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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mahmoud
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanocomposite of chitosan/SiO2/carbon nanotubes and its application for dyes removal2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 145, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption characteristics of Direct Blue 71 (DB71) and Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) from aqueous solution onto novel magnetic nanocomposite of Chitosan/SiO2/CNTs (MNCSC) have been investigated. The morphology of MNCSC was characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial pH as experimental parameters on the removal of dyes were investigated. The adsorption experiments indicated the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH 6.8 for DB71 and pH 2.0 for RB19. The experimental data were analyzed by isotherm models and equilibrium results were fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity of the MNCSM was determined to be 61.35 mg/g for DB71 (R-2 = 0.996) and 97.08 mg/g for RB19 (R-2 = 0.998). Adsorption data were analyzed with three kinetics models and pseudo second-order equation could best describe for adsorption of dyes. Finally, the thermodynamic parameters were determined. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lieder, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Multi-method simulation based tool to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1261-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The transition from linear to circular product systems is a big step for any organization. This may require an organization to change the way it does business, designs product and manages supply chain. As these three areas are interdependent, bringing change in one area will influence the others, for instance, changing the business model from conventional sales to leasing will demand changes in both product design and the supply chain. At the same time, it is essential for an organization to anticipate the economic and environmental impact of all changes before it may decide to implement the circular product systems. However, there is no tool available today that can assess economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. The purpose of this research is to develop a multi-method simulation based tool that can help to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Method: The conceptual models that are used to develop the tool have been formulated based on review of the state-of-the-art research. System Dynamics (SD) and Agent Based (AB) principles have been used to create the simulation model which has been implemented in Anylogic software platform. Originality: This research presents the first multi-method simulation based tool that can evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Findings: Multi-method simulation technique is useful in designing dynamic simulation model that takes into consideration mutual interactions among critical factors of business model, product design and supply chain. It also allows predicting system's behaviour and its influence on the economic and environmental performance of circular product systems.

  • 3. Abu-Ghunmi, Diana
    et al.
    Abu-Ghunmi, Lina
    Kayal, Bassam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Bino, Adel
    Circular economy and the opportunity cost of not 'closing the loop' of water industry: the case of Jordan2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 131, p. 228-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water industry is moving from an end-of-pipe approach consistent with the linear economic model to a circular approach consistent with the circular economy model. The economic dimension of wastewater circularity has not received the attention that other dimensions have; this study attempts to fill this research gap by studying the economic dimension, in order to estimate the net opportunity cost of a non-circular water industry The financial and environmental benefits of treating wastewater, along with the associated operating and capital costs, are calculated to arrive at the opportunity cost and the 'closing the loop charge'. The analytical results reveal an estimated net opportunity cost of 643 million Jordanian dinar (JOD) (907 million US$) if the option not to go circular is chosen, with JOD 212 million (US$ 299 million) of this amount currently squandered. Furthermore, this indicates an average 'closing the loop charge' of JOD0.70/m(3) ($1.0/m(3)), which represents the average shadow price of the associated environmental externalities. Having thus shown a strong economic case for the circular model in the water industry, movements in all economic sectors to adhere to this model appear to be highly desirable.

  • 4.
    Ahl, Amanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Eklund, Johanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Yarime, M.
    Balancing formal and informal success factors perceived by supply chain stakeholders: A study of woody biomass energy systems in Japan2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 175, p. 50-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale woody biomass energy systems have an inherent ability to aid in emissions reduction while stimulating local economies and, as collective energy systems, are strongly connected to supply chain design based on local conditions and stakeholder integration. Despite an abundance of forest area alongside the promotion of biomass in energy policies, however, woody biomass utilization still remains low in Japan. The woody biomass supply chain, considered as a socio-technical system, involves a complex, cross-sectoral stakeholder network in which inter-organizational dynamics necessitates well-organized management based on an understanding of formal factors such as technology, as well as informal factors such as social relations and culture. In this paper, success factor perceptions from across the woody biomass supply chain are investigated based on semi-structured interviews with four stakeholders in the Kyushu region of Japan. Identified success factors here are: 1) respect of values & traditions, 2) transportation infrastructure, 3) business model integration, 4) relationship & trust, 5) local vitalization and 6) biomass quality control. A convergence as well as divergence of perceptions are observed, involving both formal and informal dimensions. Aiming to balance perceptions and to enable long-term success of woody biomass in Japan, a series of policy implications are drawn, including cross-ministerial integration, knowledge building on wood logistics, forest certification, local coordinators, biomass quality control standards and a feed-in-tariff for heat. This paper suggests a new arena of policy-making based on the importance of considering both informal and formal dimensions in energy policy.

  • 5.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ecovalue08-A new valuation set for environmental systems analysis tools2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 17-18, p. 1994-2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA), life-cycle assessment (LCA) and Environmental Management Systems (EMS), weighting is often used to aggregate results and compare different alternatives. There are several weighting sets available, but so far there is no set that consistently use monetary values based on actual or hypothetical market valuation of environmental degradation and depletion. In this paper, we develop a weighting set where the values are based on willingness-to-pay estimates for environmental quality, and market values for resource depletion. The weighting set is applied to three case studies and the outcome is compared with the outcomes from three other weighting sets. Ecotax02, Ecoindicator99 and EPS2000. We find that the different sets give different results in many cases. The reason for this is partly that they are based on different values and thus should give different results. However, the differences can also be explained by data gaps and different methodological choices. If weighting sets are used, it is also important to use several to reduce the risk of overlooking important impacts due to data gaps. It is also interesting to note that though Ecovalue08 and Ecotax02 give different absolute values, the results are very similar in relative terms. Thus the political and the individual willingness-to-pay estimates yield a similar ranking of the impacts.

  • 6.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools like Life Cycle Assessment, strategic environmental assessment, cost benefit analysis and environmental management systems, results need to be presented in a comprehensible way to make alternatives easily comparable. One way of doing this is to aggregate results to a manageable set by using weighting methods.. In this paper, we explore how weighting methods are used in some selected Environmental Systems Analysis Tools (ESATs), and suggest possible developments of their use. We examine the differences in current use patterns, discuss the reasons for and implications of such differences, and investigate whether observed differences in use are necessary. The result of our survey shows that weighting and valuation is broadly used in the examined ESATs. The use of weighting/valuation methods is different in different tools, but these differences are not always related to the application; rather, they are related to traditions and views on valuation and weighting. Also, although the requirements on the weights/values may differ between tools, there are intersections where they coincide. Monetary weights, using either endpoint or midpoint methods, are found to be useful in all the selected tools. Furthermore, the inventory shows that that there is a common need for generic sets of weights. There is a need for further research focusing on the development of consistent value sets derived with a wide range of methods. In parallel to the development of weighting methods it is important with critical evaluations of the weighting sets with regard to scientific quality, consistency and data gaps.

  • 7.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Lysenkova, Mariya
    Smedberg, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 8.
    Alemrajabi, Mahmood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Rasmuson, Åke
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Korkmaz, Kivanc
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Upgrading of a rare earth phosphate concentrate within the nitrophosphate process2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 198, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the nitrophosphate process of fertilizer production, rare earth elements (REE) can be recovered as a REE phosphate concentrate. In this process, after digestion of apatite in concentrated nitric acid, Ca(NO3)2.4H2O is first separated by cooling crystallization and then the REE are precipitated in phosphate form by a partial neutralization step using ammonia. The obtained REE phosphate concentrate is contaminated by mainly calcium and iron, and the main solid phases are CaHPO4.2H2O, FePO4.2H2O and REEPO4.nH2O.

