important to monitor sorption of uranium to membranes, which is controlled by pH and concentration polarization, and, if necessary, adjust those parameters controlling uranium sorption.

  • 38.
    Sjöstedt, Carin S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Köhler, Stephan J.
    Chemical Equilibrium Modeling of Organic Acids, pH, Aluminum, and Iron in Swedish Surface Waters2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 22, p. 8587-8593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A consistent chemical equilibrium model that calculates pH from charge balance constraints and aluminum and iron speciation in the presence of natural organic matter is presented. The model requires input data for total aluminum, iron, organic carbon, fluoride, sulfate, and charge balance ANC. The model is calibrated to pH measurements (n = 322) by adjusting the fraction of active organic matter only, which results in an error of pH prediction on average below 0.2 pH units. The small systematic discrepancy between the analytical results for the monomeric aluminum fractionation and the model results is corrected for separately for two different fractionation techniques (n = 499) and validated on a large number In = 3419) of geographically widely spread samples all over Sweden. The resulting average error for inorganic monomeric aluminum is around 1 mu M. In its present form the model is the first internally consistent modeling approach for Sweden and may now be used as a tool for environmental quality management Soil gibbsite with a log *K-s of 8.29 at 25 degrees C together with a pH dependent loading function that uses molar Al/C ratios describes the amount of aluminum in solution in the presence of organic matter if the pH is roughly above 6.0.

  • 39. Thiebaud, Esther
    et al.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Schluep, Mathias
    Faulstich, Martin
    Use, Storage, and Disposal of Electronic Equipment in Switzerland2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 4494-4502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic devices contain important resources, including precious and critical raw materials. For an efficient management of these resources, it is important to know where the devices are located, how long they are used and when and how they are disposed of. In this article, we explore the past and current quantities of electronic devices in the in-use stock and storage stock in Switzerland and quantify the flows between the use, storage and disposal phase with dynamic material flow analysis (MFA). Devices included are mobile phones, desktop and laptop computers, monitors, cathode ray tube and flat panel display televisions, DVD players, and headphones. The system for the dynamic MFA was developed as a cascade model dividing the use phase in first, second and further use, with each of these steps consisting of an in use stock and a storage stock for devices. Using a customized software tool, we apply Monte Carlo simulation to systematically consider data uncertainty. The results highlight the importance of the storage stock, which accounts for 25% (in terms of mass) or 40% (in terms of pieces) of the total stock of electronic devices in 2014. Reuse and storage significantly influence the total lifetime of devices and lead to wide and positively skewed lifetime distributions.

  • 40. van Schaik, Joris W. J.
    et al.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    EXAFS study on the reactions between iron and fulvic acid in acid aqueous solutions2008In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 2367-2373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron(III) competes with trace metals for binding sites on organic ligands. We used X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to determine the binding mode and oxidation state of iron in solutions initially containing only iron(I I I) and fulvic acid at pHs 2 and 4. EXAFS spectra were recorded at different times after sample preparation. Iron was octahedrally configured with inner-sphere Fe-O interactions at 1.98-2.10 A, depending on the oxidation state of iron. Iron(III) formed complexes with fulvic acid within 15 min. Iron(III) was reduced to iron(II) with time at pH 2, whereas no significant reduction occurred at pH4. No signs of dimeric/trimeric hydrolysis products were found in any of the solution samples (<0.45 mu m). However, the isolated precipitate of the pH 2 sample (>0.45 mu m) showed Fe center dot center dot center dot Fe distances, indicating the presence of tightly packed iron(III) trimers and/or clusters of corner-sharing octahedra. It is suggested that the binding mode of iron(Ill) to fulvic acid at low pH may be phase-dependent: in solution mononuclear complexes predominate, whereas in the solid phase hydrolyzed polynuclear iron(III) complexes form, even at very low pH values. The observed pH dependence of iron(III) reduction was consistent with expected results based on thermodynamic calculations for model ligands.