    In this study, a process to obtain a concentrate more enriched with REE with low concentration of calcium and iron and free of phosphorous is developed. In the developed process, enrichment and dephosphorization of the rare earth phosphate concentrate has been achieved by selective dissolution and re-precipitation of the REE as a sodium REE double sulfate salt. It is shown that by selective dissolution of the REE concentrate in nitric acid at a pH of 2.4, most of the calcium and phosphorus are dissolved, and a solid phase more enriched in REE is obtained. Thereafter, the REE phosphate concentrate is first dissolved in a mixture of sulfuric-phosphoric acid and then the REE are reprecipitated as NaREE(SO4)2.H2O by addition of a sodium salt. More than 95% of the Ca, Fe and P are removed and a REE concentrate containing almost 30 mass% total REE is obtained.

  • 9.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Eriksson, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    ORWARE: an aid to Environmental Technology Chain Assessment2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 265-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the ORWARE tool, a model originally developed for environmental systems analysis of waste management systems, and shows its prospect as a tool for environmental technology chain assessment. Different concepts of technology assessment are presented to put ORWARE into context in the discussion that has been going for more than two decades since the establishment of the US Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). An even-handed assessment is important in different ways such as reproducibility, reliability, credibility, etc. Conventional technology assessment (TA) relied on the judgements and intuition of the assessors. A computer-based tool such as ORWARE provides a basis for transparency and a structured management of input and output data that cover ecological and economic parameters. This permits consistent and coherent technology assessments. Using quantitative analysis as in ORWARE makes comparison and addition of values across chain of technologies easier. We illustrate the application of the model in environmental technology chain assessment through a study of alternative technical systems linking waste management to vehicle fuel production and use. The principles of material and substance flow modelling, life cycle perspective, and graphical modelling featured in ORWARE offer a generic structure for environmentally focused TA of chains and networks of technical processes.

  • 10. Bergea, Ola
    et al.
    Karlsson, Reine
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jacobsson, Per
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Education for sustainability as a transformative learning process: a pedagogical experiment in EcoDesign doctoral education2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 15-16, p. 1431-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents details about a doctoral-level EcoDesign course, as an education for sustainable development experience, in relation to pedagogic theory. The aim was to promote transformative learning in order to facilitate more productive use of environmental knowledge in product and business development. The course included interdisciplinary dialogue founded in real world experiences presented by lecturers from business, government and NGOs, as well as study visits and group work on the drafting of journal papers. The key pedagogical objective was to widen the perspective to embrace more humanly engaging concerns and to enhance the student's overall understanding about relations between sustainable development priorities and product design practices. @ 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Björn I.
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings Universtitet.
    Svanström, S.
    To prospect an urban mine - Assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure cold spots in Norrköping, Sweden2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. The infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrköping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. Particular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Södra Butängen, which is slated for re-development and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. We argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

  • 12.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Evaluating a municipal waste management plan using ORWARE1999In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 271-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental consequences of implementing Uppsala's waste management plan have been analysed using ORWARE, a computerized static substance flow model based on life cycle assessment methodology. Normalizing emissions from waste management to total emission loadings in the municipality was tested as a means to improve the evaluation. It was found that anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste can reduce net environmental impact, while large-scale composting either increases environmental impact or gives less reduction than anaerobic digestion. In either case, metal contamination of digester sludge or compost may limit the feasibility of the systems. Increased materials recycling has the potential of reducing environmental impact, provided that processing of recycled materials causes equal or less environmental impact than extraction and processing of virgin raw materials. Normalization showed that all impact categories were of roughly equal importance. It was shown that easy accessible data published by a Swedish municipality were sufficient to do a relatively comprehensive normalization.

  • 13.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Räsänen, Minna
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Business meetings at a distance - decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and cumulative energy demand?2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 41, p. 126-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation, or rather access, is a major challenge in relation to achieving environmental goals and in striving for sustainable development. One potential means suggested to decrease the environmental impact related to accessibility is mediated meetings. However, few studies have quantified the potential environmental impacts with a life cycle perspective. With inspiration from a project involving four major Swedish media companies experiencing an increasing need for business travel and decreasing resources, this study assessed the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative energy demand (CED) related to different types of business meetings, using a life cycle perspective. The potential consequences for emissions of GHG and CED in two hypothetical companies introducing mediated meetings were also assessed. The results indicated that mediated meetings using personal computers can reduce GHG emissions and CED per meeting and that more advanced mediated solutions are preferable to meetings which require travel, if the equipment is frequently used to replace travel. However, advanced technology that is under-used may give similar or higher GHG emissions and CED than meetings traveled to by train. All mediated meeting alternatives studied here had lower GHG emissions and CED than meetings which required travel by plane or car. LCD screen manufacture contributed the main environmental impact of mediated meetings, but the meeting rooms needed, electricity use for equipment and internet use for data transmission were also important in some cases. As LCD screen manufacture and internet energy use were main issues and as the data on these issues are uncertain, they should be further assessed+ and updated in future studies. Introduction of mediated meetings in companies and organizations should involve a thorough consideration of needs and possible solutions to achieve the best possible environmental benefits through efficient use and replacement of travel.

  • 14.
    Bradley, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Bike Kitchens: Spaces for convivial tools2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, no 2, p. 1676-1683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a marked interest in do-it-yourself culture and sharing of skills, tools and spaces, manifesting in maker spaces, tool libraries and open workshops for remaking furniture, electronics, bicycles or clothing. This paper explores the phenomenon of 'Bike Kitchens', do-it-yourself bicycle repair studios run on a non-profit basis. The Bike Kitchen in Malmo, Sweden, is used as a case study involving interviews with key persons and users of that Bicycle Kitchen and on-site observations. The exploration of the Bike Kitchen is situated in a wider theoretical discussion around technology in relation to degrowth. Two theoretical perspectives are used, firstly, lllich's (1973) notion of tools for conviviality, meaning tools that enable citizens to reconquer practical knowledge for autonomy and creativity rather than being confined to commercial relations, and secondly, forms of non-capitalist relations. It is argued that the Bike Kitchen is an example of democratisation of technology in practice a social innovation to make low-cost technology, tools and know-how easily available to anyone. The concept of the Bike Kitchen is a way to develop and cultivate conviviality, i.e. a social and spatial infrastructure - a space for convivial tools.

  • 15.
    Brehmer, Meike
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Podoynitsyna, Ksenia
    Langerak, Fred
    Sustainable business models as boundary-spanning systems of value transfers2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 4514-4531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable innovation requires collaboration across organizational boundaries, hence in this research, we take a boundary-spanning perspective on the business model. This perspective focuses on how value is created and captured across organizational boundaries, by investigating the value transfers between the focal organization and the external network of business model actors. We analyze the business models of 64 innovative sustainable organizations from The Netherlands in terms of how environmental and social sustainability is manifested in the content, structure, and governance of their business models. We find that environmental sustainability is mainly represented in value creation content, whereas social sustainability is achieved by serving underprivileged user groups and mainly is reflected in value capture content. We observe that social sustainability in both for-profit and non-profit organizations is often achieved by having an imbalance in value exchanges that is compensated elsewhere in the business model. In terms of business model structure we show that sustainable organizations use the same underlying business model structures as can be found in conventional firms. All in all, we demonstrate that 'analyzing the environmental and social sustainability of organizations using the boundary-spanning perspective on business models provides complementary insights to the traditional component-based view of the business model.

  • 16. Brito de Figueirêdo, M. C.
    et al.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Lopes Serrano, L. A.
    Bezerra, M. A.
    da Silva Barros, V.
    Gondim, R. S.
    Nemecek, T.
    Environmental assessment of tropical perennial crops: The case of the Brazilian cashew2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an original environmental assessment of the Brazilian cashew, a perennial tree cultivated in 30 tropical countries that yields four products: nuts, apples, gum and wood. While economic and agronomic data regarding cashew are available worldwide, the environmental issues related to the main production systems and products commercialized by Brazilian farms have not been discussed consistently. This environmental assessment is important to guide the efforts of researchers and farmers for improving the environmental performance of cashew cropping systems and products. Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the environmental impacts of cashew systems and products, considering multi-cropping systems, agriculture functions and allocation procedures. Two cashew cropping systems are compared: (i) a high-input system, or reference system, developed through 20 years of research, and (ii) a low input system, as defined by a sample of farms practicing multi-cropping systems. Aspects and impacts of these systems are reported via the following production stages: nursery, establishment, and low and full production. Two agriculture functions are adopted to analyze the cropping systems: land management (impacts per hectare) and financial (impact per US$ from total sales receipts). The impacts of cashew products are evaluated using the crop production function (per kilogram of product). The impacts of products are measured using both mass and economic allocation. This study shows that the low and full production stages account for the majority of impact in both cropping systems, but land transformation for the establishment of cashew orchards is the main contributor of climate change. The analysis of multiple agriculture function shows different results for the study of cashew production systems and products. Considering the land management function (impacts per hectare), the low-input system causes less significant environmental impact, when compared to the high-input system, in all categories but toxicity. When the financial function is analyzed (impacts per US$ from total sales receipts from one ha), the low-input system achieves better performance for only eutrophication and water depletion impact categories. The analysis of the crop production function (impacts per kilogram of product) shows that the choice of allocation procedure also affects the results when comparing the impact values of products from different cropping systems. If the choice is for mass allocation, products from the low-input system achieve better environmental performance, but if economic allocation is chosen, products from the high-input system perform equal or better than when produced in the low-input system. From the joint analysis of agriculture functions, the conclusion is that the best option to improve the environmental performance of the Brazilian cashew production is to adjust the high-input system with modifications regarding fertilization and pest management. From this case study, the benefits of considering multi-agriculture functions and accounting for all production stages in the study of perennial crops are highlighted. The importance of developing emission and characterization factors to reduce uncertainty when estimating pollutant loads and evaluating impacts of perennial crops cultivated in tropical regions is also discussed. This study advances the knowledge base on the environmental assessment of perennial crops in general, and on cashew crops specifically.

  • 17.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), Sweden .
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment for the GreenProcurement of Roads: A Way Forward2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 90, p. 163-170Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology can be used to assess the environmental impacts of a road system over its entire life time. However, it is very important to align the potentials and limitations of such tools with their intended purpose. For the LCA to be useful for the decision support in a procurement situation, it should therefore be important to have a clear understanding of the technical features (attributes) that build up the life cycle phases. In this paper, different types of decisions situations are outlined based on at what level of complexity (network or specific project) and at what stage within the planning process (early planning or late planning/design) the decision is to be made, and relevant methodological choices for these decision situations are discussed. Further, the attributes that are important to consider in an asphalt road LCA that seeks to serve as a decision support in a procurement situation are suggested and technical features for these attributes are outlined with focus on Energy and GreenHouse Gas emissions. It can be concluded that in order to aid the implementation of green procurement, it would help if the attributes of the system are defined in a transparent manner and consistently calculated. It is, however, also important that the attributes should mirror the material properties used in a pavement design and therefore be closely linked to the performance of the road in its life time. It is also recommended to report the feedstock energy in the road LCAs.

  • 18.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Handling trade-offs in Ecodesign tools for sustainable product development and procurement2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 15-16, p. 1420-1430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade-off situations often occur in the product development and procurement processes when alternative solutions emphasize different aspects that have to be balanced against each other. Ecodesign tools can be used in both product development and purchasing, for example to prescribe design alternatives, assess environmental impacts or to compare environmental improvement alternatives. However, it is not always clear what should be chosen in trade-off situations. In this study, 15 different Ecodesign tools were analyzed to ascertain whether a valuation is included in the tools, in what way the tools give support in different types of trade-off situations and whether the tools provide support from a sustainability perspective.

    Nine of the 15 tools analyzed included a valuation and were able to provide support in a trade-off situation, but the support was not sufficient. The valuation should include a life cycle perspective and a framework for sustainability. Otherwise, it can lead to strategically incorrect decisions from a sustainability perspective with concomitant risks of sub-optimized investment paths and blind alleys. However, all the analyzed tools can be complemented with other tools and methods based on strategic planning towards sustainability in order to include a framework for sustainability.

  • 19.
    Bögel, Paula
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental and Sustainability Communication (INFU), Leuphana University Lüneburg.
    Pereverza, Kateryna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Upham, Paul
    Institute for Environmental and Sustainability Communication (INFU), Leuphana University Lüneburg.
    Kordas, Olga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Linking socio-technical transition studies and organisational change management: Steps towards an integrative, multi-scale heuristic2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, p. 359-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the role of agency is widely acknowledged in socio-technical transition research, there remains a research gap on agency in transitions and a call for studies using an actor-centred approach to transition studies. In response to this call, this paper addresses the role of actors and, particularly, organisations in transitions. It examines the role of organisational change in socio-technical sustainability transitions and, more specifically, how transition initiatives may trigger and support these changes in organisations and systems. For this purpose, the paper draws on literature from both transition studies and organisational change management (OCM) to build a multi-scale, integrative theoretical heuristic. This addresses drivers and barriers for organisational change as an integral part of transition processes, connecting the micro level of the individual, the meso level of the organisation and the macro level of the broader system in which the organisation is located. With the goal of illustrating the links between OCM and transition studies, this paper empirically examines the impact of Region 2050, a large, multi-organisation transition initiative in Sweden, in terms of creating change within the organisations involved. The main focus is on how the organisations acquire the new knowledge and capabilities required for improving regional planning for sustainability. The empirical study identifies leverage points at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels, which may be used in order to change strategic planning processes. Three different theoretical concepts from transition studies and OCM that could help to foster long-term planning are also identified: (1) the macro-level of institutional plurality and its connection to the meso- (organisational) level; (2) collaboration as a key success factor on the organisational level; and (3) at the micro-level, the roles of individuals as change agents and boundary spanners. Overall, the case highlights the merits of the OCM literature for transition studies and their emphasis on understanding interacting processes operating at multiple scales.