  • 41. Winkler, Mari
    et al.
    Kleerebezem, Robbert
    Gijs Kuenen, Johannes
    Yang, Jingjing
    van Loosdrecht, Mark
    Segregation of biomass inaerobic granular sludge allows the enrichment of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria at lowtemperatures2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, p. 7330-7337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cyclic anaerobic/aerobic bubble column reactor was run for 420 days to study the competition for nitrite between nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Anammox) at low temperatures. An anaerobic feeding period with nitrite and ammonium in the influent followed by an aerated period was applied resulting in a biomass specific conversion rate of 0.18 ± 0.02 [gN(2) - N · gVSS(-1)· day(-1)] when the dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained at 1.0 mgO(2) · L(-1). An increase in white granules was observed in the reactor which were mainly located at the top of the settled sludge bed, whereas red granules were located at the bottom. FISH, activity tests, and qPCR techniques revealed that red biomass was dominated by Anammox bacteria and white granules by NOB. Granules from the top of the sludge bed were smaller and therefore had a higher aerobic volume fraction, a lower density, and consequently a slower settling rate. Sludge was manually removed from the top of the settled sludge bed to selectively remove NOB which resulted in an increased overall biomass specific N-conversion rate of 0.32 ± 0.02 [gN(2) - N · gVSS(-1) · day(-1)]. Biomass segregation in granular sludge reactors gives an extra opportunity to select for specific microbial groups by applying a different SRT for different microbial groups.

  • 42. Yu, Shujun
    et al.
    Wang, Xiangxue
    Yao, Wen
    Wang, Jian
    Ji, Yongfei
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ai, Yuejie
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Alsaedi, Ahmed
    Hayat, Tasawar
    Wang, Xiangke
    Macroscopic, Spectroscopic, and Theoretical Investigation for the Interaction of Phenol and Naphthol on Reduced Graphene Oxide2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 3278-3286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction of phenol and naphthol with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and their competitive behavior on rGO were examined by batch experiments, spectroscopic analysis and theoretical calculations. The batch sorption showed that the removal percentage of phenol or naphthol on rGO in bisolute systems was significantly lower than those of phenol or naphthol in single-solute systems. However, the overall sorption capacity of rGO in bisolute system was higher than single-solute system, indicating that the rGO was a very suitable material for the simultaneous elimination of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions. The interaction mechanism was mainly pi-pi interactions and hydrogen bonds, which was evidenced by FTIR, Raman and theoretical calculation. FTIR and Raman showed that a blue shift of C=C and -OH stretching modes and the enhanced intensity ratios of I-D/I-G after phenols sorption. The theoretical calculation indicated that the total hydrogen bond numbers, diffusion constant and solvent accessible surface area of naphthol were higher than those of phenol, indicating higher sorption affinity of rGO for naphthol as compared to phenol. These findings were valuable for elucidating the interaction mechanisms between phenols and graphene-based materials, and provided an essential start in simultaneous removal of organics from wastewater.

  • 43. Zou, Yidong
    et al.
    Wang, Xiangxue
    Ai, Yuejie
    Liu, Yunhai
    Li, Jiaxing
    Ji, Yongfei
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Wang, Xiangke
    Coagulation Behavior of Graphene Oxide on Nanocrystallined Mg/AI Layered Double Hydroxides: Batch Experimental and Theoretical Calculation Study2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 3658-3667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted considerable attention because of its remarkable enhanced adsorption and multifunctional properties. However, the toxic properties of GO nanosheets released into the environment could lead to the instability of biological system. In aqueous phase, GO may interact with fine mineral particles, such as chloridion intercalated nanocrystallined Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDH-Cl) and nanocrystallined Mg/Al LDHs (LDH CO3), which are considered as coagulant molecules for the coagulation and removal of GO from aqueous solutions. Herein the coagulation of GO on LDHs were studied as a function of solution pH, ionic strength, contact time, temperature and coagulant concentration. The presence of LDH Cl and LDH-CO3 improved the coagulation of GO in solution efficiently, which was mainly attributed to the surface oxygen-containing functional groups of LDH Cl and LDH-CO3 occupying the binding sites of GO. The coagulation of GO by LDH-CI and LDH-CO3 was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. Results of coagulation of GO on LDHs was energetically favored by electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds, which was further evidenced by FTIR and XPS analysis. By integrating the experimental results, it was clear that LDH Cl could be potentially used as a cost-effective coagulant for the elimination of GO from aqueous solutions, which could efficiently decrease the potential toxicity of GO in the natural environment.

  • 44. Ågerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Björlenius, Berndt
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Brunström, Björn
    Fick, Jerker
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Sumpter, John P.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Rudén, Christina
    Improving Environmental Risk Assessment of Human Pharmaceuticals2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 5336-5345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency's guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.

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