  • 20.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Zhang, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Yao, T.
    Sci Syst & Applicat Inc SSAI, Lanham, MD 20706 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Andersson, S.
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, SE-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Landelius, T.
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, SE-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Melton, F.
    NASA ARC CREST, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA.;Calif State Univ Monterey Bay, Sch Nat Sci, Seaside, CA 93955 USA..
    Yan, Jerry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Future Energy Ctr, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Managing agricultural drought in Sweden using a novel spatially-explicit model from the perspective of water-food-energy nexus2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, p. 1382-1393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a multi-disciplinary approach, this paper integrated spatial analysis with agricultural and energy system modelling to assess the impacts of drought on crop water demand, water availability, crop yield, and electricity requirements for irrigation. This was done by a novel spatially-explicit and integrated water-food-energy nexus model, using the spatial climatic data generated by the mesoscale MESAN and STRANG models. In this study, the model was applied to quantify the effects of drought on the Swedish irrigation sector in 2013, a typical drought year, for a specific crop. The results show that drought can severely affect the crop yield if irrigation is not applied, with a peak yield reduction of 18 t/ha, about 50 % loss as compared to the potential yield in irrigated conditions. Accordingly, the water and energy requirements for irrigation to halt the negative drought effects and maintain high yields are significant, with the peaks up to 350 mm and 700 kWh per hectare. The developed model can be used to provide near real-time guidelines for a comprehensive drought management system. The model also has significant potentials for applications in precision agriculture, especially using high-resolution satellite data.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). Environmental Accounts, Statistics Sweden, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Eklund, Mats
    Frändegård, Per
    Svensson, Niclas
    Urban mining: hibernating copper stocks in local power grids2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 9-10, p. 1052-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large technical systems serving the everyday needs of people, such as water supply systems, power grids or communication networks, are rich in accumulated metals. Over time, parts of these systems have been taken out of use without the system infrastructure being removed from its original location. Such metal stocks in hibernation thus constitute potential resource reservoirs accessible for recovery. In this paper, obsolete stocks of copper situated in the local power grids of two Swedish cities are quantified. Emphasis is also on economic conditions for extracting such "hibernating" cables. The results show that on a per customer basis, the two power grids contain similar amounts of copper, i.e. 0.04-0.05 tonnes per subscriber. However, the share of the copper stock that is in hibernation differs between the grids. In the larger grid of Gothenburg, almost 20% of the copper accumulated in the grid is no longer in use, while the obsolete share does not exceed 5% in the city of Linkoping. For managers of local power grids, recovery of hibernating cables could be beneficial if integrated with other maintenance work on the grid. At the present price of copper, however, separate recovery of obsolete cables is not economically justified.

  • 22.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Wester, Misse
    LTH, Div Risk Management & Societal Safety, Lund, Sweden..
    Snickare, Lotta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Söderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Climate change mitigation efforts among transportation and manufacturing companies: The current state of efforts in Sweden according to available documentation2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 196, p. 588-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, transportation and manufacturing emit large amount of greenhouse gases that needs to be lowered for reaching agreed upon slim ate goals. In this context evidence of mitigation activities among eighty-five companies and their forty-five parent companies in these two polluting sectors were traced focusing on a country that has committed itself to leading the implementation of ambitious climate mitigation goals worldwide. Documentation from the companies in the transportation and manufacturing sectors was scrutinized (yearly reports, homepages and sustainability reports, if available) for evidence of any mitigation efforts, including emissions reporting and reduction goals. The study's results found that two thirds of the companies seemed to have done nothing to mitigate climate change, while efforts in the remaining companies were modest at best; mitigation activities among the forty-five parent companies were only slightly more ambitious. The implications of these depressing findings are discussed in the light of possible caveats and the possibilities of new policy measures such as gender quotas in company boards. The conclusion is that the study's results most likely reflect reality in the studied sectors and that novel approaches and more sector oriented research is needed in the quest for a carbon-neutral society..

  • 23.
    Chen, Danfang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product Innovation Technology.
    Heyer, Steffen
    Ibbotson, Suphunnika
    Salonitis, Konstantinos
    Steingrimsson, Jon Gardar
    Thiede, Sebastian
    Direct digital manufacturing: definition, evolution, and sustainability implications2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 615-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the hot topics currently in manufacturing domain is direct digital manufacturing. With introduction of cheap three-dimensional printers, the direct digital manufacturing seems to become a new manufacturing paradigm with an entirely different impact on society; nevertheless how this will impact the society and the differences between the paradigms are unclear. According to this background, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of direct digital manufacturing from different perspectives in comparison to various traditional manufacturing paradigms. Authors are using a societal viewpoint to see, describe and analyse the subject instead of traditional manufacturing viewpoint. For the better understanding of direct digital manufacturing origins, a classification and historical background about available techniques are described. Furthermore, direct digital manufacturing as a paradigm is analysed and compared with craft production, mass production and mass customisation. Direct digital manufacturing's sustainability aspects related to social, economical and environmental dimensions are gathered and analysed for a better insight of this technique. A detailed case study demonstrates the energy use differences of direct digital manufacturing and mass production in depth. According to the present work, direct digital manufacturing has the possibility of combining the advantages of the other production paradigms and can have a positive impact on sustainable development; yet, there are several challenges to overcome both in technical and sociality aspects. A challenge within the social aspects can be the life style changes which can impact the job market, working environment, waste management and more.

  • 24.
    Chen, Feng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Coronado, Carlos F.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Structural performance of electrified roads: A computational analysis2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 195, p. 1338-1349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given its promise for enhanced sustainability, electrified road (eRoad) has become a realistic option to support the clean and energy efficient Electrical Vehicles (EVs). To investigate the structural implications, this study focuses on a promising eRoad system which is a dynamic application of the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) to provide electrical power wirelessly to EVs in-motion. A computational study is made in which, via a series of Finite Element Modeling (FEM) analyses on the eRoad structural response under various rolling conditions, is found that eRoads could have quite different pavement performances comparing to the traditional road (tRoad). Importantly, harsh loading due to vehicle braking or accelerating could incur higher potential of premature damage to the structure, whereas sufficient bonding at the contact interfaces would improve the structural integrity and delay the damage risks. In addition, localized mechanical discontinuities could also be a critical threat to the performance of the overall structure. To ensure that eRoads fulfill their sustainability promise, it is thus recommended that more focus should be placed on the possible measures, such as new structures and materials, to improve the structural integrity and thus the overall pavement performance of the integrated system.

  • 25.
    Chen, Lujie
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Applying GRI Reports for the Investigation of Environmental Management Practices and Company Performance in Sweden, China and India2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between environmental management practices (EMPs) and company performance has recently been debated in literature and is of interest for both industrial managers and political decision-makers. This paper investigates the relationship between EMPs and firm performance in manufacturing companies in Sweden, China and India. With the content analysis of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) reports and financial reports of sample companies, the levels of EMPs and the companies' financial performances were coded. Further statistical assessment was conducted in order to identify patterns and correlations. The results indicate that only selected EMPs have been employed differently in three different countries. Most EMPs clearly do not have a positive correlation with the financial performance; i.e. employing EMPs does not necessarily improve the economic consequence of companies. Nevertheless, a number of EMPs do have a strong correlation with improving innovation performance in various companies. It is also interesting to note that a negative correlation exists between the Environmental standard for suppliers and Sales growth. This is possibly due to increasing operational costs and a delay in market acceptance. This research illustrates the possibility of using standard environmental data from GRI reports as a resource for future studies of EMPs. In order to improve long-term financial performance, this study also suggests that innovation should gain a substantial amount of attention when EMPs are employed.

  • 26.
    Das, O.
    et al.
    Wood and Bionanocomposites, Material Science Division, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 97187, Sweden.
    Kim, N. K.
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Bhattacharyya, D.
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    Johansson, E.
    Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Crop Production Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, 23053, Sweden.
    Xu, Q.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210014, China.
    Holder, Shima
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Naturally-occurring bromophenol to develop fire retardant gluten biopolymers2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 243, article id 118552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to impart fire retardancy in wheat gluten polymer through naturally-occurring additives such as lanosol. The fire properties of lanosol were compared with two other conventional brominated fire retardants (Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane). Samples containing fire retardants and gluten were prepared through compression moulding process and then characterised for their fire and mechanical properties. All fire retardants enhanced the reaction-to-fire and thermal properties of gluten while generating V-0 (i.e. vertical position and self-extinguished) ratings in the UL-94 test. The presence of all the fire retardants increased the modulus of the gluten polymer but the fire retardant particles were detrimental for the tensile strength. Nevertheless, lanosol addition delayed ignition and lowered peak heat release rate of gluten by the maximum amount, thereby leading to relatively higher fire performance index (compared to the other fire retardants). Lanosol also allowed the gluten to create a dense char barrier layer during burning that impeded the transfer of heat and flammable volatiles. The fact that only 4 wt% lanosol was able to cause self-extinguishment under direct flame and reduce peak heat release rate by a significant 50% coupled with its inherent occurrence in nature, raises the question if lanosol can be a potential fire retardant in polymeric systems, although it is a bromophenol.

  • 27.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Rasheed, Faiza
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Kim, Nam Kyeun
    Univ Auckland, Dept Mech Engn, Ctr Adv Composite Mat, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Landscape Planning Hort & Crop Prod Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Kalamkarov, Alexander L.
    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Polymer Mat Div, Dept Fibre & Polymer Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The development of fire and microbe resistant sustainable gluten plastics2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 222, p. 163-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows the improvement of fire and microbe resistance of sustainable (protein) plastics (i.e. wheat gluten, WG), by using triethylene glycol diamine and dialdehyde. In addition, an anti-microbial agent (lanosol) was also used separately and in combination with the diamine/dialdehyde. The network formed by the diamine and dialdehyde, during the production of compression-moulded plates, resulted in high fire performance index, large amount of char and low thermal decomposition rate. The best fire resistance was obtained by the combination of the dialdehyde and lanosol, which also yielded a char with the intact surface. The peak-heat-release-rate of this material was only 38% of that of the pure gluten material. This material also showed anti-bacterial (E. coli) properties. However, the diamine was more effective than the combination of dialdehyde/lanosol. Gluten materials with diamine resisted mould growth during a 22 days test at a relative humidity of 100%. The gluten material with the lanosol applied to the sample surface resisted mould growth during a three-week test at both ambient temperature and 37 degrees C. Despite the relatively high contents of the difunctional reagents used (15 wt%), leading to an increased stiffness in most cases, only the network formed with glyoxal resulted in a decrease in water uptake as compared to the pure gluten material.

  • 28.
    Dawkins, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Andre, Karin
    Axelsson, Katarina
    Benoist, Lise
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Persson, Åsa
    Advancing sustainable consumption at the local government level: A literature review2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 231, p. 1450-1462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of goods and services can be a driver of environmental and social impacts around the world. Understanding the role that the different levels of government can play in incentivising sustainable consumption is therefore critical. Using systematic review techniques, this paper reviews the latest evidence on the importance, effectiveness, successes and failures of local government in advancing sustainable consumption. We find that there is little focus on sustainable consumption in its entirety or whether it is being achieved at the local government level. Important consumption categories like food, procurement, water, waste prevention, clothing, other consumables or services are understudied. Evaluation of the outcome of sustainable consumption interventions was limited, and the assessment that was completed gave mixed results. The most popular policy instruments were of the less coercive administrative and informative type. Multiple barriers to the success of an intervention were identified, the top ones being funding; staff capacity, knowledge or data; lack of flexibility and lock-in to the status quo; lack of guidance or political will; administrative burdens; and lack of regulatory powers or tools. Sustainable consumption interventions by local government were most effective when they had strong leadership, good stakeholder engagement, participatory approaches and extensive consultations.

  • 29.
    Dawkins, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    André, Karin
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Axelsson, Katarina
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Benoist, Lise
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Theol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Swartling, Åsa Gerger
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Advancing sustainable consumption at the local government level: A literature review2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 231, p. 1450-1462Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of goods and services can be a driver of environmental and social impacts around the world. Understanding the role that the different levels of government can play in incentivising sustainable consumption is therefore critical. Using systematic review techniques, this paper reviews the latest evidence on the importance, effectiveness, successes and failures of local government in advancing sustainable consumption. We find that there is little focus on sustainable consumption in its entirety or whether it is being achieved at the local government level. Important consumption categories like food, procurement, water, waste prevention, clothing, other consumables or services are understudied. Evaluation of the outcome of sustainable consumption interventions was limited, and the assessment that was completed gave mixed results. The most popular policy instruments were of the less coercive administrative and informative type. Multiple barriers to the success of an intervention were identified, the top ones being funding; staff capacity, knowledge or data; lack of flexibility and lock-in to the status quo; lack of guidance or political will; administrative burdens; and lack of regulatory powers or tools. Sustainable consumption interventions by local government were most effective when they had strong leadership, good stakeholder engagement, participatory approaches and extensive consultations.

  • 30.
    Dawkins, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Environm Inst, Linnegatan 87D, S-11523 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moran, Daniel
    NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Program Ind Ecol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stat Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, Richard
    NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Program Ind Ecol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Bjork, Ida
    Stat Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Swedish footprint: A multi-model comparison2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 209, p. 1578-1592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a large per capita carbon footprint, particularly compared to the levels recommended for maintaining a stable climate. Much of that footprint falls outside Sweden's territory; emissions occurring abroad are "embodied" in imported goods consumed in Sweden. In this study we calculate the total amount and geographical hotspots of the Swedish footprint produced by different multi-regional input-output (MRIO) models, and compare these results in order to gain a picture of the present state of knowledge of the Swedish global footprint. We also look for insights for future model development that can be gained from such comparisons. We first compare a time series of the Swedish carbon footprint calculated by the Swedish national statistics agency, Statistics Sweden, using a single-region model, with data from the EXIOBASE, GTAP, OECD, Eora, and WIOD MRIO databases. We then examine the MRIO results to investigate the geographical distribution of four types of Swedish footprint: carbon dioxide, greenhouse gas emissions, water use and materials use. We identify the hotspot countries and regions where environmental pressures linked to Swedish consumption are highest. We also consider why the results may differ between calculation methods and types of environmental pressure. As might be expected, given the complexity and modelling assumptions, the MRIO models and Statistics Sweden data provide different (but similar) results for each footprint. The MRIO models have different strengths that can be used to improve the national calculations. However, constructing and maintaining a new MRIO model would be very demanding for one country. It is also clear that for a single country's calculation, there will be better and more precise data available nationally that would not have priority in the construction of an MRIO model. Thus, combining existing MRIO data with national economic and environmental data seems to be a promising method for integrated footprint analysis. Our findings are relevant not just for Sweden but for other countries seeking to improve national consumption-based accounts. Based on our analysis we offer recommendations to guide future research and policy making to this end.

  • 31. de Figueiredo, Maria Clea Brito
    et al.
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Potting, José
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Barros, Viviane da Silva
    Sousa de Aragdo, Fernando Antonio
    Gondim, Rubens Sonsol
    Santos, Tayane de Lima
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 47, p. 404-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low Jaguaribe and Acu region, including an uncertainty assessment, and to evaluate reduction potentials and improvement options. Exporting farms located in this region account for about 99 percent of Brazilian melon exports, mainly to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. To determine the CF, we followed Life Cycle Assessment, according to ISO standards (14040 and 14044). The results are expressed in kg of CO2-eq/t of exported melon. The production system encompasses processes in the Low Jaguaribe and Acu region (such as seedling, plant production, packing, and disposal of solid wastes from farms), upstream processes (including the production and transportation of inputs, such as seeds, plastics, and fertilizers), and downstream processes (melon transport). The total yellow melon CF in the reference situation is 710 kg CO2-eq/t exported melon. However, scenario results indicate that this value can be reduced by 44 percent if melon fields are located in pre-existing agricultural areas, nitrogen fertilization is reduced, and no plastic field trays are used in melon production. GHG emissions from melon transport are relatively unimportant in the total CF. These results provide melon producers with an insight into the CF of their product, and options to reduce it.

  • 32.
    Du, Guangli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges. Aalborg Univ, Danish Bldg Res Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pettersson, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Soil-steel composite bridge: An alternative design solution for short spans considering LCA2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 189, p. 647-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a bridge project, several alternative design solutions can be functionally equivalent for the designated location. Today's bridge constructions highly rely on the non-renewable resources, the consumption of fossil fuels, and the intensive usage of concrete. This urges designers to explore the new design options to mitigate the associated environmental burdens. When comparing to the concrete slab frame bridges (CFB), the soil-steel flexible culverts (or soil-steel composite bridge, SSCB) show advantages in ease erection, low maintenance as well as the competitive cost. However, its environmental performance has never been studied. This paper intends to compare the environmental performance of these two bridge types through the whole life cycle, based on 8 selected cases in Sweden. Unlike previous studies only limited to few impact indicators, this study comprehensively covers a wide range of indicators: including eleven types of mid-point impact categories, the cumulative energy demand (CED) and the associated cost. The construction phase, which seldom included previously, is a specific focus in this paper. The results find that: 1) the SSCBs show advantages over the CFBs in most of the investigated indicators; 2) the construction phase, when explicitly evaluated, may take up to 34% of the total life cycle environmental burdens; 3) the environmental performance of a bridge is closely linked with the bridge type selection, multiple indicators in the environmental domain, designers' preference, the construction phase, as well as the time schedule constraints.

  • 33.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Gilek, Michael
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Climate and environmental science denial: A review of the scientific literature published in 1990-20152017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 167, p. 229-241Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denial of scientific findings is neither a new nor an unexplored phenomenon. In the area of environmental science and policy though, the research on denial has not been systematically summarized and analyzed. This article reviews 161 scientific articles on environmental and climate science denial published in peer reviewed international journals in the last 25 years and aims to both identify research gaps and enable learning on the phenomenon. Such knowledge is needed for the increasingly important task to provide effective response to science denial, in order to put an end to its influence on environmental policy making. The review, which is based on articles found in the databases Web of Science, Scopus and Philosopher's Index, shows that denial by far is most studied in relation to climate change, with a focus on Anglo-American countries, where this form of denial is most common. Other environmental issues and other geographical areas have received much less scientific attention. While the actors behind climate science denial, their various motives and the characteristics of their operations have been thoroughly described, more comparative research between issues and countries is needed in order to draw reliable conclusions about the factors explaining the peculiarities of denial. This may in turn lay the ground for developing and actually testing the effectiveness and efficiency of strategies to counter environmental science denial. Irrespective of the ambitions of environmental goals, science-based policies are always preferable. The scientific community therefore needs to increase its efforts to dismantle false claims and to disclose the schemes of denialists.

  • 34. Egels-Zanden, Niklas
    et al.
    Lindholm, Henrik
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Do codes of conduct improve worker rights in supply chains?: A study of Fair Wear Foundation2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 107, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of private regulation of sustainability in global production networks has led to intensive debates about the impact of this regulation at the point of production. Yet, few empirical studies have systematically examined this impact in practice. Based on multiple factory audits of 43 garment factories conducted by the multi-stakeholder initiative Fair Wear Foundation, we show that codes of conduct improve (although marginally) worker rights on an overall level but that few significant results are found for specific worker rights. Our findings also lend support to the widespread argument that codes have uneven impact. Furthermore, we show that even rigorous multi-stakeholder factory audits seldom are able to identify process rights violations (such as those affecting freedom of association and discrimination), and that auditing is thus is more fundamentally flawed than assumed in previous research. Given companies' extensive investments in private regulation of worker rights, the findings have important implications for both scholars and managers.

  • 35.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hansson, J.
    Larsson, A.
    Peck, P.
    Developing Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment methodology by applying values-based sustainability weighting - Tested on biomass based and fossil transportation fuels2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of transportation fuels can lead to sustainability impacts. Assessing them simultaneously in a holistic way is a challenge. This paper examines methodology for assessing the sustainability performance of products in a more integrated way, including a broad range of social impacts. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) methodology is applied for this assessment. LSCA often constitutes of the integration of results from social LCA (S-LCA), environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). In this study, an S-LCA from an earlier project is extended with a positive social aspect, as well as refined and detailed. E-LCA and LCC results are built from LCA database and literature. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology is applied to integrate the results from the three different assessments into an LCSA. The weighting of key sustainability dimensions in the MCDA is performed in different ways, where the sustainability dimensions are prioritized differently priority based on the assumed values of different stakeholder profiles (Egalitarian, Hierarchist, and Individualist). The developed methodology is tested on selected biomass based and fossil transportation fuels - ethanol produced from Brazilian sugarcane and US corn/maize, and petrol produced from Russian and Nigerian crude oils, where it delineates differences in sustainability performance between products assessed. The outcome in terms of relative ranking of the transportation fuel chains based on sustainability performance differs when applying different decision-maker profiles. This result highlights and supports views that there is no one single answer regarding which of the alternatives that is most sustainable. Rather, it depends strongly upon the worldview and values held by the decision maker. A key conclusion is that sustainability assessments should pay more attention to potential differences in underlying values held by key stakeholders in relevant societal contexts. The LCSA methodology still faces challenges regarding results integration but MCDA in combination with stakeholder profiles appears to be a useful approach to build on further.

  • 36.
    Endrődi, Balázs
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Sandin, Staffan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Smulders, V.
    Simic, N.
    Wildlock, M.
    Mul, G.
    Mei, B. T.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Towards sustainable chlorate production: The effect of permanganate addition on current efficiency2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 529-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium dichromate is an essential solution additive for the electrocatalytic production of sodium chlorate, assuring selective hydrogen evolution. Unfortunately, the serious environmental and health concerns related to hexavalent chromium mean there is an urgent need to find an alternative solution to achieve the required selectivity. In this study sodium permanganate is evaluated as a possible alternative to chromate, with positive results. The permanganate additive is stable in hypochlorite-containing solutions, and during electrolysis a thin film is reductively deposited on the cathode. The deposit is identified as amorphous manganese oxide by Raman spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction studies. Using different electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic measurements, galvanostatic polarization curves) we demonstrate that the reduction of hypochlorite is suppressed, while the hydrogen evolution reaction can still proceed. In addition, the formed manganese oxide film acts as a barrier for the reduction of dissolved oxygen. The extent of hydrogen evolution selectivity in hypochlorite solutions was quantified in an undivided electrochemical cell using mass spectrometry. The cathodic current efficiency is significantly enhanced after the addition of permanganate, while the effect on the anodic selectivity and the decomposition of hypochlorite in solution is negligible. Importantly, similar results were obtained using electrodes with manganese oxide films formed ex situ. In conclusion, manganese oxides show great promise in inducing selective hydrogen evolution, and may open new research avenues to the rational design of selective cathodes, both for the chlorate process and for related processes such as photocatalytic water splitting.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Carlsson Reich, M.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Granath, J
    Baky, A
    Thyselius, L
    Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different waste treatment options for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of biodegradable waste, were studied and compared to landfilling. The evaluation covered use of energy resources, environmental impact and financial and environmental costs. In the study, a calculation model ( ) based on methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA) was used. Case studies were performed in three Swedish municipalities: Uppsala, Stockholm, and Älvdalen.

    The study shows that reduced landfilling in favour of increased recycling of energy and materials lead to lower environmental impact, lower consumption of energy resources, and lower economic costs. Landfilling of energy-rich waste should be avoided as far as possible, partly because of the negative environmental impacts from landfilling, but mainly because of the low recovery of resources when landfilling.

    Differences between materials recycling, nutrient recycling and incineration are small but in general recycling of plastic is somewhat better than incineration and biological treatment somewhat worse.

    When planning waste management, it is important to know that the choice of waste treatment method affects processes outside the waste management system, such as generation of district heating, electricity, vehicle fuel, plastic, cardboard, and fertiliser.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Tore
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Temperature swing adsorption device for oxygen-enriched air2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 76, p. 174-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with a project aimed at producing oxygen-enriched air from ambient air using temperature differences in the so-called temperature swing adsorption (TSA), a device was designed and constructed that took into consideration most of the conceivable parameters governing such a process. While designing the device, care was taken so that it was adaptable to different operating modes, fulfilling high versatility and extending to more processes than producing oxygen-enriched air. The device was small-scale, mounted on a movable table. It was equipped with a total of 54 individually controllable on/off valves. The valves could be controlled at a resolution of 1 s using a programmable logic controller, controlled by a personal computer, so the time program for the valves could be easily exchanged for a readymade program. The device had six cylinders, with removable lids filled with zeolite and easily maintained plastic tubing, which could therefore be changed or replaced without much difficulty. The results show that 15 L of oxygen could be produced at a concentration of 30% in the oxygen-enriched air per kg zeolite and hour. Equipping the device in the future with valves that close and open securely in both directions would vastly extend the possibility of using this technology to other applications, in addition to this method of TSA process for air separation.

  • 39.
    Ermolaev, E.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Pell, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Molecular Sciences, Box 7015, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Smårs, S.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Jönsson, H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
    Effects of moisture on emissions of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from food and garden waste composting2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 240, article id 118165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, waste generation is continually increasing, with landfill as the main destination for biological waste. Composting is a simple alternative for handling waste, but when poorly managed poses a risk of greenhouse gas emissions. The moisture content of substrate affects emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from composting, but the scale and mechanisms behind these effects are poorly understood. This study examined effects of different moisture levels (44–66%) on CH4, N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 20 days of composting food and garden waste under controlled conditions (55 °C, 16% oxygen) in a 200-L reactor. Total CO2 emissions were 400–500 g CO2-C kg−1 initial C. Total CH4 emissions were highest, 35 g CH4-C kg−1 initial C, for the wettest substrate (66% moisture) and decreased exponentially with declining moisture content, with the lowest total emissions, 0.04 g CH4-C kg−1 initial C, observed with the driest substrate. Total N2O emissions were negatively correlated with moisture content, decreasing from 1.2 g N2O-N kg−1 initial N at 44% moisture to 0.3 g N2O-N kg−1 initial N at 59%, but the wettest substrate (66% moisture) had the highest N2O emissions, 1.4 g N2O-N kg−1 initial N. NH4-N accumulated in the wettest material, suggesting that the increased N2O emissions were due to reduced oxygen availability. The results indicate potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large-scale composting by adjusting the moisture content at different stages of composting, thus lowering its overall environmental impact. This finding can be used in guidelines for large-scale composting process to avoid moisture conditions causing large greenhouse gas emissions.

  • 40.
    Ermolaev, Evgheni
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pell, Mikael
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Mol Sci, Box 7015, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Smars, Sven
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Effects of moisture on emissions of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from food and garden waste composting2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 240, article id UNSP 118165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, waste generation is continually increasing, with landfill as the main destination for biological waste. Composting is a simple alternative for handling waste, but when poorly managed poses a risk of greenhouse gas emissions. The moisture content of substrate affects emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from composting, but the scale and mechanisms behind these effects are poorly understood. This study examined effects of different moisture levels (44-66%) on CH4, N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during 20 days of composting food and garden waste under controlled conditions (55 degrees C, 16% oxygen) in a 200-L reactor. Total CO2 emissions were 400-500 g CO2-C kg(-1) initial C. Total CH4 emissions were highest, 35 g CH4-C kg(-1) initial C, for the wettest substrate (66% moisture) and decreased exponentially with declining moisture content, with the lowest total emissions, 0.04 g CH4-C kg(-1) initial C, observed with the driest substrate. Total N2O emissions were negatively correlated with moisture content, decreasing from 1.2 g N2O-N kg(-1) initial N at 44% moisture to 0.3 g N2O-N kg(-1) initial N at 59%, but the wettest substrate (66% moisture) had the highest N2O emissions, 1.4 g N2O-N kg(-1) initial N. NH4-N accumulated in the wettest material, suggesting that the increased N2O emissions were due to reduced oxygen availability. The results indicate potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large-scale composting by adjusting the moisture content at different stages of composting, thus lowering its overall environmental impact. This finding can be used in guidelines for large-scale composting process to avoid moisture conditions causing large greenhouse gas emissions. Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    The application of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports two studies of the implementation of environmental requirements in Swedish road maintenance contracts. It aims to examine the fulfillment and follow-up of the requirements, the client intentions behind the requirements, and factors influencing the contractors' environmental performance. The study shows that a serious effort to integrate environmental aspects into the contracts has been made. However, the application of the requirements is hampered by deficient information transfer to key actors and a lack of systematic follow-up of the requirements. In order to make green procurement effective, simpler and clearer requirements and effective follow-up routines are needed.

  • 42.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Dawkins, Elena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Environment Institute, Box 24218, Stockholm, 10451, Sweden.
    Wood, Richard
    NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Program Ind Ecol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stat Sweden, Dept Reg & Environm, SCB, Box 24300, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Persson, Linn
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Box 24218, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schmidt, Sarah
    NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Program Ind Ecol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Environmental pressure from Swedish consumption - The largest contributing producer countries, products and services2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 231, p. 698-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to produce goods and services that are consumed in Sweden, natural resources are extracted and pollutants are emitted in many other countries. This paper presents an analysis of the goods and services consumed in Sweden that cause the largest environmental pressures in terms of resource use and emissions, identifying in which countries or regions these pressures occur. The results have been calculated using a hybrid model developed in the PRINCE project combining the multi-regional input-output database EXIOBASE with data from the Swedish economic and environmental accounts. The following environmental pressures are analysed: Use of Land, Water and Material resources, Emissions of Greenhouse gases (GHG), Sulphur dioxides (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and Particulate Matters (PM 2.5 and 10). The product groups are those goods and services bought for private or public consumption and capital investments, as listed in the Swedish economic accounts. The results show that Sweden is a net importer of all embodied environmental pressures, except for land use and material use. The most important product groups across environmental pressures are construction, food products and direct emissions from households (except for sulphur dioxide emissions and material use for the latter). Other product groups that are found to have environmental pressures across several indicators are wholesale and retail services, architecture and engineering, dwellings, motor vehicles and machinery and equipment. However, for the three natural resource pressures Use of Water, Land and Material resources, agricultural products are a relatively important product group along with products from forestry for the last two indicators. A considerable proportion of the environmental pressure occurs in Sweden, but when comparing those of domestic origin and that occurring internationally, the majority of all pressures for Swedish consumption occur abroad (except for land use). Other countries stand out as particularly important as origins of pressure for Swedish consumption, most notably China, which is among the top five countries for emissions to air, as well as blue water and material use. Other highly relevant countries or regions are Rest of Asia and Pacific (i.e. Asia and Pacific except Indonesia, Taiwan, Australia, India, South Korea, China and Japan), Russia, Germany as well as Denmark and Spain for certain product groups and environmental pressure combinations. This pattern of geographically spread pressures caused by Swedish consumption indicates the need for addressing the pressures at various levels of collaboration: national, within the European Union, bilateral and international.

  • 43.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Four low-carbon futures for a Swedish society beyond GDP growth2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 236, article id UNSP 117595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how different backcasting scenarios for developments beyond traditional GDP growth 2050, in Sweden may fulfil a climate goal corresponding to keeping global warming to a maximum 1.5 degrees C with 50% likelihood. This corresponds to a 92% decrease of greenhouse gas emissions from Swedish consumption from today's level. The four scenarios illustrate different strategies: 1) collaborative economy, 2) local self-sufficiency, 3) automation for quality of life and 4) circular economy in the welfare state. The aim is to further hone and quantify the scenario narratives with a focus on greenhouse gas emissions occurring as a result of Swedish consumption, both private and public. The results show that the climate target can be met in all scenarios but this requires radical sector-specific as well as general changes, including decarbonisation, technology development, increased efficiencies, innovative practices and reduced demand. The mix of these strategies varies for different sectors and different scenarios, but all are needed to reach the climate goals. As we assume that Sweden is fossil-free 2050, particular areas of attention are diets, travel, emission intensities in other countries and the level of imports. Potential implications for other environmental goals, land use and biodiversity as well as the potential magnitude of negative emissions technologies, although uncertain and limited, that could offset some additional greenhouse gas emissions are discussed.

  • 44. Finnveden, G
    et al.
    Albertsson, A-C.
    Berendson, J.
    Eriksson, E.
    Höglund, L-O.
    Karlsson, S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Sundquist, J-O.
    Solid waste treatment within the framework of life-cycle assessment1995In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 3, p. 189-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Analytical Tools for Environmental Design and Management in a Systems Perspective: N. Wrisberg and H.A. Udo de Haes (Eds.)2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 867-868Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Lind, Per
    Moberg, Åsa
    Life cycle assessment of energy from solid waste - part 1: general methodology and results2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 213-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste in Sweden based on a life cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is life cycle assessment (LCA). The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems. A waste hierarchy suggesting the environmental preference of recycling over incineration over landfilling is often put forward and used in waste policy making. LCAs can be used to test the waste hierarchy and identify situations where the hierarchy is not valid. Our results indicate that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb. The results also suggest that a policy promoting recycling of paper and plastic materials, preferably combined with policies promoting the use of plastics replacing plastics made from virgin materials, leads to decreased use of total energy and emissions of gases contributing to global warming. If the waste can replace oil or coal as energy sources, and neither biofuels nor natural gas are alternatives, a policy promoting incineration of paper materials may be successful in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.

  • 47. Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Environmental systems analysis tools: an overview2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 12, p. 1165-1173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of tools for assessing environmental impacts are available. It is of interest to characterise different tools in order to better understand their relationships and the appropriateness of different tools in different situations. The characteristics used here are whether the tools are procedural or analytical, what types of impacts are included, what the object of the study is and whether the studies are descriptive or change-orientated. For each object discussed here, there is a tool focusing on both use of natural resources and environmental impacts that seems to be the most suitable. Because different tools focus on different objects, different tools cannot in general easily replace each other.

  • 48.
    Francart, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Larsson, Mathias
    Florell, Josefin
    Requirements set by Swedish municipalities to promote construction with low climate change impact2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 208, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Swedish municipalities work to reduce the climate change impact of building construction. It focuses on current practices related to promoting the use of sustainable construction materials and on barriers to environmental requirements in construction, in particular environmental performance requirements based on LCA procedures. Municipalities were surveyed about the existence of municipal policies dealing with environmental issues in construction, the knowledge level about these issues, and the measures and requirements used to promote materials with low climate change impact. The survey was followed by semi-structured interviews about current practices and barriers to environmental requirements in construction. Results show that large municipalities are more likely to have dedicated policies and implement more measures than their smaller counterparts. However, willingness to implement future measures and knowledge of sustainable construction do not vary significantly with municipality population. Efforts are often limited to procurement, municipal construction projects and discussions with stakeholders. When requirements are set, they are almost always based on prescribing a technical solution (e.g. use of timber) rather than assessing environmental performance (e.g. calculating greenhouse gases emissions with a LCA tool). Measures that municipalities can take as public authorities are restricted by the law, which remains ambiguous as to the legality of environmental performance requirements. Legal issues, limited knowledge and resources appear to be the main barriers to environmental performance requirements in construction. A strategy is proposed to o​v​e​r​

  • 49.
    Goronovski, Andrei
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Tkaczyk, Alan H.
    University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Impact assessment of enhanced exposure from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) within LCA2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 2824-2839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impact of ionising radiation from enhanced exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) to humans and the environment is not currently accounted for sufficiently in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Here we present midpoint and endpoint characterisation factors resulting from the implementation of impact assessment models for human health and ecosystems for NORM exposure. These models build upon existing fate, exposure and effect models from the LCA and radiological literature. The newly developed models are applied to a theoretical study of the utilisation of bauxite residue, a by-product of alumina processing enriched in natural radionuclides, in building materials. The ecosystem models have significant sensitivity to uncertainties surrounding the differential environmental fate of parent and daughter radionuclides that are produced as a part of decay chains, and to assumptions regarding long term releases from landfill sites. However, conservative results for environmental exposure suggest that in addition to landfill of materials, power consumption (burning coal and mining uranium) is a potentially significant source of radiological impact to the environment. From a human perspective, exposure to NORM in the use phase of building materials is the dominant source of impact, with environmental releases of nuclides playing a comparatively minor role. At an endpoint level, the impact of NORM exposure is highly significant in comparison to other impact categories in the area of protection of human health. The dose increase is of an order of magnitude comparable to lifestyle factors. The results highlight the importance within LCA of having sufficient impact assessment models to capture all potential impacts, such that issues of burden shifting between impact measures can be captured, interpreted and resolved in the optimisation of product systems.

  • 50.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Dan, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Carbon footprint of movie distribution via the internet: a Swedish case study2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 87, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) has been suggested as an energy-efficient means of movie distribution, indicating potential environmental benefits. An alternative option for the user would be to stream the movie from an internet protocol television (IPTV) solution. This paper presents an assessment of the carbon footprint of these two alternatives. When studying the environmental impacts of a product (goods or services), it is important to adopt a life cycle perspective in order to avoid moving the potential impacts from one part of the life cycle to another. Therefore the carbon footprint was assessed with a screening life cycle assessment (LCA). The results show that end-use equipment and distribution (in both P2P and IPTV systems) are clearly key aspects. Both manufacturing and use are important. In the use phase, the electricity for using the end-use devices and for distribution is the main contributor to the carbon footprint. For the distribution, another major contributor to the carbon footprint is the construction work involved in installing cables. Downlink/uplink bandwidth and movie size have a major influence on the environmental impact related to watching a movie by P2P, as the total time for which end-use devices need to be used is critical. Movie size determines the impact related to the distribution. In terms of the carbon footprint from the two systems, the P2P system has a higher impact, mainly caused by the end-use devices. Downlink uplink bandwidth and movie size determine the overall impact of the P2P system. The carbon footprint from P2P systems could be lowered either through higher uplink bandwidth or through decreased movie size.

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